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Results 251 - 300 of 1049
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Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA. - - 2011
Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, ...
Geffroy Benjamin - - 2011
Abstract The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of two sizes (12 and 50 nm) was investigated in the zebrafish Danio rerio at very low doses (from 36-106 ng gold/fish/day). AuNP exposure resulted in various dysfunctions at the sub cellular scale, and AuNP concentration in ...
Bengtsson Jonas M - - 2011
Few studies have systematically addressed evolutionary changes in olfactory neuron assemblies, either by genetic drift or as an adaptation to specific odor environments. We have studied the sense of olfaction in 2 congeneric scarab beetles, Pachnoda interrupta Olivier and Pachnoda marginata Drury (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), which are both opportunistic polyphages, ...
Lensu Sanna - - 2011
A conspicuous but scantly-studied feature of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity is avoidance of unfamiliar foodstuffs, which seems to be one of the very few exquisitely sensitive behavioural effects in adult laboratory animals. Here we characterized this peculiar response further after low doses of TCDD. The time-course of the novelty avoidance, the ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2011
The glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, liraglutide (Victoza) and the synthetic product of exendin-4 (Byetta), are approved for type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment and may be efficacious in obesity treatment as well, in part, due to the drugs' resistance to enzymatic degradation and prolonged half-life relative to endogenous GLP-1. To ...
Verty Aaron N A - - 2011
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent ...
Rico Cyren M - - 2011
The uptake, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and risks of nanomaterials (NMs) for food crops are still not well understood. Very few NMs and plant species have been studied, mainly at the very early growth stages of the plants. Most of the studies, except one with multiwalled carbon nanotubes performed on the model ...
Acosta-Galvan Guadalupe - - 2011
Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time estimation. Recent studies suggested the dorsomedial ...
Zygoura P D - - 2011
Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of ...
Steyn Catharina E - - 2011
Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for ...
Schilirò T - - 2011
Food is likely to be one of the most important routes of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In the present study, we evaluated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables, which was calculated using the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen), in relation ...
de Roode Jacobus C - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) ABSTRACT: Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific ...
Zhou Hai-Feng - - 2011
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been widely used as food and folk medicine in the Mediterranean basin and in central and west Asia. In this study, two biflavonoids, isoginkgetin, and ginkgetin, together with three other flavonoids, were isolated from caper fruits. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses ...
Finger Beate C - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Several fine-tuned and interconnected hypothalamic peptidergic systems orchestrate the regulation of energy homeostasis in the body. The orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic peptide leptin are among the most important, and both have been implicated in the development of eating disorders from obesity to anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVES: The goal ...
Keet Corinne C Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, CMSC 1102, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. - - 2011
Food-induced anaphylactic reactions are common and increasing in frequency. Despite the existence of a consensus definition of anaphylaxis, many cases are missed, recommended treatments are not given, and follow-up is inadequate. New aspects of its pathophysiology and causes, including atypical food-induced causes, are still being uncovered. Epinephrine remains the cornerstone ...
Nersesian Carolyn L - - 2011
1. Foraging herbivores must deal with plant characteristics that inhibit feeding and they must avoid being eaten. Principally, toxins limit food intake, while predation risk alters how long animals are prepared to harvest resources. Each of these factors strongly affects how herbivores use food patches, and both constraints can pose immediate ...
Kendall C W C - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals.Subjects/Methods:A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged ...
Martin Annett - - 2011
Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains ...
Hayes Matthew R MR Department of Psychology, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2011
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. Here, hindbrain (fourth i.c.v.) GLP-1R activation by Exendin-4 (Ex-4) increased PKA and MAPK activity and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in NTS. PKA and ...
Hartmann H Andreas - - 2011
Consumer demands have led to an increased interest in the use of natural antimicrobials for food protection. With the objective of developing novel products for enhancing the microbial safety of food, we have tested cell-free culture supernatants (CFS's) of eight antagonistic bacterial strains for their efficacy to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes ...
Amigó-Correig M - - 2011
Aims: Sodium tungstate is an anti-obesity drug targeting peripheral tissues. In vivo, sodium tungstate reduces body weight gain and food intake through increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, but it also modulates hypothalamic gene expression when orally administered, raising the possibility of a direct effect of sodium tungstate on the ...
Schnuch Axel - - 2011
Background. Nickel contact allergy is still frequent both in patch-tested patients and in the general population. Objectives. To explain this observation by relating clinical epidemiological data with recent chemical analyses of nickel release from costume jewellery. Methods. (i) The trend of nickel allergy was analysed using data registered between January ...
Ebenman Bo - - 2011
[Formula: see text] [ Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) - one of the IUCN Red-Listed species in the Serengeti food web. Photograph by Fredrik Larsson. ] de Visser, S., Freymann, B. & Olff, H. (2011) The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact. Journal of ...
Jackson Armitra L - - 2011
The popularity of "preservative-free" foods among consumers has stimulated rapid growth of processed meats manufactured without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to quantify the potential for Clostridium perfringens growth in commercially available processed meats manufactured without the direct addition of nitrite or nitrate. Commercial brands of naturally ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2011
The hypothalamus, limbic system, and brainstem play an important role in the regulation of instinctive behavior. Many kinds of hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as orexin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and diazepam-binding inhibitor-derived peptides, including the octadecaneuropeptide, have been implicated in the regulation of appetite ...
Wang Julie - - 2011
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%-4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are ...
Adler K - - 2011
Insulin autoantibodies (IAA) can appear in children within months of introducing solid foods to the diet and before clinical type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether infant dietary antigens could be immunizing agents of IAA. To this end, IAA binding to [(125) I]insulin was competed ...
Williams Dean C - - 2011
We conducted three experiments to reproduce and extend Perone and Courtney's (1992) study of pausing at the beginning of fixed-ratio schedules. In a multiple schedule with unequal amounts of food across two components, they found that pigeons paused longest in the component associated with the smaller amount of food (the ...
Zeng Wei-Cai WC Dept of Food Science and Technology and author Feng is with College of Life Science, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610065, PR - - 2011
The antibrowning and antimicrobial activities of the water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara (CDE), a traditional Chinese medicine and raw materials of pine needle tea, was investigated. Total phenols of CDE were 31.4 ± 0.53 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, and total flavonoids were 23.1 ± 0.79 mg rutin ...
de Graaf Cees - - 2011
Liquids have been shown to have a low satiating efficiency. The may be related to the high rate of consumption for liquids which may be higher than 200 g/min. In a number of studies, we showed that the positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake is mediated by oro-sensory ...
Tomie Arthur - - 2011
Two experiments evaluated the effects of removing food presentations on the maintenance of drinking induced by experience with sipper - food pairings. In Exp 1, ethanol drinking was induced in non-deprived Long-Evans rats by Pavlovian conditioning procedures employing an ethanol sipper as conditioned stimulus (CS) and food pellet as unconditioned ...
Veling Harm H Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. - - 2011
We examined whether presentation of environmental cues that are associated with motor inhibition, i.e., fearful facial expressions, can be effective in controlling unintentionally evoked impulses toward rewarding food objects. Participants were presented with palatable foods or control objects. During presentation of the objects, facial expressions displaying fear, disgust, or neutral ...
Dinnella Caterina - - 2011
Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluctuation of salivary ...
Luksiene Z - - 2011
Aims:  This study is focused on the possibility to control microbial contamination of strawberries by chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization. Moreover, photosensitization-induced effects on key quality attributes of treated strawberries was evaluated. Methods and Results:  Strawberries were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3) C 7644, soaked in 1 mmol l(-1) Na-Chl for 5 min and illuminated ...
Wang Gene-Jack GJ Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA. - - 2011
Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in ...
Hätönen Katja A - - 2011
Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes, are known to result in high glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, in most meals, potatoes are accompanied by other foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate how glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato meal changed when a high-fat food (rapeseed oil), ...
Borges Beatriz C - - 2011
Acute exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of immune response, as well as hypophagia. Nevertheless, desensitization of responses to LPS occurs during long-term exposure to endotoxin. We induced endotoxin tolerance, injecting repeated (6LPS) LPS doses in comparison with single (1LPS) treatment. 1LPS, but not 6LPS group, showed ...
Fay Stephanie H SH Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2011
In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably 'emotional eating', 'restrained eating' and 'disinhibited eating', but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, ...
Pérez-Llamas Francisca - - 2011
We investigated the antinutritional effect of white tea extract (0, 15, and 45 mg of the tea solid extract per kilogram body weight) incorporated in the drinking water of rats for 3 and 30 days. Gender-based differences were found for all these variables, except apparent protein digestibility and the apparent absorption of ...
Mugabo Marianne - - 2011
Food availability is a major environmental factor that can influence life history within and across generations through direct effects on individual quality and indirect effects on the intensity of intra- and intercohort competition. Here, we investigated in yearling and adult common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) the immediate and delayed life-history effects ...
Bari A - - 2011
This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed ...
Saar Indrek - - 2011
Galanin a 29/30-residue neuropeptide has been implicated in several functions in the central nervous system, including the regulation of food consumption. Galanin and its analogs administered intraventricularly or into the hypothalamic region of brain have been shown to reliably and robustly stimulate the consumption of food in sated rodents. Three ...
Skibicka Karolina P - - 2011
Ghrelin, a circulating orexigenic stomach-derived hormone, has recently been implicated in extra-homeostatic feeding, increasing food reward and food-motivated behavior. The precise target site(s) of ghrelin's effects on food reward have yet to be elucidated. The neurocircuitry underpinning food-motivated behavior involves, in particular, the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
The effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on food preferences of avian frugivores have been relatively poorly studied. Although it has been recently advocated that preference is based on equicaloric energy it is also important to note whether preferences change as energy content changes. Therefore, sugar preferences ...
J Leidy Heather - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a protein-rich beverage leads to a differential response in appetite, satiety and subsequent energy intake compared with an energy- and macronutrient-matched solid version in young people. A total of fifteen adolescents (eight girls and seven boys; age 14 (sem 1) ...
Canale Cindy I - - 2011
As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' ...
Scott P M - - 2011
Fumonisins are well known mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum and other Fusarium species. Many new fumonisins and fumonisin-like compounds have been detected by mass spectrometry in cultures of F. verticillioides. Recently, fumonisins B(2) and B(4) were produced by Aspergillus niger isolated from coffee and fumonisin B(2) in A. ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
Avian frugivores have been somewhat poorly studied with regards to the effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on their digestive efficiencies. Therefore, two relatively large South African frugivores, the Knysna turaco (Tauraco corythaix) and the purple-crested turaco (Gallirex porphyreolophus), were fed artificial fruit that contained equicaloric and ...
Gase Lauren N - - 2011
This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 ...
Lê A D AD Neurobiology of Alcohol Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada. - - 2011
Relapse to alcohol use during abstinence or maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. The anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in humans and non-humans, reliably reinstates alcohol and food seeking in a rat relapse model. Yohimibine is a prototypical alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, but results from ...
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