Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 980
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Kendall C W C - - 2011
Background/Objectives:Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals.Subjects/Methods:A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged ...
Martin Annett - - 2011
Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains ...
Hayes Matthew R MR Department of Psychology, School of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2011
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. Here, hindbrain (fourth i.c.v.) GLP-1R activation by Exendin-4 (Ex-4) increased PKA and MAPK activity and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in NTS. PKA and ...
Hartmann H Andreas - - 2011
Consumer demands have led to an increased interest in the use of natural antimicrobials for food protection. With the objective of developing novel products for enhancing the microbial safety of food, we have tested cell-free culture supernatants (CFS's) of eight antagonistic bacterial strains for their efficacy to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes ...
Amigó-Correig M - - 2011
Aims: Sodium tungstate is an anti-obesity drug targeting peripheral tissues. In vivo, sodium tungstate reduces body weight gain and food intake through increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, but it also modulates hypothalamic gene expression when orally administered, raising the possibility of a direct effect of sodium tungstate on the ...
Schnuch Axel - - 2011
Background. Nickel contact allergy is still frequent both in patch-tested patients and in the general population. Objectives. To explain this observation by relating clinical epidemiological data with recent chemical analyses of nickel release from costume jewellery. Methods. (i) The trend of nickel allergy was analysed using data registered between January ...
Ebenman Bo - - 2011
[Formula: see text] [ Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) - one of the IUCN Red-Listed species in the Serengeti food web. Photograph by Fredrik Larsson. ] de Visser, S., Freymann, B. & Olff, H. (2011) The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact. Journal of ...
Jackson Armitra L - - 2011
The popularity of "preservative-free" foods among consumers has stimulated rapid growth of processed meats manufactured without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to quantify the potential for Clostridium perfringens growth in commercially available processed meats manufactured without the direct addition of nitrite or nitrate. Commercial brands of naturally ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2011
The hypothalamus, limbic system, and brainstem play an important role in the regulation of instinctive behavior. Many kinds of hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as orexin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and diazepam-binding inhibitor-derived peptides, including the octadecaneuropeptide, have been implicated in the regulation of appetite ...
Wang Julie - - 2011
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%-4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are ...
Adler K - - 2011
Insulin autoantibodies (IAA) can appear in children within months of introducing solid foods to the diet and before clinical type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether infant dietary antigens could be immunizing agents of IAA. To this end, IAA binding to [(125) I]insulin was competed ...
Williams Dean C - - 2011
We conducted three experiments to reproduce and extend Perone and Courtney's (1992) study of pausing at the beginning of fixed-ratio schedules. In a multiple schedule with unequal amounts of food across two components, they found that pigeons paused longest in the component associated with the smaller amount of food (the ...
Zeng Wei-Cai - - 2011
The antibrowning and antimicrobial activities of the water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara (CDE), a traditional Chinese medicine and raw materials of pine needle tea, was investigated. Total phenols of CDE were 31.4 ± 0.53 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, and total flavonoids were 23.1 ± 0.79 mg rutin ...
de Graaf Cees - - 2011
Liquids have been shown to have a low satiating efficiency. The may be related to the high rate of consumption for liquids which may be higher than 200 g/min. In a number of studies, we showed that the positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake is mediated by oro-sensory ...
Tomie Arthur - - 2011
Two experiments evaluated the effects of removing food presentations on the maintenance of drinking induced by experience with sipper - food pairings. In Exp 1, ethanol drinking was induced in non-deprived Long-Evans rats by Pavlovian conditioning procedures employing an ethanol sipper as conditioned stimulus (CS) and food pellet as unconditioned ...
Veling Harm H Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. - - 2011
We examined whether presentation of environmental cues that are associated with motor inhibition, i.e., fearful facial expressions, can be effective in controlling unintentionally evoked impulses toward rewarding food objects. Participants were presented with palatable foods or control objects. During presentation of the objects, facial expressions displaying fear, disgust, or neutral ...
Dinnella Caterina - - 2011
Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluctuation of salivary ...
Luksiene Z - - 2011
Aims:  This study is focused on the possibility to control microbial contamination of strawberries by chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization. Moreover, photosensitization-induced effects on key quality attributes of treated strawberries was evaluated. Methods and Results:  Strawberries were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3) C 7644, soaked in 1 mmol l(-1) Na-Chl for 5 min and illuminated ...
Wang Gene-Jack - - 2011
Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in ...
Hätönen Katja A - - 2011
Potatoes, especially mashed potatoes, are known to result in high glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. However, in most meals, potatoes are accompanied by other foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate how glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to a mashed potato meal changed when a high-fat food (rapeseed oil), ...
Borges Beatriz C - - 2011
Acute exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent inducer of immune response, as well as hypophagia. Nevertheless, desensitization of responses to LPS occurs during long-term exposure to endotoxin. We induced endotoxin tolerance, injecting repeated (6LPS) LPS doses in comparison with single (1LPS) treatment. 1LPS, but not 6LPS group, showed ...
Fay Stephanie H SH Biopsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. - - 2011
In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably 'emotional eating', 'restrained eating' and 'disinhibited eating', but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, ...
Pérez-Llamas Francisca - - 2011
We investigated the antinutritional effect of white tea extract (0, 15, and 45 mg of the tea solid extract per kilogram body weight) incorporated in the drinking water of rats for 3 and 30 days. Gender-based differences were found for all these variables, except apparent protein digestibility and the apparent absorption of ...
Mugabo Marianne - - 2011
Food availability is a major environmental factor that can influence life history within and across generations through direct effects on individual quality and indirect effects on the intensity of intra- and intercohort competition. Here, we investigated in yearling and adult common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) the immediate and delayed life-history effects ...
Bari A - - 2011
This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed ...
Saar Indrek - - 2011
Galanin a 29/30-residue neuropeptide has been implicated in several functions in the central nervous system, including the regulation of food consumption. Galanin and its analogs administered intraventricularly or into the hypothalamic region of brain have been shown to reliably and robustly stimulate the consumption of food in sated rodents. Three ...
Skibicka Karolina P - - 2011
Ghrelin, a circulating orexigenic stomach-derived hormone, has recently been implicated in extra-homeostatic feeding, increasing food reward and food-motivated behavior. The precise target site(s) of ghrelin's effects on food reward have yet to be elucidated. The neurocircuitry underpinning food-motivated behavior involves, in particular, the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
The effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on food preferences of avian frugivores have been relatively poorly studied. Although it has been recently advocated that preference is based on equicaloric energy it is also important to note whether preferences change as energy content changes. Therefore, sugar preferences ...
J Leidy Heather - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a protein-rich beverage leads to a differential response in appetite, satiety and subsequent energy intake compared with an energy- and macronutrient-matched solid version in young people. A total of fifteen adolescents (eight girls and seven boys; age 14 (sem 1) ...
Canale Cindy I - - 2011
As ecosystems undergo changes worldwide, physiological flexibility is likely to be an important adaptive response to increased climate instability. Extreme weather fluctuations impose energetical constraints such as unpredictable food shortage. We tested how grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) could adjust their daily heterothermy and locomotor activity to these 'energetic accidents' ...
Scott P M - - 2011
Fumonisins are well known mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, F. proliferatum and other Fusarium species. Many new fumonisins and fumonisin-like compounds have been detected by mass spectrometry in cultures of F. verticillioides. Recently, fumonisins B(2) and B(4) were produced by Aspergillus niger isolated from coffee and fumonisin B(2) in A. ...
Wilson Amy-Leigh - - 2011
Avian frugivores have been somewhat poorly studied with regards to the effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on their digestive efficiencies. Therefore, two relatively large South African frugivores, the Knysna turaco (Tauraco corythaix) and the purple-crested turaco (Gallirex porphyreolophus), were fed artificial fruit that contained equicaloric and ...
Gase Lauren N - - 2011
This qualitative study explores facilitators and barriers to a proposed food procurement policy that would require food purchasers, distributors, and vendors of food service in the County of Los Angeles government to meet specified nutrition standards, including limits on sodium content. We conducted 30 key informant interviews. Interviewees represented 18 ...
Lê A D - - 2011
Relapse to alcohol use during abstinence or maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. The anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in humans and non-humans, reliably reinstates alcohol and food seeking in a rat relapse model. Yohimibine is a prototypical alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, but results from ...
Skibicka Karolina P KP Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. - - 2012
The decision to eat is strongly influenced by non-homeostatic factors such as food palatability. Indeed, the rewarding and motivational value of food can override homeostatic signals, leading to increased consumption and hence, obesity. Ghrelin, a gut-derived orexigenic hormone, has a prominent role in homeostatic feeding. Recently, however, it has emerged ...
Dixon Helen - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess parents' responses to common, potentially misleading strategies for marketing energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) child-oriented foods. DESIGN: Between-subjects online experiment to test whether nutrient claims and sports celebrity endorsements on the front of packs of EDNP products lead parents to prefer and rate these foods more favourably. SETTING: ...
Ward Daniel J - - 2011
The relatively short life cycles of harpacticoid copepods makes them appropriate animals for use in tests that rapidly assess the acute, sublethal, or chronic effects of sediment contaminants. In this study, four harpacticoid copepod species (Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe tenuimana, Robertgurneya hopkinsi, and Halectinosoma sp.) were isolated from clean marine sediments, ...
Paek Hye-Jin - - 2011
Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on ...
Werner A - - 2011
In this review of the literature devoted to the use of honey, the authors analyse the composition, indications, benefits and adverse effects of this product in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Published data indicate that honey applied topically to skin and mucosal wounds and/or burns and administered orally as ...
Beresford Nicola - - 2011
Vitellogenin (VTG) is a precursor of egg-yolk protein and is therefore present at high concentrations in the plasma of female fish. In male fish, VTG concentrations are usually undetectable or low, but can be induced upon exposure to oestrogenic substances either via the water or the diet. This work was ...
Ezcurra Marina M Cell Biology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2011
Many behavioural states are modulated by food availability and nutritional status. Here, we report that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the presence of an external food source enhances avoidance responses to soluble repellents sensed by the polymodal ASH neurons. This enhancement requires dopamine signalling and is mimicked by exogenous dopamine. Food modulation ...
Bamba Yoshinori - - 2011
Curcuma species (Zingiberaceae) are used as both food and medicine in Asia. Ten sesquiterpenes (1-10) and two curcuminoids (11 and 12) were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. and identified. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP). Among them, the sesquiterpene (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (7) ...
Darzi Julia - - 2011
The recently discovered SCFA-activated G-coupled protein receptors FFA receptor 2 and FFA receptor 3 are co-localised in l-cells with the anorexigenic 'ileal brake' gut hormone peptide YY, and also in adipocytes, with activation stimulating leptin release. Thus, SCFA such as acetate and propionate show promise as a candidate to increase ...
Souza Rita de Cássia Moreira de Rde - - 2011
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of Triatoma vitticeps through the identification of its food sources and the characterization of the blood ingestion process. In addition, we aimed to verify if the saliva of this vector interferes with the perception of the host during the ...
Drake S L - - 2011
Sodium can be found in many sources of the US diet. Dietary guidelines currently suggest a maximum intake of 2,300 mg of sodium (6g of sodium chloride) per day, whereas the average consumer intake is 3,600 mg of sodium (9 g of sodium chloride) per day. The main health concern ...
Palacin Arantxa - - 2011
To cite this article: Palacin A, Quirce S, Sanchez-Monge R, Bobolea I, Diaz-Perales A, Martin-Muñoz F, Pascual C, Salcedo G. Sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2011. ABSTRACT: Banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin E recognition ...
Nguyen Amy D - - 2011
An overview of recent developments documenting the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family's role in energy metabolism. Specifically focusing on site-specific functions of NPY and increasing evidence of peptide YY (PYY) as a weight loss therapeutic. Studying the NPY family in hypothalamic nuclei, other than the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, is a ...
Sánchez J - - 2011
Freeze concentration is a process of concentrating liquid products by freezing the water content and subsequently removing the so-formed ice crystals from the food system. In dairy processing, this technology offers the advantage of minimizing the heat abuse of sensitive milk components, such as proteins and flavors. It thus provides ...
Yee Wee L - - 2011
Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed ...
Gomes Carmen - - 2011
Eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde are natural compounds known to be highly effective antimicrobials; however, both are hydrophobic molecules, a limitation to their use within the food industry. The goal of this study was to synthesize spherical poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped eugenol and trans-cinnamaldehyde for future antimicrobial delivery applications. The ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >