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Shin A C AC Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) remains to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities, but the specific mechanisms involved remain elusive. Because RYGB patients appear to no longer be preoccupied with thoughts about food and are satisfied with much smaller meals and calorically dilute foods, ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR 97401, - - 2011
Advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided insight into the role of the brain in the regulation of food intake and weight. Growing evidence demonstrate that energy dense, palatable foods elicit similar responses in reward-related brain regions that mimic those of addictive substances. Currently, various models of obesity's relation to reward ...
Ulca P P a A&T Food Laboratory , Mega Center No 29 34045 , Istanbul , - - 2011
Surveys were carried out between 2007 and 2010 to determine the total levels of sulfites in 1245 samples of wines, dried apricots, dried vegetables, nuts, juices and purees, frozen foods and cereals containing dried fruit supplied by food inspectors and by food producers for testing or for export certification. Sulfite ...
Vasco Elsa Reis ER a National Health Institute Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Food and Nutrition Department , Lisbon , - - 2011
Commercial baby food labelled as from organic or conventional origin, including vegetable-based baby foods, fruit purees and fruit juices (n = 80), were analysed for nitrate content by an in-house validated HPLC method. Nitrate contents ranged from 5 to 230 mg kg(-1) with a mean concentration of 102 mg kg(-1) for vegetable-based baby foods, and a ...
Tang A S P AS a Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department , 43/F Queensway Government Offices, 66 Queensway , Hong Kong , - - 2011
To evaluate the potential public health risk of ethyl carbamate (EC), EC exposure from fermented foods and beverages for Hong Kong population was estimated. In 276 samples analysed, EC was detected (limit of detection (LOD) at 0.4 µg kg(-1)) in 202 samples (73%), with higher levels in fermented red bean curd (150-650 µg kg(-1)) ...
Ribas Anderson Savaris - - 2011
This study investigated the participation of median raphe nucleus (MnR) α1-adrenergic receptors in the control of feeding behaviour. The α1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PHE) and α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine (CLON) (at equimolar doses of 0, 6 and 20nmol) were injected into the MnR of: a) rats submitted to overnight fasting (18h); or ...
Bajwa Usha U Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141 004 Punjab - - 2014
Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2011
Prouroguanylin is a gastrointestinal paracrine signal and prohormone that is secreted after nutrient ingestion. In this issue of the JCI, Valentino et al. show that prouroguanylin is converted to uroguanylin in the CNS, which can activate guanylyl cyclase 2C (GUCY2C) receptors in the brain to reduce food intake in mice. ...
Ogiso Kazuma - - 2011
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious medical illness associated with gastrointestinal, metabolic, and psychological complications, and there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for the condition. Recent studies have suggested that the regulatory peptides, including ghrelin, are involved in the pathologic feeding behavior of AN. Previous studies have indicated that plasma ...
Born Jurriaan M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Eating behavior changes under stress, i.e. during high HPA-axis activation. AIM: Assessment of effects of high versus low HPA-axis activation on liking and wanting related brain signaling in relevant regions. METHODS: 15 female subjects (21.5±0.4years, BMI=22.2±0.4) completed fMRI scans on 2days, in a fasted as well as a satiated ...
Seitz Rochelle D - - 2011
Shallow coves in Chesapeake Bay have abundant food and serve as nursery grounds for juvenile blue crabs. In this study, we examined the relationships between the diet of very small (4-40 mm CW) juvenile blue crabs and the benthic infauna in shallow, unvegetated nursery coves. We compared infauna in benthic samples ...
Santi Angelo - - 2011
Rats were trained in a symbolic delayed matching-to-sample task to discriminate hedonic sample stimuli that consisted of food or no food. Retention functions decreased more rapidly on trials initiated by a food sample than on trials initiated by a no-food sample when retention intervals were manipulated within session. The asymmetrical ...
Grieger Lloyd D - - 2011
Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) from 1968 to 2005, we estimate the cumulative probability that young adults in the United States will receive food stamps during adulthood, and examine how that probability varies with an individual's income and education at age 25 as well as ...
King S J - - 2011
Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide that acts within the central nervous system to stimulate appetite and food intake via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It has been hypothesized that ghrelin modulates food intake in part by stimulating reward pathways in the brain and potentially stimulating the intake of palatable ...
Zhang Jing - - 2011
Background and Aims: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been used to treat obesity with unclear mechanisms and limited parameter ranges. This study explores effects of GES parameters on ventral medial hypothalamic (VMH) activity, feeding and bodyweight in diet induced obese (DIO) rats. Methods: Experiment 1. Discharge rates were recorded in ...
Morimoto Noriaki - - 2011
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-related peptides exert hypophysiotropic and anorexigenic effects in mammals and teleost fish. In anuran amphibians, CRF acts as a potent stimulator of thyrotropin release from the pituitary. According to our recent study, CRF also acts as an anorexigenic factor for the cessation of food intake in ...
Agustín-Pavón Carmen C Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, - - 2011
The development of food preferences contributes to a balanced diet, and involves both innate and learnt factors. By associating flavour cues with the reinforcing properties of the food (i.e. postingestive nutrient cues and innately preferred tastes, such as sweetness), animals acquire individual preferences. How the brain codes and guides selection ...
Younts Thomas J - - 2011
The synaptic basis underlying food intake is poorly understood. New research shows that an animal's satiety state dictates the polarity of long-term inhibitory synaptic plasticity in the hypothalamus, which is mediated by an activity-dependent competition between endocannabinoid and nitric oxide signaling.
Emmanuelle Barron - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential element which can be toxic if ingested in excessive quantities. The main human exposure is food. In addition, intake may be boosted by consumption drinking water containing unusual high selenium concentration. OBJECTIVE: We measured the individual selenium level of people exposed to selenium concentration in ...
Pirnik Z - - 2011
Many peripheral substances, including ghrelin, induce neuronal activation in the brain. In the present study, we compared the effect of subcutaneously administered ghrelin and its three stable agonists: Dpr(3)ghr ([Dpr(N-octanoyl)(3)] ghrelin) (Dpr - diaminopropionic acid), YA GHRP-6 (H-Tyr-Ala-His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH(2)), and JMV1843 (H-Aib-DTrp-D-gTrp-CHO) on the Fos expression in food intake-responsive brain areas ...
Yoo S B - - 2011
This study was conducted to examine the effect of neonatal maternal separation on the hypothalamic feeding peptides expression in young female offspring. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3h daily during PND 1-14 (MS), or left undisturbed except routine cage cleaning (NH). Weanling female pups were housed in group ...
Mandge Harshad M HM Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 004 - - 2014
Multigrain blends of wheat, mungbean, sorghum, barley, corn (50:20:15:10:5) and flaxseeds @ 1% were processed by instantization (cooking) treatments to produce instant multigrain porridge. Cooking treatment involved three processing steps, Soaking (A: Soaked for 5 h at 50 °C, B: Soaked for 3.5 h at 65 °C), Steaming at 15 psi for 10, 15, 20 min. ...
Stevanovic Slavica - - 2011
To assess the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A conducted case-control study included 290 randomly selected cases (mean age 59.98 +/- 10.03 years) with first event of an acute coronary syndrome and 290 selected controls paired by sex, age and region (mean ...
Gebauer Hilary - - 2011
Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban ...
Voinot Florian - - 2011
Geophagia is found in various animal species and in humans. We have previously shown that spontaneously ingested kaolinite interacts with the intestinal mucosa modifies nutrient absorption and slows down gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms involved are not elucidated. The aim of this ...
Grimm Marcus O W - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular senile plaques mainly consisting of Aβ, a 40-42 amino acid long peptide, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Recently evidence accumulated that nutrition, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, influences AD pathogenesis. Especially mid-life food habits ...
Bueter M M Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) patients reportedly have changes in perception and consumption of sweet-tasting foods. This study aimed to further investigate alterations in sweet food intake in rats and sucrose detection in humans after gastric bypass. Wistar rats were randomized to gastric bypass or sham-operations and preference for sucrose ...
Bruce Jared M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Adjustable gastric banding is an effective weight-loss treatment, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether gastric banding affects brain function in regions previously implicated in food motivation, reward, and cognitive control. The setting for the ...
McDannald Michael A MA Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2011
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, symptoms reflecting impaired reality testing. Although animal models have captured negative symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, none have addressed these defining, positive symptoms. Here we tested the performance of adults given neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions ...
Cizza Giovanni - - 2011
Food and stress are powerful modulators of the body-mind connection, which is imbalanced in obese individuals. Why do we choose chocolate over an apple when overworked and stressed, and why does comfort food make us feel better? Two independent studies in the JCI, one in this issue, home in on ...
Calvez J - - 2011
Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand ...
Gooding Holly C - - 2011
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children ...
Serranová Tereza - - 2011
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to ...
Verwey M - - 2011
Restricted feeding (RF) schedules provide a cycle of fasting and feeding each day and induce circadian rhythms in food-anticipatory activity. In addition, daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes, such as rhythms in Period1 (PER1) or Period2 (PER2), are also shifted in many brain areas that are important ...
Baird John-Paul - - 2011
Injections of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MCR) agonist melanotan II (MTII) to a variety of brain structures produces anorexia, suggesting distributed brain MCR control of food intake. We performed a detailed analysis of feeding behavior (licking microstructure analysis) after a range of MTII doses (0.005 nM to 1 nM) was ...
Babey Susan H - - 2011
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier ...
Kidawa Dorota - - 2011
The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2011
Circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a system of endogenous circadian oscillators (clock cells) in the brain and in most peripheral organs and tissues. One group of clock cells in the hypothalamic SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei) functions as a pacemaker for co-ordinating the timing of oscillators elsewhere in the brain ...
Polakof S - - 2011
Although the role of ghrelin (GHRL) on fish appetite regulation had been widely studied in past years, its involvement in the regulation of glucose metabolism had been little explored. In the present study we hypothesize that GHRL may have a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in fish. Therefore, ...
Wang Hong-Sheng - - 2011
To assess organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminations and its possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑OCP concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 1.28 to 188 (median 3.11), 1.06 to 25.1 ...
Cowdrey Felicity A - - 2011
Recent evidence has shown that individuals with acute anorexia nervosa and those recovered have aberrant physiological responses to rewarding stimuli. We hypothesized that women recovered from anorexia nervosa would show aberrant neural responses to both rewarding and aversive disorder-relevant stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the neural response to ...
Hollmann M M Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1A, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2012
In this study, we investigate the brain mechanisms of the conscious regulation of the desire for food using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Further, we examine associations between hemodynamic responses and participants' cognitive restraint of eating (CRE), as well as their susceptibility to uncontrolled eating. Seventeen non-vegetarian, right-handed, female Caucasian participants ...
Morris Gail - - 2011
Predation and food resources can strongly affect small mammal population dynamics directly by altering vital rates or indirectly by influencing behaviors. Fire may also strongly influence population dynamics of species inhabiting fire-adapted habitats because fire can alter food and cover availability. We used capture-mark-recapture and radio-telemetry studies to experimentally examine ...
Srinivasan Mandyam V - - 2011
Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food ...
Mitra A - - 2011
Food intake is regulated according to circadian activity, metabolic needs and the hedonic value of food. Rodents placed on a fixed feeding schedule show behavioral and physiological anticipation of mealtime referred to as food-anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is driven by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO), whose anatomical substrate is not yet ...
Eisele Johanna - - 2011
Basic Methacrylate Copolymer is a fully polymerised cationic copolymer with taste-masking and moisture protection properties. It is used as a pharmaceutical excipient and has potential use as a glazing/coating agent to solid food supplements. This article describes available information on the safety of the substance. Oral administration of radiolabelled copolymer ...
Yokum Sonja S Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, USA. - - 2011
Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. ...
Brown Steven - - 2011
We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, ...
Campagna Roberta R Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, 20156 Milano, Italy. - - 2011
Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals by mechanisms that remain unknown. Recently, it has been shown that developmental exposure to 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB138), a food-relevant PCB congener, decreases the learning ability of young rats. The aim of this study was ...
Yakovenko Veronica - - 2011
The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2h was higher in HiS than LoS ...
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