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Takagi Masami - - 2011
As Japan depends on imports for most ingredients used to manufacture feed products, close co-operation is indispensable between importers and manufacturers of feed and feed ingredients to effectively mitigate the risk associated with feed safety. Guidelines were issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in March 2008 ...
Al-Baarri Ahmad Nimatullah - - 2011
The effects of mono- and disaccharides on the antimicrobial activity of the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system against Salmonella Enteritidis were investigated. The results clearly reveal that most of the sugars inhibit the antimicrobial activity of the LPO system. The inhibitory potency varies depending on the structure of sugar. L-Fructose and D-allose ...
Chan Po-Chuen - - 2011
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements on the US market. Numerous reports of adverse effects from products containing ginseng have been filed with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the literature documents a "ginseng abuse syndrome" among regular users. However, the chronic toxic effects of ...
Lai-Yeung Wai-Ling Theresa - - 2011
This study aimed to examine school principals' perceptions of the school environment in Hong Kong as a context for the dissemination of food knowledge and inculcation of healthy eating habits. A questionnaire survey was administered in secondary schools in Hong Kong to survey Principals' views of students' food choices, operation ...
Khoo Hock-Eng - - 2011
Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids ...
Rivera-Zavala Julieta B - - 2011
Restricted feeding (RF) during daytime is associated with anticipatory activity before feeding, marked hyperphagia after mealtime, adjustments in hepatic metabolism, and the expression of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). 24 h rhythmicity of liver PPARα, β, and γ, peroxisomal markers (PMP70, AOX, and catalase), and free fatty acids (FFAs) during RF was ...
Rancitelli Philip - - 2011
The prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Hypersensitivity reactions to foods account for significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for treatment of food allergies is limited to diligent dietary avoidance and prompt pharmacotherapy should an unexpected ingestion result in a reaction. Complex interactions between dietary ...
Dos Santos Zirlene Adriana - - 2011
Intense physical training and dietary energy restriction have been associated with consequences such as nutritional amenorrhea. We investigated the effects of intense physical training, food restriction or the combination of both strategies on estrous cyclicity in female rats, and the relationship between leptin ad these effects. Twenty-seven female Wistar rats ...
Thitaram S N - - 2011
Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate, followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood, and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose ...
Martena M J - - 2011
Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current ...
Zhang Hongyin - - 2011
Considerable economic losses to harvested fruits are caused by postharvest fungal decay during transportation and storage, which can be significantly controlled by synthetic fungicides. However, considering public concern over pesticide residues in food and the environment, there is a need for safer alternatives for the control of postharvest decay to ...
Zomorodian K - - 2011
Zataria multiflora Boiss. is a traditional and popular spice in Iran. The effects of 3 ecotypes (ECTPs) of Z. multiflora essential oils (EOs) against most common causes of food-borne and nosocomial infections were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of the EOs were examined by broth microdilution method as recommended by the ...
Gunapala Keith M - - 2011
Timing activity to match resource availability is a widely conserved ability in nature. Scheduled feeding of a limited amount of food induces increased activity prior to feeding time in animals as diverse as fish and rodents. Typically, food anticipatory activity (FAA) involves temporally restricting unlimited food access (RF) to several ...
Shaner Pei-Jen L - - 2011
Trophic shifts of generalist consumers can have broad food-web and biodiversity consequences through altered trophic flows and vertical diversity. Previous studies have used trophic shifts as indicators of food-web responses to perturbations, such as species invasion, and spatial or temporal subsidies. Resource pulses, as a form of temporal subsidies, have ...
He Wei - - 2011
Nanoemulsions stabilized by traditional emulsifiers raise toxicological concerns for long-term treatment. The present work investigates the potential of food proteins as safer stabilizers for nanoemulsions to deliver hydrophobic drugs. Nanoemulsions stabilized by food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The toxicity of the ...
Purser Julia - - 2011
Acoustic noise is known to have a variety of detrimental effects on many animals, including humans, but surprisingly little is known about its impacts on foraging behaviour, despite the obvious potential consequences for survival and reproductive success. We therefore exposed captive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to brief and prolonged noise ...
Pillot Bruno - - 2011
The hypothalamic melanocortin system--the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R) and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia), and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia)--is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of ...
Barrett Marilyn L - - 2011
Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. ...
Sueur Cédric - - 2011
The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns ...
Palkovacs Eric P - - 2011
Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary ...
Husain Mainul - - 2011
Food allergy is a serious health concern among infants and young children. Although immunological mechanism of food allergy is well documented, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in food allergen sensitization have not been well characterized. Therefore, the present study analyzed the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) transcriptome profiles of BALB/c mice in ...
Sabato V - - 2011
Labeling of major food allergens is mandatory for the safety of allergic consumers. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and mass spectrometry are sensitive and specific instruments to detect trace amounts of food proteins, they cannot measure the ability of food constituents to trigger activation of mast cells or ...
Barth Kelly S - - 2011
This study examined whether a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) would inhibit food cravings in healthy women who endorsed frequent food cravings. Ten participants viewed images of food and completed ratings for food cravings before and after receiving either real or ...
van Duyl Fleur C FC Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The - - 2011
The diet of cavity sponges on the narrow fringing reefs of Curaçao, Caribbean was studied. The origin and resources of the bulk food of these sponges, i.e., dissolved organic matter (DOM), were identified using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and fatty acid biomarkers. We found that phytoplankton and its derived ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA. - - 2011
Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions to food intake is associated with increased eating and elevated weight. There is also growing (although mixed) evidence that genotypes that appear to lead to reduced dopamine signaling (e.g., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT) and certain ...
Blum Kenneth K Department of Psychiatry, and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA. - - 2011
Neural circuits implicated in drug conditioning, craving and relapse overlap extensively with those involved in natural reward and reinforcement like food. Exposure to drug-related cues in human addicts results in drug craving and localized activation of central circuits that are known to mediate cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal ...
Colacino Justin A JA Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2011
Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. We collected one ...
Irani Boman G BG Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, PO Box 100487, Gainesville, FL-32610, United - - 2011
The melanocortin system is well recognized to be involved in the regulation of food intake, body weight, and energy homeostasis. To probe the role of the MC(3) in the regulation of food intake, JRH322-18 a mixed MC(3) partial agonist/antagonist and MC(4) agonist tetrapeptide was examined in wild type (WT) and ...
Bulut Sait - - 2010
In this study, it was aimed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three types of milk (cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk) produced in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. The results indicated that these milk specimens were found to be contaminated by 21 different pesticides. Sixteen OCP residues were detected in sheep's ...
Kawai Yukinori - - 2010
The correlation analysis between food effects on oral drug absorption (food effect) and physicochemical properties is important for efficient drug discovery such as the contribution to drug design. This study focused on micelle binding and solubilization considering bile micelle in the intestinal fluid. The profiling using about 40 launched drugs ...
Yadav Vijay K - - 2011
Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease ...
Seppälä Otto - - 2011
Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design ...
Houben Katrijn - - 2010
When inhibitory control is lacking, people are more prone to indulge in high calorie food. This research examined whether training to inhibit food-related responses renders one less susceptible to temptations of high calorie food. Trait chocolate lovers were divided into three conditions: participants either consistently inhibited responding to chocolate stimuli ...
Huang Meigui - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products ...
Huang Meigui - - 2011
Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products was ...
Alegado Rosanna A - - 2011
Bacteria are the primary food source of choanoflagellates, the closest known relatives of animals. Studying signaling interactions between the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes bacterium Algoriphagus sp. PR1 and its predator, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, provides a promising avenue for testing hypotheses regarding the involvement of bacteria in animal evolution. Here we announce ...
Méndez-Díaz Mónica - - 2012
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are mediators of the homeostatic and hedonic systems that modulate food ingestion. Hence, eCBs, by regulating the hedonic system, may be modulating the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion (positive: pleasant or negative: unpleasant). Our first goal was to demonstrate that palatable food induces conditioned place ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2010
Furan is a possible human carcinogen regularly occurring in commercially jarred complementary foods. This paper will provide a detailed exposure assessment for babies consuming these foods considering different intake scenarios. The occurrence data on furan in complementary foods were based on our own headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analytical results (n = 286). ...
Lagerqvist Anne - - 2010
Chinese hamster V79 cells were used to investigate the protective effect of four known antimutagens present in food, chlorophyllin (CHL), ellagic acid (EA), epigallocathechingallate (EGCG) and benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), against potent mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides (PAH-DE) derived from benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), and benzo[c]phenanthrene (BPh) known to ...
Li Dujuan - - 2011
A label-free capacitive immunosensor based on quartz crystal Au electrode was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing affinity-purified anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of a quartz crystal Au electrode. Bacteria ...
Murphy Helen M - - 2011
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators constitute the majority of clinically relevant sedative-hypnotics. Zolpidem (Ambien) is a nonbenzodiazepine GABA-A receptor modulator that binds with high affinity to GABA-A receptors expressing alpha-1 subunits. The present study examined the effects of a new approach to the oral administration of zolpidem on locomotor ...
Frenzel Elrike - - 2011
Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, ...
van der Veen Stijn - - 2010
The SOS response is a conserved inducible pathway in bacteria that is involved in DNA repair and restart of stalled replication forks. Activation of the SOS response can result in stress resistance and mutagenesis. In food processing facilities and during food preservation, bacteria are exposed to stresses and stimuli that ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2011
The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early ...
York D A - - 2011
Melanocortins have been reported to affect alcohol intake through actions in the hypothalamus thought to be mediated by melanocortin MC4 receptors. Since these receptors are expressed in a number of amygdala regions, we have explored their role in the regulation of alcohol intake in both alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) ...
Martín-García Elena - - 2010
RATIONALE: A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking behavior when maintaining diet. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the reinstatement of extinguished palatable food-seeking behavior induced by cues previously associated with the palatable food, re-exposure to this food, or stress. The participation of ...
Awney Hala - - 2010
The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2010
1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds ...
Disse E E Laboratory of Metabolism, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. - - 2011
Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. Recent data suggested that ghrelin is involved in reward-mediated processes such as the rewarding value of food. Whereas the neuronal pathways by which ghrelin regulates energy balance are well described, those involved in ghrelin-induced reward are still confusing. Therefore, ...
Irkin Reyhan - - 2010
Abstract We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method ...
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