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Results 301 - 350 of 1021
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Nabeshi Hiromi - - 2011
Currently, nanomaterials (NMs) with particle sizes below 100 nm have been successfully employed in various industrial applications in medicine, cosmetics and foods. On the other hand, NMs can also be problematic in terms of eliciting a toxicological effect by their small size. However, biological and/or cellular responses to NMs are often ...
Morley John E - - 2011
In recent years, there have been a large number of neuropeptides discovered that regulate food intake. Many of these peptides regulate food intake by increasing or decreasing nitric oxide (NO). In the current study, we compared the effect of the food modulators ghrelin, NPY and CCK in NOS KO mice. ...
Guy Elizabeth G - - 2011
The high attrition rates for dietary interventions aimed at promoting a healthier body mass may be caused, at least in part, by constant exposure to environmental stimuli that are associated with palatable foods. In both humans and animals, conditioned stimuli (CSs) that signal reward availability reliably reinstate food- and drug-seeking ...
Reidelberger Roger R Department of Veterans Affairs, Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, USA. - - 2011
The gut hormone peptide YY(3-36)-amide [PYY(3-36)-NH(2)] is significantly more potent than PYY(1-36)-NH(2) in reducing food intake in rats and humans. Other Gly-extended and Ser(13)-phosphorylated PYY forms have been detected or predicted based upon known cellular processes of PYY synthesis and modification. Here we compared the effects of 3-h IV infusion ...
Hou Ruihua R Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United - - 2011
Cognitive and behavioural responses to food reward, such as attentional biases and overeating, have been associated with individual differences in reward-responsiveness and impulsivity. This study investigated relationships between external eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues, assessed using the pictorial visual-probe task. As previously reported, attentional bias correlated positively ...
Moore Darrell - - 2011
Classical experiments demonstrated that honey bee foragers trained to collect food at virtually any time of day will return to that food source on subsequent days with a remarkable degree of temporal accuracy. This versatile time-memory, based on an endogenous circadian clock, presumably enables foragers to schedule their reconnaissance flights ...
Vorkamp Katrin - - 2011
Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid ...
Pérez-Flores G C - - 2011
To evaluate the effectiveness of maize detoxification achieved with a modified tortilla-making process (MTMP), maize contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) at levels of 22.46, 69.62, and 141.48 ng/g (AFB(1)+ AFB(2)) was processed into tortillas. Aflatoxin content was determined according to the 991.31 AOAC official method. Based ...
Tuda M - - 2011
A number of insect species infest human households and stored foods and products, leading to their designation as pests. Until recently, little was known about the factors driving the evolution of pests that feed on stored dry foods. Here, I review the effects of changes in climate and species interactions ...
Janssen Sara - - 2011
Ghrelin is a hunger hormone with gastroprokinetic properties but the factors controlling ghrelin secretion from the stomach are unknown. Bitter taste receptors (T2R) and the gustatory G proteins, α-gustducin (gust) and α-transducin, are expressed in the gut and are involved in the chemosensation of nutrients. This study aimed to investigate ...
Abramsson-Zetterberg Lilianne - - 2011
Many materials in contact with food, including printing inks, the lack of deeper knowledge about possible toxic effects is a problem. Furthermore, some of these substances are not only produced for packaging of foods, they are produced for a variety of purposes and are not meant to come into direct ...
Scopinho América A - - 2011
Δ9-THC is a component of Cannabis sativa that increases food intake in animals and humans, an effect prevented by selective CB1 receptor antagonists. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another constituent of this plant that promotes several opposite neuropharmacological effects compared to Δ9-THC. CBD mechanisms of action are still not clear, but under ...
Kearns David N - - 2011
The present experiment compared the effectiveness of explicitly unpaired treatment and extinction in preventing the recovery of sign-tracking within a context renewal design. Three groups of rats were first trained on a sign-tracking procedure in Context A where insertions of a retractable lever were paired with food. In a second ...
Uematsu Akira - - 2011
Food reward is neurologically and psychologically divided into at least two properties; 'liking' and 'wanting'. Although umami taste enhances food palatability, the liking and wanting properties of umami taste, and the underlying neural mechanisms for these properties are not clear. Here, we compared sucrose (0, 10, 30, 120 and 480mM) ...
Saito Atsuko - - 2011
Oxytocin facilitates social recognition in rats and mice, onset of maternal behavior in virgin mice and formation of pair bonds without copulation in prairie voles. However, the relationship between this peptide and paternal behavior in primates remains largely unknown. We investigated whether oxytocin affects paternal behavior in common marmosets. In ...
Guerra Paula - - 2011
Concentrations of Mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) Plus (DP), Dec 602, Dec 603, and Dec 604 were significantly higher in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Canada than Spain, with the former having the only measurable concentrations of the dechlorinated DP products, decachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (aCl10DP) and undecachloropentacyclooctadecadiene (aCl11DP). Large variations also occurred in ...
Wang Sunan - - 2011
Different foods possess different bioactive compounds with varied antioxidant capacities. When foods are consumed together, the total antioxidant capacity of food mixtures may be modified via synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions among these components, which may in turn alter their physiological impacts. The main objective of this study was to ...
Malik Saima - - 2011
Human brain imaging studies demonstrate distributed activation of limbic, paralimbic and sensory systems to food and food-associated cues. Activity in this circuit may be modulated by internal factors, such as hunger, and cognitive factors. Anticipation to eat is one such factor, which likely impacts consummatory behavior. Here, the neural substrates ...
Smeets Paul A M - - 2011
This comment further extends the argument put forward in a recent short communication by Booth and Nouwen (2010) that satiety claims have limited value for weight control and are misleading for consumers. Consumers need to be made aware of the bigger picture of weight control rather than fed with the ...
Ogué-Bon Eva - - 2011
The fermentability of rice bran (RB), alone or in combination with one of two probiotics, by canine faecal microbiota was evaluated in stirred, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures. RB enhanced the levels of bacteria detected by probes Bif164 (bifidobacteria) and Lab158 (lactic acid bacteria); however, addition of the probiotics did not ...
Braekevelt Eric - - 2011
Because beef food products are generally cooked prior to consumption, the behavior of chemicals in these cooked foods is important in estimating human exposure. The heat stability of the natural estrogen β-estradiol (β-E2) and its metabolites α-estradiol (α-E2), estrone (E1), and several catechol estrogens was examined in heated vegetable oil ...
Fratamico Pina M - - 2011
Six Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups, which include O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, are responsible for the majority of non-O157 STEC infections in the United States, representing a growing public health concern. Cattle and other ruminants are reservoirs for these pathogens; thus, food of bovine origin may ...
Loganathan Sudan N - - 2011
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in many consumer products. Sources of human exposures to BPA include packaged and canned food products, indoor air, and dust ingestion. Information on the relative contributions of the pathways to BPA exposures is ...
Ganesan Lakshmi - - 2011
Following our observation that erythrosine B (FD&C Red No. 3) is a relatively potent inhibitor of the TNF-R-TNFα and CD40-CD154 protein-protein interactions, we investigated whether this inhibitory activity extends to any other protein-protein interactions (PPI) as well as whether any other approved food colors possess such inhibitory activity. We found ...
Bulen Benjamin J - - 2011
Although exposure to pesticides has been correlated with amphibian declines, the mechanism of their role remains enigmatic. Declines have been associated with sublethal exposure, but few outdoor studies have evaluated impacts of low pesticide concentrations. Understanding the effects of a range of pesticide concentrations on amphibians in outdoor mesocosms provides ...
Griffith David A - - 2011
A novel series of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as NPY Y1R antagonists. High binding affinity and selectivity were achieved with C3 trisubstituted aryl groups and C7 substituted 2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylamino)ethylamine moieties. Efforts to find close analogs with low plasma clearance in the rat and minimal p-glycoprotein efflux in the mouse ...
Drillet Guillaume - - 2011
We have tested a microbial preparation with probiotic effects (PSI; Sorbial A/S DANISCO) on the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) development time and reproduction effectiveness in culture. The hypotheses were that PSI increases the productivity and quality of copepods in culture (increased egg production and hatching success, HS). This was ...
Ogura Tadatoshi T Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, 41-2 Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506, Japan. - - 2011
Contrafreeloading, which means that animals work for food even though identical food is freely available, has been reported in animals' feeding behavior. This phenomenon has been assumed to be explained by the information primacy model, in which the information about a food resource as well as the food itself is ...
Dorne J L C M - - 2011
Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, ...
Tchuinkam T - - 2011
Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as ...
Taati Majid - - 2011
This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of DL-AP5 (N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist) and glutamate on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior in 3-h food-deprived (FD3) broiler cockerels. At first, guide cannula was surgically implanted in the right lateral ventricle of chickens. In experiment 1, birds were intracerebroventricularly injected ...
Ha Ji-Hyoung - - 2011
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), ...
Lumor Stephen E - - 2011
The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. ...
Domingo José L - - 2011
In recent years, a number of studies have determined the daily intake of various chemical pollutants through the diet. Although the influence of cooking on the concentrations of chemical pollutants in food should not be discarded, in most surveys concerning dietary intake of environmental contaminants, food analyses were performed on ...
Chuang Jane C - - 2011
An analytical method was developed for determining organophosphate pesticides (OPP) and pyrethroid pesticides (PYR) in duplicate-diet solid food. The method consisted of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane followed by cleanup with gel permeation and solid phase extraction columns and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Quantitative recoveries (73-117 %) of ...
Adesiji Y O - - 2011
Isolation of arcobacters in foods, with the highest prevalence reported in poultry, has underscored its importance as a potential food safety problem in recent years. To estimate its prevalence in live birds, fresh stool samples from healthy chickens were screened by enrichment and plating on Arcobacter selective medium containing cefoperazone, ...
Al-Arabi Ateegh - - 2011
We have studied the effects of chronic peripheral infusion of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and norepinephrine (NE) alone and together. Do these hormones additively affect energy balance and body weight similarly in obese animals? 20 obese (fa/fa) Zucker strain rats were studied. Food intake, body weight and resting metabolic rate ...
Marinova Margarita D - - 2011
Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate) from chick-pea ...
Gaalema Diann E - - 2011
Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess ...
Anderson Harvey - - 2011
Consumption of dairy products and their milk proteins increase satiety and reduce food intake and blood glucose response when consumed alone or with carbohydrate. Dairy proteins are of interest because proteins are more satiating than either carbohydrate or fat, and they regulate food intake and metabolic functions by the combined ...
Takagi Masami - - 2011
As Japan depends on imports for most ingredients used to manufacture feed products, close co-operation is indispensable between importers and manufacturers of feed and feed ingredients to effectively mitigate the risk associated with feed safety. Guidelines were issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in March 2008 ...
Al-Baarri Ahmad Nimatullah - - 2011
The effects of mono- and disaccharides on the antimicrobial activity of the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system against Salmonella Enteritidis were investigated. The results clearly reveal that most of the sugars inhibit the antimicrobial activity of the LPO system. The inhibitory potency varies depending on the structure of sugar. L-Fructose and D-allose ...
Chan Po-Chuen - - 2011
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements on the US market. Numerous reports of adverse effects from products containing ginseng have been filed with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the literature documents a "ginseng abuse syndrome" among regular users. However, the chronic toxic effects of ...
Lai-Yeung Wai-Ling Theresa - - 2011
This study aimed to examine school principals' perceptions of the school environment in Hong Kong as a context for the dissemination of food knowledge and inculcation of healthy eating habits. A questionnaire survey was administered in secondary schools in Hong Kong to survey Principals' views of students' food choices, operation ...
Khoo Hock-Eng - - 2011
Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids ...
Rivera-Zavala Julieta B - - 2011
Restricted feeding (RF) during daytime is associated with anticipatory activity before feeding, marked hyperphagia after mealtime, adjustments in hepatic metabolism, and the expression of a food-entrained oscillator (FEO). 24 h rhythmicity of liver PPARα, β, and γ, peroxisomal markers (PMP70, AOX, and catalase), and free fatty acids (FFAs) during RF was ...
Rancitelli Philip - - 2011
The prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Hypersensitivity reactions to foods account for significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for treatment of food allergies is limited to diligent dietary avoidance and prompt pharmacotherapy should an unexpected ingestion result in a reaction. Complex interactions between dietary ...
Dos Santos Zirlene Adriana - - 2011
Intense physical training and dietary energy restriction have been associated with consequences such as nutritional amenorrhea. We investigated the effects of intense physical training, food restriction or the combination of both strategies on estrous cyclicity in female rats, and the relationship between leptin ad these effects. Twenty-seven female Wistar rats ...
Thitaram S N - - 2011
Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate, followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood, and cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose ...
Martena M J - - 2011
Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current ...
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