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Results 501 - 550 of 2397
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Gebauer Hilary - - 2011
Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban ...
Voinot Florian - - 2011
Geophagia is found in various animal species and in humans. We have previously shown that spontaneously ingested kaolinite interacts with the intestinal mucosa modifies nutrient absorption and slows down gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms involved are not elucidated. The aim of this ...
Grimm Marcus O W - - 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular senile plaques mainly consisting of Aβ, a 40-42 amino acid long peptide, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Recently evidence accumulated that nutrition, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, influences AD pathogenesis. Especially mid-life food habits ...
Bueter M M Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, - - 2011
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) patients reportedly have changes in perception and consumption of sweet-tasting foods. This study aimed to further investigate alterations in sweet food intake in rats and sucrose detection in humans after gastric bypass. Wistar rats were randomized to gastric bypass or sham-operations and preference for sucrose ...
Bruce Jared M - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Adjustable gastric banding is an effective weight-loss treatment, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether gastric banding affects brain function in regions previously implicated in food motivation, reward, and cognitive control. The setting for the ...
McDannald Michael A - - 2011
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating brain disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, symptoms reflecting impaired reality testing. Although animal models have captured negative symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, none have addressed these defining, positive symptoms. Here we tested the performance of adults given neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions ...
Cizza Giovanni - - 2011
Food and stress are powerful modulators of the body-mind connection, which is imbalanced in obese individuals. Why do we choose chocolate over an apple when overworked and stressed, and why does comfort food make us feel better? Two independent studies in the JCI, one in this issue, home in on ...
Calvez J - - 2011
Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand ...
Gooding Holly C - - 2011
Food insecurity has been associated with weight status in children and adults although results have been mixed. We aimed to identify whether food insecurity was associated with BMI in young adults and whether this association differed by gender and was modified by food stamp use and the presence of children ...
Serranová Tereza - - 2011
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to ...
Verwey M - - 2011
Restricted feeding (RF) schedules provide a cycle of fasting and feeding each day and induce circadian rhythms in food-anticipatory activity. In addition, daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes, such as rhythms in Period1 (PER1) or Period2 (PER2), are also shifted in many brain areas that are important ...
Baird John-Paul - - 2011
Injections of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor (MCR) agonist melanotan II (MTII) to a variety of brain structures produces anorexia, suggesting distributed brain MCR control of food intake. We performed a detailed analysis of feeding behavior (licking microstructure analysis) after a range of MTII doses (0.005 nM to 1 nM) was ...
Babey Susan H - - 2011
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier ...
Kidawa Dorota - - 2011
The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination ...
Mistlberger Ralph E - - 2011
Circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a system of endogenous circadian oscillators (clock cells) in the brain and in most peripheral organs and tissues. One group of clock cells in the hypothalamic SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei) functions as a pacemaker for co-ordinating the timing of oscillators elsewhere in the brain ...
Polakof S - - 2011
Although the role of ghrelin (GHRL) on fish appetite regulation had been widely studied in past years, its involvement in the regulation of glucose metabolism had been little explored. In the present study we hypothesize that GHRL may have a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in fish. Therefore, ...
Wang Hong-Sheng - - 2011
To assess organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminations and its possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑OCP concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 1.28 to 188 (median 3.11), 1.06 to 25.1 ...
Cowdrey Felicity A - - 2011
Recent evidence has shown that individuals with acute anorexia nervosa and those recovered have aberrant physiological responses to rewarding stimuli. We hypothesized that women recovered from anorexia nervosa would show aberrant neural responses to both rewarding and aversive disorder-relevant stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the neural response to ...
Hollmann M M Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1A, Leipzig, Germany. - - 2012
In this study, we investigate the brain mechanisms of the conscious regulation of the desire for food using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Further, we examine associations between hemodynamic responses and participants' cognitive restraint of eating (CRE), as well as their susceptibility to uncontrolled eating. Seventeen non-vegetarian, right-handed, female Caucasian participants ...
Morris Gail - - 2011
Predation and food resources can strongly affect small mammal population dynamics directly by altering vital rates or indirectly by influencing behaviors. Fire may also strongly influence population dynamics of species inhabiting fire-adapted habitats because fire can alter food and cover availability. We used capture-mark-recapture and radio-telemetry studies to experimentally examine ...
Srinivasan Mandyam V - - 2011
Flying insects display remarkable agility, despite their diminutive eyes and brains. This review describes our growing understanding of how these creatures use visual information to stabilize flight, avoid collisions with objects, regulate flight speed, detect and intercept other flying insects such as mates or prey, navigate to a distant food ...
Mitra A - - 2011
Food intake is regulated according to circadian activity, metabolic needs and the hedonic value of food. Rodents placed on a fixed feeding schedule show behavioral and physiological anticipation of mealtime referred to as food-anticipatory activity (FAA). FAA is driven by the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO), whose anatomical substrate is not yet ...
Eisele Johanna - - 2011
Basic Methacrylate Copolymer is a fully polymerised cationic copolymer with taste-masking and moisture protection properties. It is used as a pharmaceutical excipient and has potential use as a glazing/coating agent to solid food supplements. This article describes available information on the safety of the substance. Oral administration of radiolabelled copolymer ...
Yokum Sonja S Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, USA. - - 2011
Behavioral studies reveal that obese vs. lean individuals show attentional bias to food stimuli. Yet research has not investigated this relation using objective brain imaging or tested whether attentional bias to food stimuli predicts future weight gain, which are important aims given the prominence of food cues in the environment. ...
Brown Steven - - 2011
We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, ...
Campagna Roberta R Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, 20156 Milano, Italy. - - 2011
Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals by mechanisms that remain unknown. Recently, it has been shown that developmental exposure to 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB138), a food-relevant PCB congener, decreases the learning ability of young rats. The aim of this study was ...
Yakovenko Veronica - - 2011
The "food addiction" concept implies that proneness to drug dependence and to food dependence should covary. The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS). Sugary food intake in the first 1-2h was higher in HiS than LoS ...
Silver Rae - - 2011
Despite the importance of learning and circadian rhythms to feeding, there has been relatively little effort to integrate these separate lines of research. In this review, we focus on how light and food entrainable oscillators contribute to the anticipation of food. In particular, we examine the evidence for temporal conditioning ...
Dubowitz Tamara T RAND Health, RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2012
Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, ...
Bartness Timothy J - - 2011
Many animals hoard food, including humans, but despite its pervasiveness, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying this appetitive behavior. We summarize studies of food hoarding in humans and rodents with an emphasis on mechanistic laboratory studies of species where this behavior importantly impacts their energy balance (hamsters), but ...
Södersten P - - 2011
The world-wide increase in obesity has markedly stimulated research on the possibility that its cause can be found the brain. However, this research has produced little that can be used to treat obesity. The reason for the limited success of this approach may be that it relies on the hypothesis ...
Nager W - - 2011
The hypothalamus supports basic motivational behaviours such as mating and feeding. Recording directly from the posterior inferior hypothalamus in a male patient receiving a deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode for the alleviation of cluster headache, we tested the hypothalamic response to different classes of motivational stimuli (sexually relevant: pictures of ...
Magriplis Emmanuella - - 2011
Sodium is the mineral that has been, mainly, linked to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. It is found naturally in many foods, but is also used in the food industry and manufacturing. Identification of total sodium intake, as well as 'hidden' sodium intake from food sources early in life is necessary. ...
Flokstra-de Blok Bertine M J - - 2011
To cite this article: Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, van Ginkel CD, Roerdink EM, Kroeze MAJM, Stel AA, van der Meulen GN, Dubois AEJ. Extremely low prevalence of epinephrine autoinjectors in high-risk food-allergic adolescents in Dutch high schools. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011; 22: 374-377. ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to ...
Webster Jacqueline L - - 2011
To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments ...
Wong Sally S - - 2011
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US and affects Chinese Americans disproportionately compared to other ethnic groups in the American population. However, few studies have examined CVD risk factors, including diet and physical activity, in Chinese Americans. This investigation used a cross-sectional design to evaluate ...
Jaime Patricia Constante - - 2011
There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe ...
Pacin A M AM a Fundación de Investigaciones Científicas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz , Luján , - - 2011
The aim of this work was to determine deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat-based food products in Argentina and to estimate DON exposure. The numbers of samples were determined according to a developed sampling plan. A total of 156 samples of different wheat products were randomly collected from food markets in ...
Magrine I C O IC a Department of Basic Health Sciences , State University of Maringá (UEM) , Av. Colombo 5790 , Maringá 87020-900 , - - 2011
To estimate daily intake of aflatoxins from peanut products consumed by the population of Paraná State (Brazil), 100 samples of peanut products were collected between July 2006 and April 2007. Aflatoxins were determined by an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. There was a 50% occurrence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 ...
Hajizadeh Bahareh - - 2011
The authors examined the association of food group intakes and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a hospital-based case-control study in Iran. In total, 47 patients with esophageal SCC and 96 controls underwent face-to-face private interviews. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. ...
Scott Michael M - - 2011
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that signals to inform the brain of nutrient status; loss of leptin signaling results in marked hyperphagia and obesity. Recent work has identified several groups of neurons that contribute to the effects of leptin to regulate energy balance, but leptin receptors are distributed throughout the ...
Barrett Graham L - - 2011
We previously showed that peptides containing leptin sequences 1-33 or 61-90 are taken up by the rat brain. We now report the effects of these peptides on food intake and body weight in mature rats. Peptides were infused intravenously for 4weeks, using Alzet minipumps. Dosages were 20μg/kg/day in experiment I, ...
Gao Su - - 2011
Brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1c) is implicated in CNS control of food intake. In this article, we explore the role of hypothalamic CPT-1c in leptin's anorexigenic actions. We first show that adenoviral overexpression of CPT-1c in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of rats increases food intake and concomitantly up-regulates orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) ...
Gewurtz Sarah B - - 2011
A nationwide study was conducted to examine concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in top predatory fish, with a focus on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), across Canada, and to explore possible influences of food web processes. Concentrations of the three most abundant PBDE homolog groups (tetra-, penta-, and hexa-PBDEs) were, ...
Frank Sabine S MEG Center, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. - - 2011
Mutations that lead to congenital leptin deficiency cause severe obesity, hyperphagia, and impaired satiety due to malfunctions of peripheral and brain-related mechanisms. In a leptin-deficient adolescent girl, we investigated brain-related changes before and at two time points after leptin therapy (3 d and 6 months). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was ...
Yokobori Eri - - 2011
Orexin is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation of mammals. However, except for the case of goldfish, the involvement of orexin in the feeding behavior of teleost fish has not well been studied. Therefore, we investigated the role of orexin on food intake using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) ...
Stengel A A CURE/Digestive Diseases Research Center, Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Medicine, Digestive Diseases Division at the University of California Los Angeles, and VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, - - 2011
  Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst(1-5) ) with the stable pan-sst(1-5) somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine and adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst ...
Huybrechts I - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers.Subjects/Methods:Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% ...
Klingerman Candice M CM Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, - - 2011
Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated ...
Escobar Carolina - - 2011
Food is a potent time signal for the circadian system and has shown to entrain and override temporal signals transmitted by the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which adjusts mainly to the daily light/dark (LD) alternation. Organisms mostly ingest food in their active period and this permits a correct coordination ...
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