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Results 451 - 500 of 2436
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Umoren Elizabeth Bassey - - 2012
Abstract Background: Nevirapine (NVP) is an antiretroviral medication that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in the blood. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of chronic administration of NVP on body weight, food, and water intake using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty adult albino ...
Takabe Yugo - - 2012
Field surveys on persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation were conducted with oysters, clams and scallops whose consumption amount accounted for large shares in the total consumption of shellfish in Japan. There was no numerical difference in bioaccumulation characteristics between oysters, clams, scallops, Corbicula and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Therefore, it was clear ...
Stender Steen - - 2012
To minimise the intake of industrial trans fatty acids (I-TFA) some countries have introduced labelling, while others have introduced legislative limits on the content of I-TFA in food. However, most countries still rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TFA content in food. The objective of the present study ...
Rojanasthien Noppamas - - 2012
This study was aimed to investigate bioequivalence of modified-release 30 mg gliclazide tablets in 18 healthy Thai volunteers. A test product, Glycon MR (Siam Bheasach, TH), was compared with a reference product, Diamicron MR (Servier, France). The study was performed under a single-dose, two-treatment, two-period, and two-sequence crossover design in fasted ...
Mushtaq Muhammad - - 2012
A total of 125 (ready to eat) processed food samples (70 intended for infant and 55 for adult intake) belonging to 20 different food categories were analyzed for aflatoxins contamination using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescent detection. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water was used for the ...
Nguyen Von - - 2012
Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterbalanced ...
Huybregts Lieven - - 2012
Recently, operational organizations active in child nutrition in developing countries have suggested that blanket feeding strategies be adopted to enable the prevention of child wasting. A new range of nutritional supplements is now available, with claims that they can prevent wasting in populations at risk of periodic food shortages. Evidence ...
Molinu M G - - 2012
In the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. Several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. Among them potassium sorbate (KS) has been generally recognized as safe ...
Della-Zuana Odile - - 2012
The compound S38151 is a nanomolar antagonist that acts at the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH(1)). S38151 is more stable than its purely peptide counterpart, essentially because of the blockade of its N-terminus. Therefore, its action on various models of obesity was studied. Acute intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of S38151 in ...
Siep Nicolette - - 2011
The premise of cognitive therapy is that one can overcome the irresistible temptation of highly palatable foods by actively restructuring the way one thinks about food. Testing this idea, participants in the present study were instructed to passively view foods, up-regulate food palatability thoughts, apply cognitive reappraisal (e.g., thinking about ...
Kanoski Scott E SE Department of Psychology, School of Art and Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2012
The FDA-approved glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exendin-4 and liraglutide reduce food intake and body weight. Nausea is the most common adverse side effect reported with these GLP-1R agonists. Whether food intake suppression by exendin-4 and liraglutide occurs independently of nausea is unknown. Further, the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating the nausea associated ...
Poulin Anne-Marie - - 2011
Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is an anorexigenic neuropeptide with high affinity for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF(2)-R). How the expression of hypothalamic Ucn3 is regulated by fasting and refeeding in genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats is not known. Obese Zucker rats develop early hyperphagia associated with low expression of ...
Oltmanns Kerstin M KM Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck, Germany. - - 2012
Sibutramine, a centrally-acting selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor, has been used as an appetite suppressant drug in obesity. To gain insight into the central nervous actions of sibutramine, brain responses to pictures of food items after sibutramine vs placebo application were assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese women. ...
Covazzi Harriague Anabella - - 2011
Two samplings were carried out in a tourist harbour, during low and high touristic activity periods, to study the macro- and meiofaunal communities in relation to the environmental features. A multivariate analysis showed close relationships: the maritime traffic disturbance and the food quality and availability drive the spatial differences of ...
Ohno Akinori - - 2011
Decreased dopamine (DA) release in the hippocampus may be caused by dysfunctional mastication, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of soft- and hard-food diets on oxidative stress in the brain, and the relationship between these effects and hippocampal DA levels. The present study showed ...
Hui Limei - - 2011
Tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) refers to a large and structurally diverse family of neuropeptides found in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. These peptides have various important physiological functions, from regulating stress in mammals to exciting the pyloric (food filtering) rhythm in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans. Here, a ...
Boyes William K - - 2011
The expanding development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have diverse and far-reaching potential benefits in consumer products, food, drugs, medical devices and for enhancing environmental cleanup and remediation. The knowledge of potential implications of ENMs, including the potential for inadvertent exposures and adverse neurotoxic consequences, is lagging behind their ...
Todd Travis P - - 2012
Obesity and overeating have become fundamental problems in modern society. This article studies the inhibition of food-seeking behavior, and how contextual cues can control it. Rats that had free food in the home cage nevertheless learned to lever press for sucrose or high-fat pellets in a distinctive context (a Skinner ...
Xue Feng - - 2011
The mixture of carotenoids extracted from citrus peel (Nanfengmiju, Citrus reticulata Blanco) was tested for subacute oral toxicity. In this study, dose levels of 0, 200, 500 and 2000mg/kg body weight/day were administered by gavage to 10 Wistar rats/sex/group for 28days. No statistically significant, dose-related effect on food consumption, food ...
Libert Sergiy S Paul F. Glenn Laboratory, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2011
SIRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that governs a number of genetic programs to cope with changes in the nutritional status of cells and organisms. Behavioral responses to food abundance are important for the survival of higher animals. Here we used mice with increased or decreased brain SIRT1 to show that ...
Wolkin Amy - - 2011
Mercury is a ubiquitous, persistent toxicant found in the environment. In water, mercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and leads to high concentrations in fish. Consumption of contaminated fish is the major source of exposure to mercury in the US. The objective of this study was to enroll persons living ...
Higuchi Takashi - - 2011
Leptin has been thought to work as a mediator for body weight control by inhibiting food intake. Leptin, however, cannot prevent obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) probably because of leptin resistance. We investigated daily feeding and weight gain when ordinary chow (OC) was changed to a HFD in ...
Ramirez Oscar - - 2011
The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao), pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa ...
Medina F Xavier - - 2011
To define the Mediterranean diet model inside a Mediterranean social and cultural food framework and from the perspective of a local model of consumption. Reflexion and review of literature available in relation to the Mediterranean diet, locality and proximity. Mediterranean region and its populations. The Mediterranean local food system under ...
Maejima Yuko - - 2011
Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in ...
Park Ju-Sung JS a Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment , Seoul 427-070 , Republic of - - 2011
In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned ...
Alhadeff Amber L - - 2012
Central glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor activation reduces food intake; however, brain nuclei and mechanism(s) mediating this effect remain poorly understood. Although central nervous system GLP-1 is produced almost exclusively in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the hindbrain, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed throughout the brain, including nuclei in the ...
Avena Nicole M NM University of Florida, College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. - - 2012
Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie ...
Mogami Sachiko - - 2012
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most susceptible organs to ischemia. We previously reported altered gastric motility after gastric ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). However, there have also been few reports of alterations in the eating behavior after gastric I/R. Ghrelin is a GI peptide that stimulates food intake ...
Blessing William - - 2011
Laboratory rats, throughout the 24hour day, alternate between behaviorally active and non active episodes that Kleitman called the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC). We previously demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures and arterial pressure and heart rate increase in an integrated manner during behaviorally active phases. Studies ...
Conde-Sieira Marta - - 2011
Stress conditions induced in rainbow trout a readjustment in the glucosensing response of the hypothalamus and hindbrain such that those sensors did not respond properly to changes in glucose levels, as demonstrated in previous studies. To evaluate the hypothesis that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) could be involved in that response, we ...
Florant Gregory L - - 2011
One of the most profound hallmarks of mammalian hibernation is the dramatic reduction in food intake during the winter months. Several species of hibernator completely cease food intake (aphagia) for nearly 7 months regardless of ambient temperature and in many cases, whether or not food is available to them. Food intake ...
Bertin Aline - - 2011
Like mammals, bird embryos are capable of chemosensory learning, but the ontogeny of their feeding preferences has not been examined. We tested if the timing of stimulation in chicken embryos modulates the impact of in ovo olfactory stimulation on later food preferences. We exposed chicken embryos to an olfactory stimulus ...
Frankort A A Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. - - 2012
The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate reward-related brain activity in satiated overweight and healthy-weight participants in response to high-calorie palatable food pictures, when viewing the pictures without prior instructions (called unbiased viewing) versus imagining the taste of the shown pictures (called taste imagination). ...
Morozov Andrew - - 2011
In this paper, we revisit the stabilizing role that predator dispersal and aggregation have in the top-down regulation of predator-prey systems in a heterogeneous environment. We consider an environment consisting of sites interconnected by dispersal, and propose a novel mechanism of stabilization for the case with a non-sigmoid functional response ...
Muchlinski Magdalena N - - 2011
Fungiform papillae (FPs) are the only gustatory structures on the anterior tongue. Taste buds (TBs), which are located in FPs, house taste receptors. Each TB has a taste pore (TP) by which tastants are transmitted. In humans, FP and TB densities correlate with taste sensitivity and food preferences. Females have ...
Verhagen Linda A W - - 2011
Rats exposed to timed restricted meals develop anticipation of food. They increase their activity levels in the hours preceding food access; this has been described as food-anticipatory activity (FAA). In the present study, we show the involvement of regions of the hypothalamus [arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and lateral hypothalamus] ...
Clapham John C - - 2011
In mammals and birds, conservation of body heat at around 37 °C is vital to life. Thermogenesis is the production of this heat which can be obligatory, as in basal metabolic rate, or it can be facultative such as the response to cold. A complex regulatory system has evolved which senses ...
Dimitropoulos Anastasia A Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 11220 Bellflower Road, Mather Memorial Rm. 109, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2012
The goal of this research is to identify the neural response to rewarding food cues before and after eating in overweight/obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) adults. Based on the previous literature, we expected greater differential activation to food cues vs. objects for OB compared to NW participants both prior to ...
Zhang Jingchuan J Programs in Neuroscience and Dept. of Veterinary and Comparative Anatomy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-6520, - - 2012
Previous reports suggest that glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), a peptide secreted from the distal small intestine, is an endocrine satiation signal. Nevertheless, there are conflicting reports regarding the site where circulating GLP-1 acts to reduce food intake. To test the hypothesis that vagal afferents are necessary for reduction of food intake ...
Holsen L M LM Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
The majority of research on obesity (OB) has focused primarily on clinical features (eating behavior, adiposity measures) or peripheral appetite-regulatory peptides (leptin, ghrelin). However, recent functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that some reward circuitry regions that are associated with appetite-regulatory hormones are also involved in the development and maintenance of ...
Rosol Renata - - 2011
Objectives. Assess the prevalence of food insecurity by region among Inuit households in the Canadian Arctic. Study design. A community-participatory, cross-sectional Inuit health survey conducted through face-to-face interviews. Methods. A quantitative household food security questionnaire was conducted with a random sample of 2,595 self-identified Inuit adults aged 18 years and ...
Gaultier A A INRA, UMR1079 SENAH, 35590 Saint-Gilles, - - 2011
We describe the behavioural consequences of conditioned flavour aversion and preference in pigs and have investigated the brain circuits involved in the representation of flavours with different hedonic values. The study was performed on eight 30-kg pigs. (i) Animals were negatively conditioned to an F- flavour added to a meal ...
Tomycz Nestor D - - 2011
Obesity is perhaps an evolutionary consequence of a species reared with intermittent caloric reward. Humans are hardwired to enjoy food, and our bodies voraciously extract and store energy from food as if each meal was the last. As an amalgam of behavioral and metabolic disturbance, obesity is an attractive target ...
De Silva Akila A Section of Investigative Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Imperial College London, London, - - 2011
Obesity is a major public health issue worldwide. Understanding how the brain controls appetite offers promising inroads toward new therapies for obesity. Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are coreleased postprandially and reduce appetite and inhibit food intake when administered to humans. However, the effects of GLP-1 and ...
Levy Dino J DJ Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. - - 2011
The ability of human subjects to choose between disparate kinds of rewards suggests that the neural circuits for valuing different reward types must converge. Economic theory suggests that these convergence points represent the subjective values (SVs) of different reward types on a common scale for comparison. To examine these hypotheses ...
Dossat Amanda M AM Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4301, - - 2011
Central glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulation suppresses food intake, and hindbrain GLP-1 neurons project to numerous feeding-relevant brain regions. One such region is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which plays a role in reward and motivated behavior. Using immunohistochemical and retrograde tracing techniques in rats, we identified a robust projection ...
Bello Nicholas T NT Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. - - 2012
Endogenous cannabinoid signaling, mediated predominately by CB1 receptor activation, is involved in food intake control and body weight regulation. Despite advances in determining the role of the CB1 receptor in obesity, its involvement in the driven nature of eating pathologies has received little attention. The present study examined CB1 receptor ...
Kyrø Cecilie - - 2011
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to describe the intake of whole grain (WG) in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and to investigate what proportion of the study population that met the new WG recommendation (75 g WG/day per 10 MJ). METHODS: Descriptive study. Data is from one 24h ...
Biasi Elisabetta - - 2011
Food intake can influence neuronal functions through different modulators expressed in the brain. The present review is a report through relevant experimental findings on the effects of choline, a nutritional component found in the diet, to identify a safe and effective dietary solution that can offer some protection against neurotoxicity ...
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