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Results 501 - 550 of 2381
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Wang Hong-Sheng - - 2011
To assess organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminations and its possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑OCP concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 1.28 to 188 (median 3.11), 1.06 to 25.1 ...
Hollmann M - - 2011
Objective:In this study, we investigate the brain mechanisms of the conscious regulation of the desire for food using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Further, we examine associations between hemodynamic responses and participants' cognitive restraint of eating (CRE), as well as their susceptibility to uncontrolled eating.Subjects:Seventeen non-vegetarian, right-handed, female Caucasian participants (age: ...
Cowdrey Felicity A - - 2011
Recent evidence has shown that individuals with acute anorexia nervosa and those recovered have aberrant physiological responses to rewarding stimuli. We hypothesized that women recovered from anorexia nervosa would show aberrant neural responses to both rewarding and aversive disorder-relevant stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the neural response to ...
Morris Gail - - 2011
Predation and food resources can strongly affect small mammal population dynamics directly by altering vital rates or indirectly by influencing behaviors. Fire may also strongly influence population dynamics of species inhabiting fire-adapted habitats because fire can alter food and cover availability. We used capture-mark-recapture and radio-telemetry studies to experimentally examine ...
Srinivasan Mandyam V - - 2011
Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food ...
Mitra A - - 2011
Food intake is regulated according to circadian activity, metabolic needs and the hedonic value of food. Rodents placed on a fixed feeding schedule show behavioral and physiological anticipation of mealtime referred to as food-anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is driven by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO), whose anatomical substrate is not yet ...
Eisele Johanna - - 2011
Basic Methacrylate Copolymer is a fully polymerised cationic copolymer with taste-masking and moisture protection properties. It is used as a pharmaceutical excipient and has potential use as a glazing/coating agent to solid food supplements. This article describes available information on the safety of the substance. Oral administration of radiolabelled copolymer ...
Yokum Sonja S Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, USA. - - 2011
Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. ...
Brown Steven - - 2011
We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, ...
Campagna Roberta R Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, 20156 Milano, Italy. - - 2011
Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals by mechanisms that remain unknown. Recently, it has been shown that developmental exposure to 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB138), a food-relevant PCB congener, decreases the learning ability of young rats. The aim of this study was ...
Yakovenko Veronica - - 2011
The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2h was higher in HiS than LoS ...
Silver Rae - - 2011
Despite the importance of learning and circadian rhythms to feeding, there has been relatively little effort to integrate these separate lines of research. In this review, we focus on how light and food entrainable oscillators contribute to the anticipation of food. In particular, we examine the evidence for temporal conditioning ...
Dubowitz Tamara T RAND Health, RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2012
Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, ...
Bartness Timothy J - - 2011
Many animals hoard food, including humans, but despite its pervasiveness, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying this appetitive behavior. We summarize studies of food hoarding in humans and rodents with an emphasis on mechanistic laboratory studies of species where this behavior importantly impacts their energy balance (hamsters), but ...
Södersten P - - 2011
The world-wide increase in obesity has markedly stimulated research on the possibility that its cause can be found the brain. However, this research has produced little that can be used to treat obesity. The reason for the limited success of this approach may be that it relies on the hypothesis ...
Nager W - - 2011
The hypothalamus supports basic motivational behaviours such as mating and feeding. Recording directly from the posterior inferior hypothalamus in a male patient receiving a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode for the alleviation of cluster headache, we tested the hypothalamic response to different classes of motivational stimuli (sexually relevant: pictures of ...
Magriplis Emmanuella - - 2011
Sodium is the mineral that has been, mainly, linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. It is found naturally in many foods, but is also used in the food industry and manufacturing. Identification of total sodium intake, as well as 'hidden' sodium intake from food sources early in life is necessary. ...
Flokstra-de Blok Bertine M J - - 2011
To cite this article: Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, van Ginkel CD, Roerdink EM, Kroeze MAJM, Stel AA, van der Meulen GN, Dubois AEJ. Extremely low prevalence of epinephrine autoinjectors in high-risk food-allergic adolescents in Dutch high schools. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 374-377. ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to ...
Webster Jacqueline L - - 2011
To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments ...
Wong Sally S - - 2011
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US and affects Chinese Americans disproportionately compared to other ethnic groups in the American population. However, few studies have examined CVD risk factors, including diet and physical activity, in Chinese Americans. This investigation used a cross-sectional design to evaluate ...
Jaime Patricia Constante - - 2011
There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe ...
Pacin A M AM a Fundación de Investigaciones Científicas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz , Luján , - - 2011
The aim of this work was to determine deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat-based food products in Argentina and to estimate DON exposure. The numbers of samples were determined according to a developed sampling plan. A total of 156 samples of different wheat products were randomly collected from food markets in ...
Magrine I C O IC a Department of Basic Health Sciences , State University of Maringá (UEM) , Av. Colombo 5790 , Maringá 87020-900 , - - 2011
To estimate daily intake of aflatoxins from peanut products consumed by the population of Paraná State (Brazil), 100 samples of peanut products were collected between July 2006 and April 2007. Aflatoxins were determined by an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. There was a 50% occurrence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 ...
Hajizadeh Bahareh - - 2011
The authors examined the association of food group intakes and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a hospital-based case-control study in Iran. In total, 47 patients with esophageal SCC and 96 controls underwent face-to-face private interviews. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. ...
Scott Michael M - - 2011
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that signals to inform the brain of nutrient status; loss of leptin signaling results in marked hyperphagia and obesity. Recent work has identified several groups of neurons that contribute to the effects of leptin to regulate energy balance, but leptin receptors are distributed throughout the ...
Barrett Graham L - - 2011
We previously showed that peptides containing leptin sequences 1-33 or 61-90 are taken up by the rat brain. We now report the effects of these peptides on food intake and body weight in mature rats. Peptides were infused intravenously for 4weeks, using Alzet minipumps. Dosages were 20μg/kg/day in experiment I, ...
Gao Su - - 2011
Brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1c) is implicated in CNS control of food intake. In this article, we explore the role of hypothalamic CPT-1c in leptin's anorexigenic actions. We first show that adenoviral overexpression of CPT-1c in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of rats increases food intake and concomitantly up-regulates orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) ...
Gewurtz Sarah B - - 2011
A nationwide study was conducted to examine concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in top predatory fish, with a focus on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), across Canada, and to explore possible influences of food web processes. Concentrations of the three most abundant PBDE homolog groups (tetra-, penta-, and hexa-PBDEs) were, ...
Frank Sabine S MEG Center, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. - - 2011
Mutations that lead to congenital leptin deficiency cause severe obesity, hyperphagia, and impaired satiety due to malfunctions of peripheral and brain-related mechanisms. In a leptin-deficient adolescent girl, we investigated brain-related changes before and at two time points after leptin therapy (3 d and 6 months). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was ...
Yokobori Eri - - 2011
Orexin is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation of mammals. However, except for the case of goldfish, the involvement of orexin in the feeding behavior of teleost fish has not well been studied. Therefore, we investigated the role of orexin on food intake using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) ...
Stengel A - - 2011
  Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst(1-5) ) with the stable pan-sst(1-5) somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine and adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst ...
Huybrechts I - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers.Subjects/Methods:Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% ...
Klingerman Candice M CM Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, - - 2011
Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated ...
Escobar Carolina - - 2011
Food is a potent time signal for the circadian system and has shown to entrain and override temporal signals transmitted by the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which adjusts mainly to the daily light/dark (LD) alternation. Organisms mostly ingest food in their active period and this permits a correct coordination ...
Magalhães Bruno - - 2011
Dietary pattern analysis is a powerful technique to study the relationships between diet and cancer, accounting for the specificities of overall dietary intake in each setting. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns and colon and rectum cancers. We evaluated 151 rectum and 102 ...
Ritchie Lorrene D - - 2011
To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index > 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention intervention. Dietary intakes were collected by ...
Lynam Ann-Marie - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate Irish consumers' use and understanding of and their belief in nutrition and health (NH) claims in the context of the European Union (EU) legislation (Regulation no. 1924/2006), which permits a number of NH claims on food products. DESIGN: An interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to consumers (n 400). ...
Hickson Demarc A - - 2011
We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ...
Jaceldo-Siegl Karen - - 2011
To assess race-specific validity of food and food group intakes measured using an FFQ. Calibration study participants were randomly selected from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort by church, and then by subject-within-church. Intakes of forty-seven foods and food groups were assessed using an FFQ and then compared with intake ...
Schwartz Gary J - - 2011
Infusions of lipids into the small intestine potently suppress ongoing feeding. Prior work has identified potential roles for gut extrinsic vagal and non-vagal sensory innervation in mediating the ability of gut lipid infusions to reduce food intake, but the local biochemical processes underlying gut lipid sensing at the level of ...
Thompson Janice L JL Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS81TZ, UK. - - 2011
To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 ...
Yang Hui-Di HD State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2011
Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) display food hoarding and thus provide an opportunity to study the neuromechanisms underlying this behavior. In the present study, male gerbils exhibited a bimodal expression of food hoarding behavior-some displayed high levels of food hoarding whereas others virtually lacked this behavior under normal laboratory conditions with ...
Schwartz Camille - - 2011
Introduction of solid foods is a major step the establishment of eating behavior and is likely to affect children's health. However, the role of taste in acceptance of new foods, in particular in the first months of complementary feeding, is not fully understood and was the aim of the present ...
Seiluri Tina - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits ...
Verly Junior Eliseu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among adolescents and the association between socio-economic variables and nutritional status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a population-based sample.SettingsThe usual nutrient intake distribution was estimated using the Iowa State University method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point method was used to determine ...
Sausenthaler Stefanie - - 2011
Recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition published new guidelines on early nutrition and allergy prevention in infants and children. This article reviews epidemiologic evidence from 2 prospective German birth cohort studies, the GINIplus and the LISAplus, regarding maternal diet during ...
Legler Juliette - - 2011
The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2011
Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; ...
Nimptsch Katharina - - 2011
Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no ...
West Christina E - - 2011
Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease propensity. Diet is a major environmental exposure, and dietary factors, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, folate, and other vitamins, have effects on immune function. Some also have been implicated in ...
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