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Results 201 - 250 of 1867
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Knox Robert V - - 2014
Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies ...
Weber Gregory M - - 2014
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that in 2012 aquaculture production of fish will meet or exceed that of the capture fisheries for the first time. Thus, we have just turned the corner from a predominantly hunting gathering approach to meeting our nutritional needs from ...
van Marle-Köster Esté - - 2014
Africa for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. It is expected that the human ...
Osawa Takeshi - - 2014
The greatest numbers of domestic animals are raised in Asia. The Asian animal industry is characterized by the involvement of a high percentage of the population, mostly smallholders, of which 95 % rear domestic animals. In exploring the best ways to formulate sustainable society, it is essential to make the ...
Chowdhury Vishwajit S - - 2014
Poultry meat and eggs are valuable sources of dietary protein in almost every country in the world. A number of breeding techniques, methods, and technology have been applied to obtain maximum production under different environmental and economic conditions. Indigenous and local breeds share 90 % of the total population of ...
Yang Jinyi - - 2014
Mycotoxins are small toxic chemical products formed as the secondary metabolites by fungi that readily contaminate foods with toxins in the field or after harvest. The presence of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and patulin, in fruits and their processed products is of high concern for human health due ...
Horvitz S - - 2014
Fruits and vegetables consumption has risen noticeably during recent decades, leading to a greater frequency of foodborne illnesses associated with fresh produce. Novel industrial applications and improvements in ozone technology together with new regulatory actions worldwide have emerged in recent years, making its use in the food industry easier. This ...
Pasha Imran - - 2014
The modernization during the last century resulted in urbanization coupled with modifications in lifestyles and dietary habits. In the same era, industrial developments made it easier to meet the requirements for processed foods. However, consumers are now interested in minimally processed foods owing to increase in their awareness to have ...
Buriti Flávia C A - - 2014
Nowadays, food companies are endeavoring to differentiate their products through creative segmentation and positioning strategies based on superior functionality and quality. Some kinds of dairy desserts have shown a great market potential, as a function of consumers interested in healthier and functional products with fine taste and mouthfeel. In this ...
Wu Shiuan-Huei - - 2014
Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats ...
Khan Avik - - 2014
Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality ...
Yuliana Nancy Dewi - - 2014
The development of obesity is related to the regulation of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy storage in the body. Increasing energy expenditure by inducing lipolysis followed by fat oxidation is one of the alternatives which could help to reverse this increasingly widespread condition. Currently, there is no approved drug ...
Sharma Vasundhara - - 2014
Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments ...
Peterson Kathryn A KA Division of Gastroenterology, University of Utah, 30 North 1900 East SOM4R118, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA, - - 2014
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has increasingly been identified in both children and adults. The aim of therapies is to alleviate symptoms while reducing the esophageal inflammation. Mechanical dilation is effective at relieving symptoms, but without the benefit of controlling disease inflammation. Topical steroids appear to be effective at controlling both symptoms ...
Du S F SF Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
This study uses unique official data to document nutritional changes in the 1949-1992 period. In 1949, widespread famine, high mortality and low life expectancy dominated. Economic progress was uneven; however, the longer term food supply changed greatly, and hunger was conquered. Diet composition shifted greatly over this period. Cereal consumption, ...
Zhai F Y FY Chinese Nutrition Society, Beijing, - - 2014
China's food consumption patterns and eating and cooking behaviours changed dramatically between 1991 and 2011. Macronutrient composition has shifted towards fats, and protein and sodium intakes remain high and potassium intake low. The rapid decline in intake of coarse grains and, later, of refined grains and increases in intake of ...
Popkin B M BM Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2014
The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) is important for its insights into current and future diet, physical activity, and obesity-related changes in China and for understanding underlying processes common across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While China modernized later than Latin American countries, many changes seen in China echo ...
Sharif Mian Kamran MK a National Institute of Food Science and Technology , University of Agriculture , Faisalabad , 38040 , - - 2014
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the ...
Fu Ling-Lin LL a Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and Biotechnology , Zhejiang Gongshang University , Hangzhou , 310035 , P.R. - - 2014
The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source ...
Kirkpatrick Sharon I SI School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address: - - 2014
The existing evidence on food environments and diet is inconsistent, potentially because of heterogeneity in measures used to assess diet. The objective of this review, conducted in 2012-2013, was to examine measures of dietary intake utilized in food environment research. Included studies were published from January 2007 through June 2012 ...
Fedewa Amy A Food and Nutrition Department, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, - - 2014
Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained ...
Curtis Claire C a Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences , York University , Toronto , Ontario , - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to explore how obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) experience overeating in relation to the DSM-5 symptoms of addiction. Findings from this study demonstrate that food addiction can occur in obese individuals with and without BED. It is important that health ...
Chawla Jasvinder J Department of Neurology, Hines VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; Department of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to ...
Cummings Patricia L PL Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and University of California, Los Angeles, California (Mss Cummings and Gase, and Dr Kuo); and Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia (Ms - - 2014
Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County ...
Cummings Patricia L PL Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California (Mss Cummings, Burbage, Wood, and Butler and Dr Kuo); and Department of Epidemiology, Jonathan & Karin Fielding School of Public Health (Ms Cummings), and Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine (Dr Kuo), University of California, Los - - 2014
Children consume more than one-third of their daily food intake in schools, suggesting that these environments are ideal places for intervening on poor dietary behaviors. To assess the impact of strategy-focused menu planning on the sodium content of student meals served in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD). Pre- ...
Jiang Liying L Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, - - 2014
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's disease is a neurological disorder linked to environmental exposure to a non-protein amino acid, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). The only organisms reported to be BMAA-producing, are cyanobacteria - prokaryotic organisms. In this study, we demonstrate that diatoms - eukaryotic organisms - also produce BMAA. Ultra-high-performance ...
Murakami Masashi M Community Ecology Lab., Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522, - - 2014
Radionuclides, including (137)Cs, were released from the disabled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and had been deposited broadly over forested areas of north-eastern Honshu Island, Japan. In the forest, (137)Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. Monitoring of the distribution of (137)Cs among ...
Liebal Katja K Excellence Cluster "Languages of Emotion", Department of Education and Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany ; Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom ; Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, - - 2014
Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities ...
Pendleton Richard M RM Department of Biological Sciences and the Institute of Applied Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, United States of - - 2014
Experiments with realistic scenarios of species loss from multitrophic ecosystems may improve insight into how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning. Using 1000 L mesocoms, we examined effects of nonrandom species loss on community structure and ecosystem functioning of experimental food webs based on multitrophic tropical floodplain lagoon ecosystems. Realistic biodiversity scenarios ...
Wittig Roman M RM School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, , St Andrews, UK, Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, , Leipzig, Germany, Budongo Conservation Field Station (BCFS), , Masindi, Uganda, Department of Anthropology, Boston University, , Boston, MA, USA, Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, , Madison, WI, USA, Cognitive Science Centre, University of Neuchâtel, , Neuchâtel, - - 2014
Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent-offspring bonding, is likely ...
O'Brien Cherry Colleen C a Center for Global Health, College of Public Health , University of Georgia , Athens , Georgia , - - 2014
Since knowledge about wild foods is thought to be declining in younger generations worldwide, this study's objective was to describe variation in Sonoran wild food knowledge in southern Arizona between adults (n = 19) and students (n = 110) using free lists, an identification exercise, and structured interviews. There are fundamental differences in the ...
Park Hyunjin H Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Sookmyung Women's University , Seoul, - - 2014
Abstract The world is becoming increasingly interested in Korean food and its ingredients. The attention goes beyond the typical examples, such as kimchi and fermented sauces; peculiar food ingredients that are widely consumed in Korea are now entering the world's functional food markets. This trend was supported by scientific research, ...
Lee Kyung Won KW Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University , Seoul, - - 2014
Abstract The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. ...
Jensen Kasper K Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, - - 2014
Awareness that disease susceptibility is not only dependent on genetic make up, but can be affected by lifestyle decisions, has brought more attention to the role of diet. However, food is often treated as a black box, or the focus is limited to few, well-studied compounds, such as polyphenols, lipids ...
Levings Jessica Lee JL Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, MS K-72, 4770 Buford Highway, Chamblee, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans' sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and ...
Tang Dongyan D Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000, China. - - 2014
The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic ...
Sato Kimiko K Prefectural University of - - 2014
Objectives: We intended to develop contents for nutritional management for elderly people using the Internet, and to consider factors relatied to the promotion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out consisting of items on diet support conditions and promoting the use of ICT ...
Hojo Masaru K MK Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan ; Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan ; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of ...
Cheung Bernice H K BH Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. Electronic address: - - 2014
With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several ...
Keller Roberto A RA Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, - - 2014
The concerted evolution of morphological and behavioral specializations has compelling examples in ant castes. Unique to ants is a marked divergence between winged queens and wingless workers, but morphological specializations for behaviors on the ground have been overlooked. We analyzed thorax morphology of queens and workers in species from 21 ...
Anjum Nazia N a Department of Food Technology , PMAS Arid Agriculture University , Rawalpindi , - - 2014
L. acidophilus is a homofermentative, microaerophilic, short chain gram positive microorganism with rod morphology having its bacteriocins belonging to class II a. Several bacteriocins of L. acidophilus have been isolated and characterized. These are structurally similar, but their molecular weight varies as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They ...
Sensoy Ilkay I a Department of Food Engineering , Middle East Technical University , Universiteler Mahallesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, No:1 , 06800 , Ankara , - - 2014
This review highlights the effects of processing and food matrix on bioaccessibility and bioavailability of functional components. Human digestive system is reviewed as an element in bioavailability. Methods for bioaccessibility and bioavailability determination are described. Information about the location of functional compounds in the tissue is presented to portray the ...
Kumari Avnesh A a Nanobiology Lab, Biotechnology Division , CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, CSIR , Palampur , 176061 , HP , - - 2014
The emergence of nanotechnology developments using nanodevices/nanomaterials opens up potential novel applications in agriculture and food sector. Smart delivery systems, biosensors, and nanoarrays are being designed to solve the problems faced in agriculture sector. Similarly, food sector is also benefited through the use of smart biosensors, packaging materials, and nanonutraceuticals. ...
Viuda-Martos M M a IPOA Research Group (UMH-1 and REVIV-Generalitat Valenciana), AgroFood Technology Department, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela , Universidad Miguel Hernández , Crta , E-03312 , Orihuela Alicante , - - 2014
During recent decades, the food industry, consumers, and regulatory authorities have developed a significant interest in functional foods because of their potential benefits for human health over and above their basic nutritional value. Tomato is the second most important vegetable crop in the world. The amount of the related wastes ...
Nago Eunice S ES a Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences , University of Abomey-Calavi , Cotonou , - - 2014
In the present review, the association of out-of-home eating with anthropometric changes was examined. Peer-reviewed studies in eight databases were searched, and 15 prospective studies were included in the review. The quality of the data was assessed by considering risks of bias in sample selection, data collection methods, and the ...
Inoue Madoka M School of Public Health and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845, Australia. - - 2014
For infants' optimal growth and development, the introduction of nutritionally suitable solid foods at the appropriate time is essential. However, less attention has been paid to this stage of infant life when compared with studies on breastfeeding initiation and duration. The practice of introducing solid foods, including the types of ...
Asmaro Deyar D Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, RCB 5246, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. - - 2014
There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food ...
Bast Elizabeth S ES University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States - - 2014
This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms ...
Godfray H Charles J HC Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food, Oxford University, , South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, - - 2014
The coming decades are likely to see increasing pressures on the global food system, both on the demand side from increasing population and per capita consumption, and on the supply side from greater competition for inputs and from climate change. This paper argues that the magnitude of the challenge is ...
Moore Geromy G GG Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture New Orleans, LA, - - 2014
For most of the half century that aflatoxigenic species have been intensively studied, these molds were known only to reproduce asexually, with parasexuality found only in the laboratory between certain mutant strains. Therefore, the fairly recent discovery of their sexual (teleomorphic) states creates a new wrinkle in our understanding of ...
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