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Results 351 - 400 of 980
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Newmyer Brandon A - - 2010
Neuropeptide AF (NPAF), a member of the RFamide family, was centrally administered to rats to determine its effect on food intake. Rats responded with a linear dose-dependent reduction in cumulative food intake up to 3h post injection, but when analyzed on a noncumulative basis, food intake was only significantly reduced ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, USA. - - 2011
Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores ...
Morewedge Carey K - - 2010
The consumption of a food typically leads to a decrease in its subsequent intake through habituation--a decrease in one's responsiveness to the food and motivation to obtain it. We demonstrated that habituation to a food item can occur even when its consumption is merely imagined. Five experiments showed that people ...
Hess Jennifer R - - 2011
In view of a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, the present study examined the appetite effects of a functional fiber as a potential dietary intervention. Fiber may increase satiety. Satiety effects also may be linked to colonic fermentation. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) are fermentable fibers that can be added ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates and two species of fish (brook trout and blacknose dace) were collected from 49 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to determine whether concentrations of selenium (Se) in the biota were affected by a point source (a coal-fired power plant), and stream water chemistry (pH, sulphate, conductivity, ...
Lucas Lisa - - 2011
Excessive sodium (Na) intake has been linked to development of hypertension and related pathologies. In this study, we assessed if the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in a prototypical food influences the liking and intake of that food. In study 1, detection and recognition thresholds for NaCl were assessed, and perceived ...
Piau C - - 2010
PAS100 accredited compost derived from green and food waste sources was used to remediate groundwater containing Cr(VI) at a historically contaminated site in Falkirk, Scotland, UK. The compost was mixed with gravel at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) to provide a reactive bedding material in an upflow column. The Cr(VI) ...
Van der Saag Matthew - - 2010
Tritrichomonas foetus has recently been recognised as the cause of large bowel diarrhoea in cats (feline trichomoniasis), for which the epidemiology is largely unknown. We tested whether garden slugs common in Sydney, Australia can pass viable T. foetus in their faeces after oral intake. First, Leopard slugs (Limax maximus) were ...
Bouton Mark E - - 2011
The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and ...
Hernández-Ledesma Blanca - - 2010
Bioactive food peptides are encrypted within the sequence of food proteins but can be released during food processing (by enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation) or during gastrointestinal transit. Among bioactive food peptides, those with antihypertensive activity are receiving special attention due to the high prevalence of hypertension in the Western countries ...
Al-Zeyara Shaikha A - - 2010
The aims of this study were to (i) compare the inhibitory effects of the natural microflora of different foods on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in selective and non-selective broths; (ii) to isolate and identify components of the microflora of the most inhibitory food; and (iii) to determine ...
Ruiz-Gomez Maria de Lourdes Mde - - 2011
An extensive literature has documented differences in the way individual animals cope with environmental challenges and stressors. Two broad patterns of individual variability in behavioural and physiological stress responses are described as the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In addition to variability in the stress response, contrasting coping styles ...
Herman Eliot M - - 2011
Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could ...
Wright Geraldine A - - 2010
Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food ...
Luedtke Sarah - - 2010
This review considers the factors involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism in response to food deprivation using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Some of the sensory neurons and interneurons involved in food intake are described, together with an overview of pharyngeal pumping. A number of chemical transmitters ...
Kimura Koutarou D - - 2010
The enhancement of sensory responses after prior exposure to a stimulus is a fundamental mechanism of neural function in animals. Its molecular basis, however, has not been studied in as much depth as the reduction of sensory responses, such as adaptation or habituation. We report here that the avoidance behavior ...
Leidy Heather J - - 2011
Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes ...
Wallace Bruce A - - 2010
Several studies have shown that Reticulitermes termites prefer food with certain types of sugars. However, the specific sugars that were preferred by the termites in each study differed. The difference between the results of these studies might be explained by differences between populations or changes in feeding responses during the ...
Hebden Lana - - 2010
despite the evidence showing the negative influences of food marketing on children's dietary beliefs and behaviours, and risk of adiposity, regulatory action to limit unhealthy food marketing has made little progress within Australia. Our aim was to describe and critically examine the Australian Food and Grocery Council's (AFGC) approach to ...
Pali-Schöll I - - 2011
An important feature for oral allergens is their digestion-resistance during gastrointestinal transit. For some oral allergens, digestion stability is an innate feature, whereas digestion-labile antigens may only persist in times of impairment of the digestive system. In this review, we collect evidence from mouse and human studies that besides the ...
Wimbiscus Molly - - 2010
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were the first antidepressants introduced, but their use has dwindled because of their reported side effects, their food and drug interactions, and the introduction of other classes of agents. However, interest in MAO inhibitors is reviving. Here, we discuss their use, risks, and benefits in clinical ...
Kaskous Shehadeh - - 2011
Experiments were designed to investigate the suitability of a combination of a short manual teat stimulation with a short latency period before teat cup attachment to induce and maintain oxytocin release and milk ejection without interruption. In Experiment 1, seven dairy cows in mid lactation were manually pre-stimulated for 15, ...
Madin Elizabeth M P - - 2010
The indirect, ecosystem-level consequences of ocean fishing, and particularly the mechanisms driving them, are poorly understood. Most studies focus on density-mediated trophic cascades, where removal of predators alternately causes increases and decreases in abundances of lower trophic levels. However, cascades could also be driven by where and when prey forage ...
Shiba Kanako - - 2010
The hypothalamic neuropeptides modulate physiological activity via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide that was originally isolated from porcine hypothalamus using a binding assay for galanin receptors, which belong to the GPCR family. GALP is mainly produced in neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate ...
Vissers Margreet Cm - - 2011
Humans acquire vitamin C (ascorbate) from their diet, and optimal tissue concentrations are required to maintain its enzyme cofactor and antioxidant activities. How dietary intake affects tissue concentrations is difficult to monitor and has generally been based on the measurement of plasma concentrations. We aimed to determine the effect of ...
Young Jette F - - 2010
The lead article ''Resveratrol commonly displays hormesis: occurrence and biomedical significance'' underlines the hormetic response of resveratrol in many disease models. This commentary suggests that the greatest potential advantage of the positive effects of resveratrol for the broad population would be as prevention of disease development through oral administration in ...
Khan Shafiqul Islam - - 2010
Arsenic contamination of tubewell water is a major public-health problem in Bangladesh. In the recent years, the use of shallow and deep tubewell water for irrigation and the use of excess amount of cheap fertilizers and pesticides containing cadmium pose a serious threat of contamination of arsenic and cadmium in ...
Srivastava K - - 2011
Therapies for peanut allergy (PNA) are urgently needed. Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has profound therapeutic effects in a murine PNA model and is safe for food-allergic adults in clinical trials. However, the large FAHF-2 pill-load is not conducive to clinical studies in children. Thus, refining FAHF-2 to decrease pill-load ...
Pembrey Marcus E ME Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College, London, UK. - - 2010
Genomic imprinting establishes the principle of epigenetic marks placed in one generation influencing gene expression in the next generation. This led to speculation that epigenetic gametic inheritance might underlie a form of transgenerational adaptation to major environmental challenges, such that exposures in one generation correlate with outcomes in the next ...
Sicherer Scott H - - 2010
Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 25 school-aged children and is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in this age group. School food-allergy management requires strategies to reduce the risk of ingestion of the allergen as well as procedures to recognize and treat allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. ...
van der Laan L N - - 2011
Food selection is primarily guided by the visual system. Multiple functional neuro-imaging studies have examined the brain responses to visual food stimuli. However, the results of these studies are heterogeneous and there still is uncertainty about the core brain regions involved in the neural processing of viewing food pictures. The ...
Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2010
Why do chronic dieters often violate their dieting goals? One possibility is that they experience stronger hedonic responses to tempting food than normal eaters do. We scrutinized hedonic processing in dieters and normal eaters (a) by manipulating food preexposure and (b) by assessing both immediate and delayed hedonic responses to ...
Leston Sara - - 2011
The use of pharmaceuticals in the food production industry as prophylatic and therapeutic agents is necessary to promote animal health, but may entail significant consequences to natural ecosystems, especially in the cases of overdosing and use of banned pharmaceuticals. The vast effects that antibiotics released into the environment have on ...
Moran Timothy H TH Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2011
Signaling from energy stores provides feedback on overall nutrient availability to influence food intake. Beginning with seminal studies by Woods and colleagues identifying insulin as an adiposity signal, it has become clear that such factors affect food intake by modulating the efficacy of within meal feedback satiety signals. More recent ...
Yoshida Hideyo - - 2011
Glutathione is a valuable tri-peptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is produced industrially by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that expression of amylase genes in glutathione-producing S. cerevisiae enables direct use of starch as a carbon source, thus eliminating the Crabtree effect ...
Gupta Nitin N Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2011
Much human behavior is driven by urges. Yet research into urges is hampered by a paucity of tools to objectively index their strength, timing and control. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and concurrent electromyography to examine whether urges for food and money are detectable via motor system excitability. ...
Novoseletsky Nataly - - 2011
The cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) was studied primarily in mammals where it was found to comprise a link between reward processes and addictive behavior such as food consumption. The purpose of this study was twofold: first to characterize the effect of the chicken CB(1) receptor inverse agonist AM251 on food intake, ...
Sepúlveda Wilmer S - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the different evaluations made by the agents at either end of the lamb meat chain, i.e. producers and consumers, in relation to the parameters that consumers use when purchasing lamb meat and the factors that affect the production of quality ...
Strok Marko - - 2011
(210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in fish from the Slovenian part of Adriatic Sea, in the vicinity of a former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh and from the Slovenian market were determined. In addition, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in squid from the Slovenian market and in mussels from the ...
Rudders Susan A - - 2011
Food-induced anaphylaxis may be more difficult to recognize in younger children. We describe age-related patterns in the clinical presentation of children with anaphylaxis, which may facilitate the early recognition and treatment of this potentially life-threatening condition.
Ladero Victor - - 2011
Biogenic amines (BA) are low molecular weight nitrogenous bases commonly found in fermented foods and beverages and their consumption can induce undesirable reactions. In this work, the BA content in natural cider from Spain and France was determined. Samples from commercially available cider or obtained during the elaboration process were ...
Fernández de Palencia Pilar - - 2011
Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes.
Salvy Sarah-Jeanne SJ Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA. - - 2011
There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or ...
Tang Xiaofeng - - 2011
Xanthine (Xa) determination is of considerable importance in clinical analysis and food quality control. Therefore, a sensitive nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for Xa based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been proposed. The CNFs, which were prepared by electrospinning technique and subsequent thermal treatment, were used to modify carbon paste electrode (CNF-CPE) ...
Radford Andrew N - - 2011
Parasitism generally imposes costs on victims, yet many victims appear to tolerate their parasites. We suggest that in some cases this may be because parasites provide victims with mitigating benefits, paradoxically giving rise to selection for advertisement rather than concealment by parasites. We investigate this possibility using the interaction between ...
Brassard Julie - - 2011
Water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. The pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. Laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent ...
Tserennadmid Rentsenkhand - - 2011
The anti-yeast activities of four essential oils (EOs) from clary sage, juniper, lemon and marjoram against wild-type isolates of the food-related yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in malt extract (ME) medium, apple juice and milk were investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the EOs and ...
Battistoni Serena - - 2011
Our previous study found that when injected with Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) into the brain, male Dark Agouti (DA) rats, which are resistant to metabolic syndrome, have greater hyperphagia than male Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) animals, which are prone to this disease. We attributed this difference to the fact that ...
Randhawa Gurinder Jit - - 2011
The novel proteins introduced into the genetically modified (GM) crops need to be evaluated for the potential allergenicity before their introduction into the food chain to address the safety concerns of consumers. At present, there is no single definitive test that can be relied upon to predict allergic response in ...
Ottaviani Javier I - - 2011
Extensive epidemiological and clinical evidence associates diets high in flavanol-containing foods with cardiovascular health benefits in humans. Catechin and epicatechin, the most common flavanols in foods, are present in the diet in different enantiomeric forms. This study investigated the influence of the stereochemical configuration of flavanols on their absorption, metabolism, ...
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