Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1015
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Pillot Bruno - - 2011
The hypothalamic melanocortin system--the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R) and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia), and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia)--is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of ...
Barrett Marilyn L - - 2011
Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. ...
Sueur Cédric - - 2011
The Lévy walk is found from amoebas to humans and has been described as the optimal strategy for food research. Recent results, however, have generated controversy about this conclusion since animals also display alternatives to the Lévy walk such as the Brownian walk or mental maps and because movement patterns ...
Palkovacs Eric P - - 2011
Ecosystems are being altered on a global scale by the extirpation of top predators. The ecological effects of predator removal have been investigated widely; however, predator removal can also change natural selection acting on prey, resulting in contemporary evolution. Here we tested the role of predator removal on the contemporary ...
Husain Mainul - - 2011
Food allergy is a serious health concern among infants and young children. Although immunological mechanism of food allergy is well documented, the molecular mechanism(s) involved in food allergen sensitization have not been well characterized. Therefore, the present study analyzed the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) transcriptome profiles of BALB/c mice in ...
Sabato V - - 2011
Labeling of major food allergens is mandatory for the safety of allergic consumers. Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and mass spectrometry are sensitive and specific instruments to detect trace amounts of food proteins, they cannot measure the ability of food constituents to trigger activation of mast cells or ...
Barth Kelly S - - 2011
This study examined whether a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) would inhibit food cravings in healthy women who endorsed frequent food cravings. Ten participants viewed images of food and completed ratings for food cravings before and after receiving either real or ...
van Duyl Fleur C FC Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The - - 2011
The diet of cavity sponges on the narrow fringing reefs of Curaçao, Caribbean was studied. The origin and resources of the bulk food of these sponges, i.e., dissolved organic matter (DOM), were identified using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and fatty acid biomarkers. We found that phytoplankton and its derived ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA. - - 2011
Data suggest that low levels of dopamine D2 receptors and attenuated responsivity of dopamine-target regions to food intake is associated with increased eating and elevated weight. There is also growing (although mixed) evidence that genotypes that appear to lead to reduced dopamine signaling (e.g., DRD2, DRD4, and DAT) and certain ...
Blum Kenneth K Department of Psychiatry, and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA. - - 2011
Neural circuits implicated in drug conditioning, craving and relapse overlap extensively with those involved in natural reward and reinforcement like food. Exposure to drug-related cues in human addicts results in drug craving and localized activation of central circuits that are known to mediate cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in animal ...
Colacino Justin A JA Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, - - 2011
Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. We collected one ...
Irani Boman G BG Department of Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, PO Box 100487, Gainesville, FL-32610, United - - 2011
The melanocortin system is well recognized to be involved in the regulation of food intake, body weight, and energy homeostasis. To probe the role of the MC(3) in the regulation of food intake, JRH322-18 a mixed MC(3) partial agonist/antagonist and MC(4) agonist tetrapeptide was examined in wild type (WT) and ...
Bulut Sait - - 2010
In this study, it was aimed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three types of milk (cow's, buffalo's, and sheep's milk) produced in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. The results indicated that these milk specimens were found to be contaminated by 21 different pesticides. Sixteen OCP residues were detected in sheep's ...
Kawai Yukinori - - 2010
The correlation analysis between food effects on oral drug absorption (food effect) and physicochemical properties is important for efficient drug discovery such as the contribution to drug design. This study focused on micelle binding and solubilization considering bile micelle in the intestinal fluid. The profiling using about 40 launched drugs ...
Yadav Vijay K - - 2011
Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease ...
Seppälä Otto - - 2011
Genetics, physiology, and behavior are all expected to influence the susceptibility of hosts to parasites. Furthermore, interactions between genetic and other factors are suggested to contribute to the maintenance of genetic polymorphism in resistance when the relative susceptibility of host genotypes is context dependent. We used a maternal sibship design ...
Houben Katrijn - - 2010
When inhibitory control is lacking, people are more prone to indulge in high calorie food. This research examined whether training to inhibit food-related responses renders one less susceptible to temptations of high calorie food. Trait chocolate lovers were divided into three conditions: participants either consistently inhibited responding to chocolate stimuli ...
Huang Meigui - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products ...
Huang Meigui - - 2011
Light-coloured and savoury-tasting flavour enhancers are attractive to both consumers and food producers. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour-inhibiting effect of L-cysteine and thiamine during the Maillard reaction of soybean peptide and D-xylose. The correlation between volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of the corresponding products was ...
Alegado Rosanna A - - 2011
Bacteria are the primary food source of choanoflagellates, the closest known relatives of animals. Studying signaling interactions between the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes bacterium Algoriphagus sp. PR1 and its predator, the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, provides a promising avenue for testing hypotheses regarding the involvement of bacteria in animal evolution. Here we announce ...
Méndez-Díaz Mónica - - 2012
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are mediators of the homeostatic and hedonic systems that modulate food ingestion. Hence, eCBs, by regulating the hedonic system, may be modulating the valence of the emotion associated to food ingestion (positive: pleasant or negative: unpleasant). Our first goal was to demonstrate that palatable food induces conditioned place ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2010
Furan is a possible human carcinogen regularly occurring in commercially jarred complementary foods. This paper will provide a detailed exposure assessment for babies consuming these foods considering different intake scenarios. The occurrence data on furan in complementary foods were based on our own headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analytical results (n = 286). ...
Lagerqvist Anne - - 2010
Chinese hamster V79 cells were used to investigate the protective effect of four known antimutagens present in food, chlorophyllin (CHL), ellagic acid (EA), epigallocathechingallate (EGCG) and benzylisothiocyanate (BITC), against potent mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides (PAH-DE) derived from benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), and benzo[c]phenanthrene (BPh) known to ...
Li Dujuan - - 2011
A label-free capacitive immunosensor based on quartz crystal Au electrode was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing affinity-purified anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of a quartz crystal Au electrode. Bacteria ...
Murphy Helen M - - 2011
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators constitute the majority of clinically relevant sedative-hypnotics. Zolpidem (Ambien) is a nonbenzodiazepine GABA-A receptor modulator that binds with high affinity to GABA-A receptors expressing alpha-1 subunits. The present study examined the effects of a new approach to the oral administration of zolpidem on locomotor ...
Frenzel Elrike - - 2011
Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, ...
van der Veen Stijn - - 2010
The SOS response is a conserved inducible pathway in bacteria that is involved in DNA repair and restart of stalled replication forks. Activation of the SOS response can result in stress resistance and mutagenesis. In food processing facilities and during food preservation, bacteria are exposed to stresses and stimuli that ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2011
The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen were assessed in rats under different feeding conditions. In Experiment 1, it was observed that baclofen (1-4 mg/kg) significantly (at least, P<0.05) increased cumulative food intake in non-deprived rats during the 120 min measurement period during the early ...
York D A - - 2011
Melanocortins have been reported to affect alcohol intake through actions in the hypothalamus thought to be mediated by melanocortin MC4 receptors. Since these receptors are expressed in a number of amygdala regions, we have explored their role in the regulation of alcohol intake in both alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) ...
Martín-García Elena - - 2010
RATIONALE: A major problem in treating obesity is the high rate of relapse to abnormal food-taking behavior when maintaining diet. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the reinstatement of extinguished palatable food-seeking behavior induced by cues previously associated with the palatable food, re-exposure to this food, or stress. The participation of ...
Awney Hala - - 2010
The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples ...
Higginson Andrew D - - 2010
1. Utilization of plant secondary compounds for antipredator defence is common in immature herbivorous insects. Such defences may incur a cost to the animal, either in terms of survival, growth rate or in the reproductive success. 2. A common defence in lepidopterans is the regurgitation of semi-digested material containing the defensive compounds ...
Disse E E Laboratory of Metabolism, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. - - 2011
Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. Recent data suggested that ghrelin is involved in reward-mediated processes such as the rewarding value of food. Whereas the neuronal pathways by which ghrelin regulates energy balance are well described, those involved in ghrelin-induced reward are still confusing. Therefore, ...
Irkin Reyhan - - 2010
Abstract We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method ...
Newmyer Brandon A - - 2010
Neuropeptide AF (NPAF), a member of the RFamide family, was centrally administered to rats to determine its effect on food intake. Rats responded with a linear dose-dependent reduction in cumulative food intake up to 3h post injection, but when analyzed on a noncumulative basis, food intake was only significantly reduced ...
Burger Kyle S KS Oregon Research Institute, USA. - - 2011
Prospective studies indicate that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future bulimic symptom onset, suggesting that these individuals may show hyper-responsivity of reward regions to food and food cues. Thus, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relation of dietary restraint scores ...
Morewedge Carey K - - 2010
The consumption of a food typically leads to a decrease in its subsequent intake through habituation--a decrease in one's responsiveness to the food and motivation to obtain it. We demonstrated that habituation to a food item can occur even when its consumption is merely imagined. Five experiments showed that people ...
Hess Jennifer R - - 2011
In view of a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, the present study examined the appetite effects of a functional fiber as a potential dietary intervention. Fiber may increase satiety. Satiety effects also may be linked to colonic fermentation. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) are fermentable fibers that can be added ...
Jardine Timothy D - - 2011
Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates and two species of fish (brook trout and blacknose dace) were collected from 49 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to determine whether concentrations of selenium (Se) in the biota were affected by a point source (a coal-fired power plant), and stream water chemistry (pH, sulphate, conductivity, ...
Lucas Lisa - - 2011
Excessive sodium (Na) intake has been linked to development of hypertension and related pathologies. In this study, we assessed if the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in a prototypical food influences the liking and intake of that food. In study 1, detection and recognition thresholds for NaCl were assessed, and perceived ...
Piau C - - 2010
PAS100 accredited compost derived from green and food waste sources was used to remediate groundwater containing Cr(VI) at a historically contaminated site in Falkirk, Scotland, UK. The compost was mixed with gravel at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) to provide a reactive bedding material in an upflow column. The Cr(VI) ...
Van der Saag Matthew - - 2010
Tritrichomonas foetus has recently been recognised as the cause of large bowel diarrhoea in cats (feline trichomoniasis), for which the epidemiology is largely unknown. We tested whether garden slugs common in Sydney, Australia can pass viable T. foetus in their faeces after oral intake. First, Leopard slugs (Limax maximus) were ...
Bouton Mark E - - 2011
The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and ...
Hernández-Ledesma Blanca - - 2010
Bioactive food peptides are encrypted within the sequence of food proteins but can be released during food processing (by enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation) or during gastrointestinal transit. Among bioactive food peptides, those with antihypertensive activity are receiving special attention due to the high prevalence of hypertension in the Western countries ...
Meléndez-Martínez A J AJ Food Colour & Quality Lab., Dept. of Nutrition & Food Science, Universidad de Sevilla, Facultad de Farmacia, 41012 Sevilla, - - 2011
We have devised a more sensible approach to estimate the carotenoid content of orange juices, which can be regarded as a model system of food with intricate carotenoid pattern. For this purpose spectroscopic information at several wavelengths and spectra of the juices and not from their carotenoid extracts were considered, ...
Al-Zeyara Shaikha A - - 2010
The aims of this study were to (i) compare the inhibitory effects of the natural microflora of different foods on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in selective and non-selective broths; (ii) to isolate and identify components of the microflora of the most inhibitory food; and (iii) to determine ...
Ruiz-Gomez Maria de Lourdes Mde - - 2011
An extensive literature has documented differences in the way individual animals cope with environmental challenges and stressors. Two broad patterns of individual variability in behavioural and physiological stress responses are described as the proactive and reactive stress coping styles. In addition to variability in the stress response, contrasting coping styles ...
Herman Eliot M - - 2011
Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could ...
Wright Geraldine A - - 2010
Avoiding toxins in food is as important as obtaining nutrition. Conditioned food aversions have been studied in animals as diverse as nematodes and humans [1, 2], but the neural signaling mechanisms underlying this form of learning have been difficult to pinpoint. Honeybees quickly learn to associate floral cues with food ...
Luedtke Sarah - - 2010
This review considers the factors involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism in response to food deprivation using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Some of the sensory neurons and interneurons involved in food intake are described, together with an overview of pharyngeal pumping. A number of chemical transmitters ...
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