Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1002
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Kawai Yukinori - - 2010
The correlation analysis between food effects on oral drug absorption (food effect) and physicochemical properties is important for efficient drug discovery such as the contribution to drug design. This study focused on micelle binding and solubilization considering bile micelle in the intestinal fluid. The profiling using about 40 launched drugs ...
Yadav Vijay K - - 2011
Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease ...
Seppälä Otto - - 2011
Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design ...
Houben Katrijn - - 2010
When inhibitory control is lacking, people are more prone to indulge in high calorie food. This research examined whether training to inhibit food-related responses renders one less susceptible to temptations of high calorie food. Trait chocolate lovers were divided into three conditions: participants either consistently inhibited responding to chocolate stimuli ...
Huang Meigui - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products ...
Huang Meigui - - 2011
Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products was ...
Alegado Rosanna A - - 2011
Bacteria are the primary food source of choanoflagellates, the closest known relatives of animals. Studying signaling interactions between the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes bacterium Algoriphagus sp. PR1 and its predator, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, provides a promising avenue for testing hypotheses regarding the involvement of bacteria in animal evolution. Here we announce ...
Méndez-Díaz Mónica - - 2012
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are mediators of the homeostatic and hedonic systems that modulate food ingestion. Hence, eCBs, by regulating the hedonic system, may be modulating the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion (positive: pleasant or negative: unpleasant). Our first goal was to demonstrate that palatable food induces conditioned place ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2010
Furan is a possible human carcinogen regularly occurring in commercially jarred complementary foods. This paper will provide a detailed exposure assessment for babies consuming these foods considering different intake scenarios. The occurrence data on furan in complementary foods were based on our own headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analytical results (n = 286). ...
Lagerqvist Anne - - 2010
Chinese hamster V79 cells were used to investigate the protective effect of four known antimutagens present in food, chlorophyllin (CHL), ellagic acid (EA), epigallocathechingallate (EGCG) and benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), against potent mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides (PAH-DE) derived from benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), and benzo[c]phenanthrene (BPh) known to ...
Li Dujuan - - 2011
A label-free capacitive immunosensor based on quartz crystal Au electrode was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing affinity-purified anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of a quartz crystal Au electrode. Bacteria ...
Murphy Helen M - - 2011
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators constitute the majority of clinically relevant sedative-hypnotics. Zolpidem (Ambien) is a nonbenzodiazepine GABA-A receptor modulator that binds with high affinity to GABA-A receptors expressing alpha-1 subunits. The present study examined the effects of a new approach to the oral administration of zolpidem on locomotor ...
Frenzel Elrike - - 2011
Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, ...
van der Veen Stijn - - 2010
The SOS response is a conserved inducible pathway in bacteria that is involved in DNA repair and restart of stalled replication forks. Activation of the SOS response can result in stress resistance and mutagenesis. In food processing facilities and during food preservation, bacteria are exposed to stresses and stimuli that ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2011
The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early ...
York D A - - 2011
Melanocortins have been reported to affect alcohol intake through actions in the hypothalamus thought to be mediated by melanocortin MC4 receptors. Since these receptors are expressed in a number of amygdala regions, we have explored their role in the regulation of alcohol intake in both alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) ...
Martín-García Elena - - 2010
RATIONALE: A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking behavior when maintaining diet. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the reinstatement of extinguished palatable food-seeking behavior induced by cues previously associated with the palatable food, re-exposure to this food, or stress. The participation of ...
Awney Hala - - 2010
The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2010
1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds ...
Disse E E Laboratory of Metabolism, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. - - 2011
Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. Recent data suggested that ghrelin is involved in reward-mediated processes such as the rewarding value of food. Whereas the neuronal pathways by which ghrelin regulates energy balance are well described, those involved in ghrelin-induced reward are still confusing. Therefore, ...
Irkin Reyhan - - 2010
Abstract We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method ...
Newmyer Brandon A - - 2010
Neuropeptide AF (NPAF), a member of the RFamide family, was centrally administered to rats to determine its effect on food intake. Rats responded with a linear dose-dependent reduction in cumulative food intake up to 3h post injection, but when analyzed on a noncumulative basis, food intake was only significantly reduced ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, USA. - - 2011
Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores ...
Morewedge Carey K - - 2010
The consumption of a food typically leads to a decrease in its subsequent intake through habituation--a decrease in one's responsiveness to the food and motivation to obtain it. We demonstrated that habituation to a food item can occur even when its consumption is merely imagined. Five experiments showed that people ...
Hess Jennifer R - - 2011
In view of a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, the present study examined the appetite effects of a functional fiber as a potential dietary intervention. Fiber may increase satiety. Satiety effects also may be linked to colonic fermentation. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) are fermentable fibers that can be added ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates and two species of fish (brook trout and blacknose dace) were collected from 49 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to determine whether concentrations of selenium (Se) in the biota were affected by a point source (a coal-fired power plant), and stream water chemistry (pH, sulphate, conductivity, ...
Lucas Lisa - - 2011
Excessive sodium (Na) intake has been linked to development of hypertension and related pathologies. In this study, we assessed if the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in a prototypical food influences the liking and intake of that food. In study 1, detection and recognition thresholds for NaCl were assessed, and perceived ...
Piau C - - 2010
PAS100 accredited compost derived from green and food waste sources was used to remediate groundwater containing Cr(VI) at a historically contaminated site in Falkirk, Scotland, UK. The compost was mixed with gravel at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) to provide a reactive bedding material in an upflow column. The Cr(VI) ...
Van der Saag Matthew - - 2010
Tritrichomonas foetus has recently been recognised as the cause of large bowel diarrhoea in cats (feline trichomoniasis), for which the epidemiology is largely unknown. We tested whether garden slugs common in Sydney, Australia can pass viable T. foetus in their faeces after oral intake. First, Leopard slugs (Limax maximus) were ...
Bouton Mark E - - 2011
The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and ...
Hernández-Ledesma Blanca - - 2010
Bioactive food peptides are encrypted within the sequence of food proteins but can be released during food processing (by enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation) or during gastrointestinal transit. Among bioactive food peptides, those with antihypertensive activity are receiving special attention due to the high prevalence of hypertension in the Western countries ...
Meléndez-Martínez A J AJ Food Colour & Quality Lab., Dept. of Nutrition & Food Science, Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Farmacia, 41012 Sevilla, - - 2011
We have devised a more sensible approach to estimate the carotenoid content of orange juices, which can be regarded as a model system of food with intricate carotenoid pattern. For this purpose spectroscopic information at several wavelengths and spectra of the juices and not from their carotenoid extracts were considered, ...
Al-Zeyara Shaikha A - - 2010
The aims of this study were to (i) compare the inhibitory effects of the natural microflora of different foods on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in selective and non-selective broths; (ii) to isolate and identify components of the microflora of the most inhibitory food; and (iii) to determine ...
Ruiz-Gomez Maria de Lourdes Mde - - 2011
An extensive literature has documented differences in the way individual animals cope with environmental challenges and stressors. Two broad patterns of individual variability in behavioural and physiological stress responses are described as the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In addition to variability in the stress response, contrasting coping styles ...
Herman Eliot M - - 2011
Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could ...
Wright Geraldine A - - 2010
Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food ...
Luedtke Sarah - - 2010
This review considers the factors involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism in response to food deprivation using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Some of the sensory neurons and interneurons involved in food intake are described, together with an overview of pharyngeal pumping. A number of chemical transmitters ...
Kimura Koutarou D - - 2010
The enhancement of sensory responses after prior exposure to a stimulus is a fundamental mechanism of neural function in animals. Its molecular basis, however, has not been studied in as much depth as the reduction of sensory responses, such as adaptation or habituation. We report here that the avoidance behavior ...
Leidy Heather J - - 2011
Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes ...
Wallace Bruce A - - 2010
Several studies have shown that Reticulitermes termites prefer food with certain types of sugars. However, the specific sugars that were preferred by the termites in each study differed. The difference between the results of these studies might be explained by differences between populations or changes in feeding responses during the ...
Hebden Lana - - 2010
despite the evidence showing the negative influences of food marketing on children's dietary beliefs and behaviours, and risk of adiposity, regulatory action to limit unhealthy food marketing has made little progress within Australia. Our aim was to describe and critically examine the Australian Food and Grocery Council's (AFGC) approach to ...
Pali-Schöll I - - 2011
An important feature for oral allergens is their digestion-resistance during gastrointestinal transit. For some oral allergens, digestion stability is an innate feature, whereas digestion-labile antigens may only persist in times of impairment of the digestive system. In this review, we collect evidence from mouse and human studies that besides the ...
Wimbiscus Molly - - 2010
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were the first antidepressants introduced, but their use has dwindled because of their reported side effects, their food and drug interactions, and the introduction of other classes of agents. However, interest in MAO inhibitors is reviving. Here, we discuss their use, risks, and benefits in clinical ...
Kaskous Shehadeh - - 2011
Experiments were designed to investigate the suitability of a combination of a short manual teat stimulation with a short latency period before teat cup attachment to induce and maintain oxytocin release and milk ejection without interruption. In Experiment 1, seven dairy cows in mid lactation were manually pre-stimulated for 15, ...
Madin Elizabeth M P - - 2010
The indirect, ecosystem-level consequences of ocean fishing, and particularly the mechanisms driving them, are poorly understood. Most studies focus on density-mediated trophic cascades, where removal of predators alternately causes increases and decreases in abundances of lower trophic levels. However, cascades could also be driven by where and when prey forage ...
Shiba Kanako - - 2010
The hypothalamic neuropeptides modulate physiological activity via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide that was originally isolated from porcine hypothalamus using a binding assay for galanin receptors, which belong to the GPCR family. GALP is mainly produced in neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate ...
Vissers Margreet Cm - - 2011
Humans acquire vitamin C (ascorbate) from their diet, and optimal tissue concentrations are required to maintain its enzyme cofactor and antioxidant activities. How dietary intake affects tissue concentrations is difficult to monitor and has generally been based on the measurement of plasma concentrations. We aimed to determine the effect of ...
Young Jette F - - 2010
The lead article ''Resveratrol commonly displays hormesis: occurrence and biomedical significance'' underlines the hormetic response of resveratrol in many disease models. This commentary suggests that the greatest potential advantage of the positive effects of resveratrol for the broad population would be as prevention of disease development through oral administration in ...
Khan Shafiqul Islam - - 2010
Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in ...
Srivastava K - - 2011
Therapies for peanut allergy (PNA) are urgently needed. Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has profound therapeutic effects in a murine PNA model and is safe for food-allergic adults in clinical trials. However, the large FAHF-2 pill-load is not conducive to clinical studies in children. Thus, refining FAHF-2 to decrease pill-load ...
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