Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 2293
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Gewurtz Sarah B - - 2011
A nationwide study was conducted to examine concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in top predatory fish, with a focus on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), across Canada, and to explore possible influences of food web processes. Concentrations of the three most abundant PBDE homolog groups (tetra-, penta-, and hexa-PBDEs) were, ...
Frank Sabine S MEG Center, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. - - 2011
Mutations that lead to congenital leptin deficiency cause severe obesity, hyperphagia, and impaired satiety due to malfunctions of peripheral and brain-related mechanisms. In a leptin-deficient adolescent girl, we investigated brain-related changes before and at two time points after leptin therapy (3 d and 6 months). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was ...
Yokobori Eri - - 2011
Orexin is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation of mammals. However, except for the case of goldfish, the involvement of orexin in the feeding behavior of teleost fish has not well been studied. Therefore, we investigated the role of orexin on food intake using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) ...
Stengel A - - 2011
  Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst(1-5) ) with the stable pan-sst(1-5) somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine and adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst ...
Huybrechts I - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intake, and its associated sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle factors among preschoolers.Subjects/Methods:Three-day estimated diet records from 696 Flemish preschoolers 2.5-6.5 years old (51% ...
Klingerman Candice M CM Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, - - 2011
Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated ...
Escobar Carolina - - 2011
Food is a potent time signal for the circadian system and has shown to entrain and override temporal signals transmitted by the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which adjusts mainly to the daily light/dark (LD) alternation. Organisms mostly ingest food in their active period and this permits a correct coordination ...
Magalhães Bruno - - 2011
Dietary pattern analysis is a powerful technique to study the relationships between diet and cancer, accounting for the specificities of overall dietary intake in each setting. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between dietary patterns and colon and rectum cancers. We evaluated 151 rectum and 102 ...
Ritchie Lorrene D - - 2011
To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index > 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention intervention. Dietary intakes were collected by ...
Lynam Ann-Marie - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate Irish consumers' use and understanding of and their belief in nutrition and health (NH) claims in the context of the European Union (EU) legislation (Regulation no. 1924/2006), which permits a number of NH claims on food products. DESIGN: An interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to consumers (n 400). ...
Hickson Demarc A - - 2011
We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ...
Jaceldo-Siegl Karen - - 2011
To assess race-specific validity of food and food group intakes measured using an FFQ. Calibration study participants were randomly selected from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort by church, and then by subject-within-church. Intakes of forty-seven foods and food groups were assessed using an FFQ and then compared with intake ...
Schwartz Gary J - - 2011
Infusions of lipids into the small intestine potently suppress ongoing feeding. Prior work has identified potential roles for gut extrinsic vagal and non-vagal sensory innervation in mediating the ability of gut lipid infusions to reduce food intake, but the local biochemical processes underlying gut lipid sensing at the level of ...
Thompson Janice L JL Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS81TZ, UK. - - 2011
To investigate the food shopping habits of older adults in the UK and explore their potential associations with selected health-related indicators. A cross-sectional study including objectively measured physical activity levels, BMI, physical function and self-reported health status and dietary intake. Bristol, UK. A total of 240 older adults aged ≥70 ...
Yang Hui-Di HD State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, - - 2011
Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) display food hoarding and thus provide an opportunity to study the neuromechanisms underlying this behavior. In the present study, male gerbils exhibited a bimodal expression of food hoarding behavior-some displayed high levels of food hoarding whereas others virtually lacked this behavior under normal laboratory conditions with ...
Schwartz Camille - - 2011
Introduction of solid foods is a major step the establishment of eating behavior and is likely to affect children's health. However, the role of taste in acceptance of new foods, in particular in the first months of complementary feeding, is not fully understood and was the aim of the present ...
Seiluri Tina - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits ...
Verly Junior Eliseu - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among adolescents and the association between socio-economic variables and nutritional status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a population-based sample.SettingsThe usual nutrient intake distribution was estimated using the Iowa State University method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-off point method was used to determine ...
Sausenthaler Stefanie - - 2011
Recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition published new guidelines on early nutrition and allergy prevention in infants and children. This article reviews epidemiologic evidence from 2 prospective German birth cohort studies, the GINIplus and the LISAplus, regarding maternal diet during ...
Legler Juliette - - 2011
The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of ...
Epstein Leonard H - - 2011
Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRV(food)) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. How RRV(food) is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; ...
Nimptsch Katharina - - 2011
Dietary glycemic index and load are widely used to estimate the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on postprandial blood glucose concentrations and as surrogates for insulin response. The food insulin index (II) directly quantifies the postprandial insulin secretion of a food and takes into account foods with a low or no ...
West Christina E - - 2011
Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease propensity. Diet is a major environmental exposure, and dietary factors, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, folate, and other vitamins, have effects on immune function. Some also have been implicated in ...
Gould Lisa - - 2011
Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females ...
Ackermann Yvonne - - 2011
This study investigated the production of polyclonal (pAB) antibodies and the first time production of monoclonal (mAB) antibodies against the mycotoxin alternariol, and their implementation in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the rapid determination of alternariol in foods. Both EIAs were highly sensitive, with detection limits (IC20) of 35 ± 6.9 ...
Troisi Jordan D - - 2011
Theories of social surrogacy and embodied cognition assume that cognitive associations with nonhuman stimuli can be affectively charged. In the current research, we examined whether the "comfort" of comfort foods comes from affective associations with relationships. Two experiments support the hypotheses that comfort foods are associated with relationships and alleviate ...
Pinsky Malin L - - 2011
Understanding which species are most vulnerable to human impacts is a prerequisite for designing effective conservation strategies. Surveys of terrestrial species have suggested that large-bodied species and top predators are the most at risk, and it is commonly assumed that such patterns also apply in the ocean. However, there has ...
Vossenaar Marieke - - 2011
To assess the nutritional content and contribution to recommended nutrient intakes of the menu offerings in diverse daycare centers serving low-income urban families in Guatemala City. An observational study design was used to record all food and drink items offered to children attending four daycare centers on 5 different days ...
Hardcastle Antonia C - - 2011
Flavonoids are bioactive polyphenols found particularly in fruit and vegetables, but little is known about their role in bone health in humans. The aim of this observational study was to investigate whether dietary flavonoid intake was associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone resorption in a large group of ...
Yilmaz Aysun - - 2011
Investigation of norovirus (NoV) contamination of food items is important because many outbreaks occur after consumption of contaminated shellfish, vegetables, fruits, and water. The frequency of NoV contamination in food items has not previously been investigated in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of human ...
Matthiessen Timothy B - - 2011
Current methods to assess the dietary behavior of youth have many limitations that reduce accuracy. Previous research has examined use of food images to assess nutrient intake. The objectives for this study are to validate the use of a novel digital image-based food record (DIFR) method to assess food group ...
- - 2011
The Dietary Reference Intakes, a set of nutrient reference standards developed for the United States and Canada by the Institute of Medicine, provide tools for dietary assessment and planning for individuals and groups. Because a distribution of requirements is provided for most nutrients, it is possible to estimate a probability ...
Carr Katelyn A - - 2011
Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, ...
Sun Yue-E - - 2011
Unsaturated lipids having various physiological roles are of significance in biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, and food. However, the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The reaction mechanism and factors that influence oxidation are appreciably different for emulsified lipids and bulk lipids. This ...
Chaufan Claudia - - 2011
In the United States, low-income immigrant groups experience greater health disparities and worse health-related outcomes than Whites, including but not limited to higher rates of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The prevention and adequate management of T2DM are, to a great extent, contingent on access to healthy food environments. This exploratory ...
Cabalda Aegina B - - 2011
Dietary diversification through home gardening is a sustainable strategy that can address multiple micronutrient deficiencies. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between home gardening and the dietary diversity of preschool-aged children. Households with children aged 2 to 5 years (n=200) were surveyed from Baras and Angono in the ...
Spolidoro Maria - - 2011
Neural circuits display a heightened sensitivity to external stimuli during well-established windows in early postnatal life. After the end of these critical periods, brain plasticity dramatically wanes. The visual system is one of the paradigmatic models for studying experience-dependent plasticity. Here we show that food restriction can be used as ...
Monsivais Pablo - - 2011
The US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) serves 2.3 million children by providing monetary subsidies for food to participating child-care providers. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that higher reimbursement rates for food result in higher food expenditures and higher nutritional quality of foods served ...
Grandjean Philippe - - 2011
Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after the age of 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects from a fishing population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the ...
Ott Volker - - 2011
The anticipation of food intake comprises endocrine changes that according to animal experiments include a rise in HPA axis activity. In humans, HPA axis responses to food anticipation and withdrawal, although of clinical relevance, have not been thoroughly examined. We assessed neuroendocrine and psychological effects of food anticipation and of ...
Ding Ding - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) reliability of new food environment measures; (2) association between home food environment and fruit and vegetable (FV) intake; and (3) association between community and home food environment. METHODS: In 2005, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with readministration to assess test-retest reliability. Adolescents, parents of adolescents, and ...
Lock Robert J - - 2011
Adverse reactions to foods may arise by a variety of mechanisms, both immune (IgE and non-IgE) and non-immune mediated. This article considers those assays useful in the diagnosis of Type 1 hypersensitivity to foods (IgE-based) and, importantly, discusses those assays where evidence is lacking for their use. In all cases ...
Almli Valérie Lengard - - 2011
This study explores consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese in France (n=120) and Norway (n=119). The respondents were presented with 16 photographs of a traditional cheese from their respective countries, varying according to six factors: pasteurisation, organic production, omega-3, packaging, price and appropriateness. For each of the scenarios the ...
Galvão Ananda C S - - 2011
Several studies have implicated dopamine (DA) in appetite regulation. The enzymes catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) control DA availability and their genes have well-characterized functional variants. In this study, we examined three polymorphisms in these genes, T941G and MAOAu-VNTR in the MAOA gene and Val158Met in the COMT ...
do Carmo Carvalho Dayene - - 2011
Differentiation between organic and conventional coffee has increased due to the growing demand and high consumption of healthy foods that contain compounds with antioxidant potential, which have been associated with the reduction of chronic diseases. We used organic and conventional coffee in powder 4% (w/w) and infusions 5%, 10% and ...
Phillips Linda - - 2011
Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the ...
Armstrong Cory L - - 2011
Magazines serve as an important source for health-related news, and this study examines the kinds of obesity-related messages that appear in magazines targeting parents and women. Coders examined 306 stories between 2002 and 2008 and found that messages focused on food more frequently than exercise or dieting. Women were more ...
Sun Wan-Cheng - - 2011
63 samples of yak milk were analyzed by the method of ICP-AES of metal elements for aluminum, cadmium, silver and chromium which can reveal the exposed level around yak farm. The metal elements of yak milk were compared to reference data for cow milk, sheep milk, buffalo milk and goat ...
Shen Ling - - 2011
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a satiation factor. While central apoE administration reduces food intake, the specific intracellular signaling mechanisms activated by apoE remain largely unknown. Using primary cultured hypothalamic neurons, we demonstrated that apoE treatment (50 nM) elicited rapid activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade. Specifically, apoE induced the ...
Serafini M - - 2011
A large body of evidence has described the antioxidant properties of phytochemicals such as PolyPhenols (PP) in different in vitro and ex vivo models. PP have been shown to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen derived free radicals, modulating antioxidant enzymes and cellular redox transcription factors. Dietary intervention studies have shown that ...
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