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Results 251 - 300 of 1008
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Saar Indrek - - 2011
Galanin a 29/30-residue neuropeptide has been implicated in several functions in the central nervous system, including the regulation of food consumption. Galanin and its analogs administered intraventricularly or into the hypothalamic region of brain have been shown to reliably and robustly stimulate the consumption of food in sated rodents. Three ...
Skibicka Karolina P - - 2011
Ghrelin, a circulating orexigenic stomach-derived hormone, has recently been implicated in extra-homeostatic feeding, increasing food reward and food-motivated behavior. The precise target site(s) of ghrelin's effects on food reward have yet to be elucidated. The neurocircuitry underpinning food-motivated behavior involves, in particular, the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
The effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on food preferences of avian frugivores have been relatively poorly studied. Although it has been recently advocated that preference is based on equicaloric energy it is also important to note whether preferences change as energy content changes. Therefore, sugar preferences ...
J Leidy Heather - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a protein-rich beverage leads to a differential response in appetite, satiety and subsequent energy intake compared with an energy- and macronutrient-matched solid version in young people. A total of fifteen adolescents (eight girls and seven boys; age 14 (sem 1) ...
Canale Cindy I - - 2011
As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' ...
Scott P M - - 2011
Fumonisins are well known mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum and other Fusarium species. Many new fumonisins and fumonisin-like compounds have been detected by mass spectrometry in cultures of F. verticillioides. Recently, fumonisins B(2) and B(4) were produced by Aspergillus niger isolated from coffee and fumonisin B(2) in A. ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
Avian frugivores have been somewhat poorly studied with regards to the effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on their digestive efficiencies. Therefore, two relatively large South African frugivores, the Knysna turaco (Tauraco corythaix) and the purple-crested turaco (Gallirex porphyreolophus), were fed artificial fruit that contained equicaloric and ...
Gase Lauren N - - 2011
This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 ...
Lê A D AD Neurobiology of Alcohol Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 2S1, Canada. - - 2011
Relapse to alcohol use during abstinence or maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. The anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in humans and non-humans, reliably reinstates alcohol and food seeking in a rat relapse model. Yohimibine is a prototypical alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, but results from ...
Skibicka Karolina P KP Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2012
The decision to eat is strongly influenced by non-homeostatic factors such as food palatability. Indeed, the rewarding and motivational value of food can override homeostatic signals, leading to increased consumption and hence, obesity. Ghrelin, a gut-derived orexigenic hormone, has a prominent role in homeostatic feeding. Recently, however, it has emerged ...
Dixon Helen - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess parents' responses to common, potentially misleading strategies for marketing energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) child-oriented foods. DESIGN: Between-subjects online experiment to test whether nutrient claims and sports celebrity endorsements on the front of packs of EDNP products lead parents to prefer and rate these foods more favourably. SETTING: ...
Ward Daniel J - - 2011
The relatively short life cycles of harpacticoid copepods makes them appropriate animals for use in tests that rapidly assess the acute, sublethal, or chronic effects of sediment contaminants. In this study, four harpacticoid copepod species (Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe tenuimana, Robertgurneya hopkinsi, and Halectinosoma sp.) were isolated from clean marine sediments, ...
Paek Hye-Jin - - 2011
Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on ...
Werner A - - 2011
In this review of the literature devoted to the use of honey, the authors analyse the composition, indications, benefits and adverse effects of this product in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Published data indicate that honey applied topically to skin and mucosal wounds and/or burns and administered orally as ...
Beresford Nicola - - 2011
Vitellogenin (VTG) is a precursor of egg-yolk protein and is therefore present at high concentrations in the plasma of female fish. In male fish, VTG concentrations are usually undetectable or low, but can be induced upon exposure to oestrogenic substances either via the water or the diet. This work was ...
Ezcurra Marina M Cell Biology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2011
Many behavioural states are modulated by food availability and nutritional status. Here, we report that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the presence of an external food source enhances avoidance responses to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH neurons. This enhancement requires dopamine signalling and is mimicked by exogenous dopamine. Food modulation ...
Bamba Yoshinori - - 2011
Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) are used as both food and medicine in Asia. Ten sesquiterpenes (1-10) and two curcuminoids (11 and 12) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. and identified. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP). Among them, the sesquiterpene (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (7) ...
Darzi Julia - - 2011
The recently discovered SCFA-activated G-coupled protein receptors FFA receptor 2 and FFA receptor 3 are co-localised in l-cells with the anorexigenic 'ileal brake' gut hormone peptide YY, and also in adipocytes, with activation stimulating leptin release. Thus, SCFA such as acetate and propionate show promise as a candidate to increase ...
Souza Rita de Cássia Moreira de Rde - - 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of Triatoma vitticeps through the identification of its food sources and the characterization of the blood ingestion process. In addition, we aimed to verify if the saliva of this vector interferes with the perception of the host during the ...
Drake S L - - 2011
Sodium can be found in many sources of the US diet. Dietary guidelines currently suggest a maximum intake of 2,300 mg of sodium (6g of sodium chloride) per day, whereas the average consumer intake is 3,600 mg of sodium (9 g of sodium chloride) per day. The main health concern ...
Palacin Arantxa - - 2011
To cite this article: Palacin A, Quirce S, Sanchez-Monge R, Bobolea I, Diaz-Perales A, Martin-Muñoz F, Pascual C, Salcedo G. Sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2011. ABSTRACT: Banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin E recognition ...
Nguyen Amy D - - 2011
An overview of recent developments documenting the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family's role in energy metabolism. Specifically focusing on site-specific functions of NPY and increasing evidence of peptide YY (PYY) as a weight loss therapeutic. Studying the NPY family in hypothalamic nuclei, other than the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, is a ...
Sánchez J - - 2011
Freeze concentration is a process of concentrating liquid products by freezing the water content and subsequently removing the so-formed ice crystals from the food system. In dairy processing, this technology offers the advantage of minimizing the heat abuse of sensitive milk components, such as proteins and flavors. It thus provides ...
Yee Wee L - - 2011
Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed ...
Gomes Carmen - - 2011
Eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde are natural compounds known to be highly effective antimicrobials; however, both are hydrophobic molecules, a limitation to their use within the food industry. The goal of this study was to synthesize spherical poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde for future antimicrobial delivery applications. The ...
Vivas Y - - 2011
The present study investigates the possible circadian dependence of leptin effects on food intake, locomotor activity, glycemia and plasma cortisol levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were maintained under 12L:12D photoperiod and subjected to two different feeding schedules, one group fed during photophase (10:00) and the other one during scotophase ...
Rodriguez E E Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, - - 2011
According to the current EU legislation, the presence of antimicrobial residues in baby foods is forbidden. Nevertheless, there is a lack of analytical methods to determine veterinary antimicrobials in baby foods and support the zero tolerance policy for this type of foods. This paper describes a simple method based on ...
Stürtz Melanie M Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, c/P. García González 2, Sevilla E 41012, - - 2011
Melatonin has recently been detected in various plants and foods. However, data regarding the food composition of melatonin are too scarce to evaluate dietary intake. This paper aims to identify melatonin unequivocally using LC-MS in a wide set of varieties of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and strawberry (Fragariaananassa). Furthermore, a validated ...
Miryala Chandra Suma Johnson CS Department of Biology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, TX 76204, USA. - - 2011
Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were hormonally primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 50 μg progesterone or were treated with the sesame seed oil vehicle. Food intake was measured 2 h and 24 h after treatment with 0.25 mg/kg of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (±)-8-hydroxy 2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), 5 mg/kg of ...
Miller Nimrod - - 2011
An increase in L-arginine hemolymph concentration act as a post-ingestion signal inhibiting Aplysia feeding. At physiological concentrations (a 10 μM increase over background), the inhibitory effect of L-arginine is too weak to block feeding in hungry animals. However, a 10 μM increase in L-arginine concentration acts along with another inhibitory ...
Tian Jun - - 2011
The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass ...
Shen Hong C - - 2011
A series of benzimidazole pyrrolidinyl amides containing a piperidinyl group were discovered as novel prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) inhibitors. Low-nanomolar IC(50)'s were achieved for several analogs, of which compound 9b displayed modest ex vivo target engagement in eDIO mouse plasma. Compound 9b was also studied in vivo for its effect on weight ...
King James A JA School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United - - 2011
Acute energy deficits imposed by food restriction increase appetite and energy intake; however, these outcomes remain unchanged when energy deficits are imposed by exercise. Our objective was to determine the potential role of acylated ghrelin and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) in mediating appetite and energy intake responses to identical energy deficits ...
Lemmens Sofie G SG Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700 AN Wageningen, The Netherlands. - - 2011
Meal pattern may influence hormone and appetite dynamics and food intake. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of staggered compared with nonstaggered meal consumption on hormone and appetite dynamics, food reward (i.e. "liking," "wanting"), and subsequent energy intake. The study was conducted in a randomized cross-over ...
Meule Adrian - - 2011
Lack of inhibitory control has been found to play a decisive role in disordered eating behavior. Behavioral and self-report measures show impulsive tendencies to even occur in non-clinical samples, e.g. restrained eaters. In restrained eaters, these traits interact with high reactivity to food-related cues leading to overeating. The aim of ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2011
In rodents and goldfish, ghrelin is well known as an orexigenic peptide, and des-acyl ghrelin, which is a ghrelin gene-derived peptide lacking Ser-3 acylation, affects feeding behavior when injected with or without ghrelin. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin inhibits food intake in chicks (Gallus gallus), but has the opposite effect ...
Hoshino Chisho - - 2011
In recent years, Anisakis simplex has been shown to be an important etiologic agent responsible for food allergy and for gastrointestinal anisakiasis. We report a 61-year-old woman presenting with generalized urticaria and subsequent anaphylaxis after ingestion of raw mackerel. She rapidly recovered with administration of epinephrine and endoscopic extraction of ...
Nabeshi Hiromi - - 2011
Currently, nanomaterials (NMs) with particle sizes below 100 nm have been successfully employed in various industrial applications in medicine, cosmetics and foods. On the other hand, NMs can also be problematic in terms of eliciting a toxicological effect by their small size. However, biological and/or cellular responses to NMs are often ...
Morley John E - - 2011
In recent years, there have been a large number of neuropeptides discovered that regulate food intake. Many of these peptides regulate food intake by increasing or decreasing nitric oxide (NO). In the current study, we compared the effect of the food modulators ghrelin, NPY and CCK in NOS KO mice. ...
Guy Elizabeth G - - 2011
The high attrition rates for dietary interventions aimed at promoting a healthier body mass may be caused, at least in part, by constant exposure to environmental stimuli that are associated with palatable foods. In both humans and animals, conditioned stimuli (CSs) that signal reward availability reliably reinstate food- and drug-seeking ...
Reidelberger Roger R Department of Veterans Affairs, Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System, Omaha, NE 68105, USA. - - 2011
The gut hormone peptide YY(3-36)-amide [PYY(3-36)-NH(2)] is significantly more potent than PYY(1-36)-NH(2) in reducing food intake in rats and humans. Other Gly-extended and Ser(13)-phosphorylated PYY forms have been detected or predicted based upon known cellular processes of PYY synthesis and modification. Here we compared the effects of 3-h IV infusion ...
Hou Ruihua R Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United - - 2011
Cognitive and behavioural responses to food reward, such as attentional biases and overeating, have been associated with individual differences in reward-responsiveness and impulsivity. This study investigated relationships between external eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues, assessed using the pictorial visual-probe task. As previously reported, attentional bias correlated positively ...
Moore Darrell - - 2011
Classical experiments demonstrated that honey bee foragers trained to collect food at virtually any time of day will return to that food source on subsequent days with a remarkable degree of temporal accuracy. This versatile time-memory, based on an endogenous circadian clock, presumably enables foragers to schedule their reconnaissance flights ...
Vorkamp Katrin - - 2011
Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. α-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid ...
Pérez-Flores G C - - 2011
To evaluate the effectiveness of maize detoxification achieved with a modified tortilla-making process (MTMP), maize contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) at levels of 22.46, 69.62, and 141.48 ng/g (AFB(1)+ AFB(2)) was processed into tortillas. Aflatoxin content was determined according to the 991.31 AOAC official method. Based ...
Tuda M - - 2011
A number of insect species infest human households and stored foods and products, leading to their designation as pests. Until recently, little was known about the factors driving the evolution of pests that feed on stored dry foods. Here, I review the effects of changes in climate and species interactions ...
Janssen Sara - - 2011
Ghrelin is a hunger hormone with gastroprokinetic properties but the factors controlling ghrelin secretion from the stomach are unknown. Bitter taste receptors (T2R) and the gustatory G proteins, α-gustducin (gust) and α-transducin, are expressed in the gut and are involved in the chemosensation of nutrients. This study aimed to investigate ...
Abramsson-Zetterberg Lilianne - - 2011
Many materials in contact with food, including printing inks, the lack of deeper knowledge about possible toxic effects is a problem. Furthermore, some of these substances are not only produced for packaging of foods, they are produced for a variety of purposes and are not meant to come into direct ...
Scopinho América A - - 2011
Δ9-THC is a component of Cannabis sativa that increases food intake in animals and humans, an effect prevented by selective CB1 receptor antagonists. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another constituent of this plant that promotes several opposite neuropharmacological effects compared to Δ9-THC. CBD mechanisms of action are still not clear, but under ...
Kearns David N - - 2011
The present experiment compared the effectiveness of explicitly unpaired treatment and extinction in preventing the recovery of sign-tracking within a context renewal design. Three groups of rats were first trained on a sign-tracking procedure in Context A where insertions of a retractable lever were paired with food. In a second ...
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