Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2293
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Maejima Yuko - - 2011
Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in ...
Alhadeff Amber L - - 2012
Central glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation reduces food intake; however, brain nuclei and mechanism(s) mediating this effect remain poorly understood. Although central nervous system GLP-1 is produced almost exclusively in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed throughout the brain, including nuclei in the ...
Avena Nicole M NM University of Florida, College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. - - 2012
Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie ...
Mogami Sachiko - - 2012
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most susceptible organs to ischemia. We previously reported altered gastric motility after gastric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). However, there have also been few reports of alterations in the eating behavior after gastric I/R. Ghrelin is a GI peptide that stimulates food intake ...
Blessing William - - 2011
Laboratory rats, throughout the 24hour day, alternate between behaviorally active and non active episodes that Kleitman called the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC). We previously demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures and arterial pressure and heart rate increase in an integrated manner during behaviorally active phases. Studies ...
Conde-Sieira Marta - - 2011
Stress conditions induced in rainbow trout a readjustment in the glucosensing response of the hypothalamus and hindbrain such that those sensors did not respond properly to changes in glucose levels, as demonstrated in previous studies. To evaluate the hypothesis that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) could be involved in that response, we ...
Florant Gregory L - - 2011
One of the most profound hallmarks of mammalian hibernation is the dramatic reduction in food intake during the winter months. Several species of hibernator completely cease food intake (aphagia) for nearly 7 months regardless of ambient temperature and in many cases, whether or not food is available to them. Food intake ...
Bertin Aline - - 2011
Like mammals, bird embryos are capable of chemosensory learning, but the ontogeny of their feeding preferences has not been examined. We tested if the timing of stimulation in chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on later food preferences. We exposed chicken embryos to an olfactory stimulus ...
Frankort A A Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2012
The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate reward-related brain activity in satiated overweight and healthy-weight participants in response to high-calorie palatable food pictures, when viewing the pictures without prior instructions (called unbiased viewing) versus imagining the taste of the shown pictures (called taste imagination). ...
Morozov Andrew - - 2011
In this paper, we revisit the stabilizing role that predator dispersal and aggregation have in the top-down regulation of predator-prey systems in a heterogeneous environment. We consider an environment consisting of sites interconnected by dispersal, and propose a novel mechanism of stabilization for the case with a non-sigmoid functional response ...
Muchlinski Magdalena N - - 2011
Fungiform papillae (FPs) are the only gustatory structures on the anterior tongue. Taste buds (TBs), which are located in FPs, house taste receptors. Each TB has a taste pore (TP) by which tastants are transmitted. In humans, FP and TB densities correlate with taste sensitivity and food preferences. Females have ...
Verhagen Linda A W - - 2011
Rats exposed to timed restricted meals develop anticipation of food. They increase their activity levels in the hours preceding food access; this has been described as food-anticipatory activity (FAA). In the present study, we show the involvement of regions of the hypothalamus [arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and lateral hypothalamus] ...
Clapham John C - - 2011
In mammals and birds, conservation of body heat at around 37 °C is vital to life. Thermogenesis is the production of this heat which can be obligatory, as in basal metabolic rate, or it can be facultative such as the response to cold. A complex regulatory system has evolved which senses ...
Dimitropoulos Anastasia A Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 11220 Bellflower Road, Mather Memorial Rm. 109, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2012
The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to ...
Zhang Jingchuan - - 2012
Previous reports suggest that glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a peptide secreted from the distal small intestine, is an endocrine satiation signal. Nevertheless, there are conflicting reports regarding the site where circulating GLP-1 acts to reduce food intake. To test the hypothesis that vagal afferents are necessary for reduction of food intake ...
Holsen L M LM Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
The majority of research on obesity (OB) has focused primarily on clinical features (eating behavior, adiposity measures) or peripheral appetite-regulatory peptides (leptin, ghrelin). However, recent functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that some reward circuitry regions that are associated with appetite-regulatory hormones are also involved in the development and maintenance of ...
Rosol Renata - - 2011
Objectives. Assess the prevalence of food insecurity by region among Inuit households in the Canadian Arctic. Study design. A community-participatory, cross-sectional Inuit health survey conducted through face-to-face interviews. Methods. A quantitative household food security questionnaire was conducted with a random sample of 2,595 self-identified Inuit adults aged 18 years and ...
Gaultier A A INRA, UMR1079 SENAH, 35590 Saint-Gilles, - - 2011
We describe the behavioural consequences of conditioned flavour aversion and preference in pigs and have investigated the brain circuits involved in the representation of flavours with different hedonic values. The study was performed on eight 30-kg pigs. (i) Animals were negatively conditioned to an F- flavour added to a meal ...
Tomycz Nestor D - - 2011
Obesity is perhaps an evolutionary consequence of a species reared with intermittent caloric reward. Humans are hardwired to enjoy food, and our bodies voraciously extract and store energy from food as if each meal was the last. As an amalgam of behavioral and metabolic disturbance, obesity is an attractive target ...
De Silva Akila A Section of Investigative Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imperial College London, London, - - 2011
Obesity is a major public health issue worldwide. Understanding how the brain controls appetite offers promising inroads toward new therapies for obesity. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are coreleased postprandially and reduce appetite and inhibit food intake when administered to humans. However, the effects of GLP-1 and ...
Dossat Amanda M - - 2011
Central glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulation suppresses food intake, and hindbrain GLP-1 neurons project to numerous feeding-relevant brain regions. One such region is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which plays a role in reward and motivated behavior. Using immunohistochemical and retrograde tracing techniques in rats, we identified a robust projection ...
Levy Dino J DJ Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. - - 2011
The ability of human subjects to choose between disparate kinds of rewards suggests that the neural circuits for valuing different reward types must converge. Economic theory suggests that these convergence points represent the subjective values (SVs) of different reward types on a common scale for comparison. To examine these hypotheses ...
Bello Nicholas T - - 2012
Endogenous cannabinoid signaling, mediated predominately by CB1 receptor activation, is involved in food intake control and body weight regulation. Despite advances in determining the role of the CB1 receptor in obesity, its involvement in the driven nature of eating pathologies has received little attention. The present study examined CB1 receptor ...
Kyrø Cecilie - - 2011
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to describe the intake of whole grain (WG) in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and to investigate what proportion of the study population that met the new WG recommendation (75 g WG/day per 10 MJ). METHODS: Descriptive study. Data is from one 24h ...
Biasi Elisabetta - - 2011
Food intake can influence neuronal functions through different modulators expressed in the brain. The present review is a report through relevant experimental findings on the effects of choline, a nutritional component found in the diet, to identify a safe and effective dietary solution that can offer some protection against neurotoxicity ...
Moreno-Dominguez Silvia - - 2011
This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), ...
Hadley Craig - - 2011
The global food crisis of 2008 led to renewed interest in global food insecurity and how macro-level food prices impact household and individual level wellbeing. There is debate over the extent to which food price increases in 2008 eroded food security, the extent to which this effect was distributed across ...
Parise Eric M - - 2011
Hypothalamic orexin neurons project to the hindbrain, and 4th-ventricle intracerebroventricular (4th-icv) injection of orexin-A treatment increases food intake. We assessed the effects of hindbrain orexin-A and the orexin-1-receptor antagonist SB334867 on meal pattern in rats consuming standard chow. When injected 4th-icv shortly before dark onset, lower doses of orexin-A increased ...
Jha S K - - 2012
The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. ...
Carlini V P - - 2011
A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST ...
Granado Miriam - - 2011
In rodents there is a rise in serum leptin levels between postnatal days (PND) 5 and 14, with this neonatal leptin surge reported to modulate the maturation of hypothalamic circuits involved in appetite regulation. We hypothesized that acute changes in neonatal leptin levels have different long-term metabolic effects depending on ...
Page Kathleen A - - 2011
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic resulting in part from the ubiquity of high-calorie foods and food images. Whether obese and nonobese individuals regulate their desire to consume high-calorie foods differently is not clear. We set out to investigate the hypothesis that circulating levels of glucose, the primary fuel source for ...
Olarte Sánchez C M - - 2011
It has been suggested that a sub-population of orexinergic neurones whose somata lie in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) play an important role in regulating the reinforcing value of both food and drugs. This experiment examined the effect of disruption of orexinergic mechanisms in the LHA on performance on the ...
Schur Ellen A - - 2012
We studied whether self-reported intent to exert cognitive control over eating was associated with differences in brain response to food cues, independent of genetic background. Subjects were ten pairs of identical twins in which one twin was a restrained eater and the co-twin was unrestrained, as classified by the Herman ...
Flagel S B SB Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, AnnArbor, MI 48109, USA. - - 2011
Cues associated with rewards acquire the ability to engage the same brain systems as rewards themselves. However, reward cues have multiple properties. For example, they not only act as predictors of reward capable of evoking conditional responses (CRs), but they may also acquire incentive motivational properties. As incentive stimuli they ...
Carnell S - - 2012
Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly common in obesity research as investigators try to understand the neurological underpinnings of appetite and body weight in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies examining responses to food intake and food cues, dopamine function and brain ...
Ramsey Rebecca - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe foods. Food insecurity may result in inadequate dietary intakes, overweight or obesity and the development of chronic disease. Internationally, few studies have focused on the range of potential health outcomes related to ...
Pellis Sergio M - - 2011
Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascerensis) have highly specialized hands with long digits, especially the thin middle one (D3), which is used for extracting food, such as beetle larvae, under bark. Due to the elongation of their fingers, including the thumb, it is presumed that aye-ayes have a rather limited capacity for delicate ...
Rakotondranary S Jacques - - 2011
Madagascar provides some of the rare examples where two or more primate species of the same genus and with seemingly identical niche requirements occur in sympatry. If congeneric primate species co-occur in other parts of the world, they differ in size in a way that is consistent with Hutchinson's rule ...
Shin A C AC Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97401, - - 2011
Advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided insight into the role of the brain in the regulation of food intake and weight. Growing evidence demonstrate that energy dense, palatable foods elicit similar responses in reward-related brain regions that mimic those of addictive substances. Currently, various models of obesity's relation to reward ...
Ribas Anderson Savaris - - 2011
This study investigated the participation of median raphe nucleus (MnR) α1-adrenergic receptors in the control of feeding behaviour. The α1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE) and α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine (CLON) (at equimolar doses of 0, 6 and 20nmol) were injected into the MnR of: a) rats submitted to overnight fasting (18h); or ...
Bajwa Usha U Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141 004 Punjab - - 2014
Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2011
Prouroguanylin is a gastrointestinal paracrine signal and prohormone that is secreted after nutrient ingestion. In this issue of the JCI, Valentino et al. show that prouroguanylin is converted to uroguanylin in the CNS, which can activate guanylyl cyclase 2C (GUCY2C) receptors in the brain to reduce food intake in mice. ...
Ogiso Kazuma - - 2011
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious medical illness associated with gastrointestinal, metabolic, and psychological complications, and there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for the condition. Recent studies have suggested that the regulatory peptides, including ghrelin, are involved in the pathologic feeding behavior of AN. Previous studies have indicated that plasma ...
Born Jurriaan M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Eating behavior changes under stress, i.e. during high HPA-axis activation. AIM: Assessment of effects of high versus low HPA-axis activation on liking and wanting related brain signaling in relevant regions. METHODS: 15 female subjects (21.5±0.4years, BMI=22.2±0.4) completed fMRI scans on 2days, in a fasted as well as a satiated ...
Seitz Rochelle D - - 2011
Shallow coves in Chesapeake Bay have abundant food and serve as nursery grounds for juvenile blue crabs. In this study, we examined the relationships between the diet of very small (4-40 mm CW) juvenile blue crabs and the benthic infauna in shallow, unvegetated nursery coves. We compared infauna in benthic samples ...
Santi Angelo - - 2011
Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate hedonic sample stimuli that consisted of food or no food. Retention functions decreased more rapidly on trials initiated by a food sample than on trials initiated by a no-food sample when retention intervals were manipulated within session. The asymmetrical ...
Grieger Lloyd D - - 2011
Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1968 to 2005, we estimate the cumulative probability that young adults in the United States will receive food stamps during adulthood, and examine how that probability varies with an individual's income and education at age 25 as well as ...
King S J - - 2011
Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide that acts within the central nervous system to stimulate appetite and food intake via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It has been hypothesized that ghrelin modulates food intake in part by stimulating reward pathways in the brain and potentially stimulating the intake of palatable ...
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