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Lagaraine Christine - - 2011
Sheep from temperate latitudes exhibit seasonal variations in many physiological functions such as reproduction, food intake, body weight, and pelage growth. Majority of seasonal changes are controlled by the annual photoperiodic cycle and melatonin secretion. For reproduction, the resulting key event is a modulation of the negative feedback of steroids ...
Stohs Sidney J - - 2011
Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its principal protoalkaloidal constituent p-synephrine are widely used in weight loss and weight management as well as in sports performance products. However, questions are raised frequently regarding the safety of these ingredients. The potential inherent dangers associated with the use of products containing C. ...
Ng Janet J Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. - - 2011
We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater activation of the gustatory and somatosensory cortex, but weaker activation of the striatum, in response to intake and anticipated intake of high-fat chocolate milkshake versus an isocaloric milkshake labeled low-fat and a tasteless solution using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with ...
Ball Kevin T - - 2011
We used a rat reinstatement model to test the involvement of dopamine D(1)- and D(2)-like receptors in discrete cue-induced reinstatement of food seeking. At a dose that did not alter responding during food self-administration, the D(1)-like antagonist SCH-23390 blocked reinstatement of food seeking, while the D(2)-like antagonist eticlopride significantly increased ...
Noble D J - - 2011
SUMMARYSalmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 is uncommon in humans in the UK. In July 2010, the Health Protection Agency reported an excess isolation rate of pan-susceptible S. Typhimurium DT8 in England and Northern Ireland. By the end of October, this amounted to 81 laboratory-confirmed human cases ...
Patyal A - - 2011
The present study reports the prevalence of Arcobacter, an emerging pathogen in human, animals and foods of animal origin in India. A total of 600 samples from various sources, viz. diarrhoeal stools of humans and dogs, faecal swabs of animals (pig, poultry), preputial washings of breeding bulls and food samples ...
Peng Xing-Xiang - - 2011
Insertion and removal of AMPA receptors from the synaptic membrane underlie dynamic tuning of synaptic transmission and enduring changes in synaptic strength. Preclinical addiction research suggests that AMPA receptor trafficking plays an important role in nucleus accumbens (NAc) neuroplasticity underlying the compulsive and persistent quality of drug-seeking. Considering the parallels ...
Guo Ying - - 2011
Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used as plasticizers (added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity). Humans are exposed to phthalates through several routes. Urinary phthalate metabolites can be used as biomarkers of human exposures to phthalates. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites ...
Healy Jessica E - - 2011
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that responds to low endogenous energy by stimulating fatty acid oxidation (through inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)) and food intake. Fasting generally stimulates phosphorylation of AMPK (pAMPK) and ACC (pACC), but it is unclear how AMPK and ACC react to a ...
Abraham Klaus - - 2011
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) as a product of the Maillard reaction is found in many foods. Estimated intakes range between 4 and 30 mg per person and day, while an intake of up to 350 mg can result from, e.g., beverages made from dried plums. In vitro genotoxicity was positive when the metabolic preconditions ...
Gearhardt Ashley N AN Yale University, 2 Hillhouse Ave., New Haven, CT 06511, USA. - - 2011
Research has implicated an addictive process in the development and maintenance of obesity. Although parallels in neural functioning between obesity and substance dependence have been found, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the neural correlates of addictive-like eating behavior. To test the hypothesis that elevated "food addiction" scores are ...
Mustorp Stina Lund - - 2011
ABSTRACT Legislation requires labelling of foods containing allergenic ingredients. Here we present a robust ten-plex quantitative and sensitive ligation-dependent probe amplification method, the allergen-MLPA method, for specific detection of eight allergens: sesame, soy, hazelnut, peanut, lupine, gluten, mustard and celery. Ligated probes were amplified by PCR and amplicons were detected ...
Rabie Mohamed A - - 2011
Biogenic amines in foods may pose a public health problem. Therefore, histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine concentrations were measured in selected food items commonly consumed in Egypt. Foods examined were dairy products (blue cheese and Mesh cheese), meats (fermented and smoked cooked sausage), and fish (smoked and salted ...
Gwozdz W - - 2011
Objective:The aim of this report was to present methodological aspects of assessing the effects of advertising on children's food choices and preferences.Methods:Two instruments have been used: first, a choice experiment on children's food knowledge and preferences, and second, a questionnaire on children's knowledge about and attitudes towards advertising. The choice ...
Mansoor Darlene K - - 2011
Food allergies are immune-mediated responses to food proteins. Because of differences in the underlying immunologic mechanisms, there are varying clinical presentations of food allergy. This article discusses the manifestations of IgE-mediated disorders, including urticaria and angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gastrointestinal anaphylaxis, generalized anaphylaxis, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and oral allergy syndrome. It also ...
Schmitt-Hoffmann A H - - 2011
Previous studies have shown that concomitant administration of food may enhance the bioavailability of oral retinoids. To assess the influence of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of alitretinoin after a single oral dose. This was a single-dose, open-label, randomized, crossover study, which enrolled 30 healthy men, aged 18-44 years. Subjects ...
Sommers Christopher H - - 2011
Yersinia pestis, a psychrotrophic pathogen capable of growth at refrigeration temperatures, can cause pharyngeal and gastrointestinal plague in humans that consume contaminated foods. Because Y. pestis is listed as a select agent for food safety and defense, evaluation of food safety intervention technologies for inactivation of this pathogen is needed. ...
Lodi Carolina Simonetti - - 2011
To evaluate the fluoride ion concentration in some fermented milks present in the market. Three brands of 6 fermented milks (Parmalat®-uva, Chamyto®, Paulista®, Batavito®, Yakult®, Vigor Club®) were analyzed. Fluoride concentration was evaluated after facilitated microdiffusion by HDMS. Parmalat® products ranged from 0.022 μgF/g to 0.031 μgF/g, Chamyto® from 0.228 ...
Root Cory M - - 2011
Internal physiological states influence behavioral decisions. We have investigated the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms at the first olfactory synapse for starvation modulation of food-search behavior in Drosophila. We found that a local signal by short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and a global metabolic cue by insulin are integrated at specific ...
Santollo Jessica - - 2011
Estradiol (E2) exerts an inhibitory effect on food intake in a variety of species. While compelling evidence indicates that central, rather than peripheral, estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate this effect, the exact brain regions involved have yet to be conclusively identified. In order to identify brain regions that are sufficient for ...
Jyonouchi Soma S Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2011
A key immunologic feature of food allergy (FA) is the presence of a T(h)2-type cytokine bias. Ligation of the invariant natural killer T cell (iNKT) T-cell receptor (TCR) by sphingolipids presented via the CD1d molecule leads to copious secretion of T(h)2-type cytokines. Major food allergens (eg, milk, egg) are the ...
Kim Youngmok - - 2011
Ready to drink (RTD) teas are a growing segment in the beverage category, brought about by improvements in the flavor of these products and healthy market trends driven by consumers. The presented results evaluated the antioxidant phytochemical stability of RTD teas from aqueous infusions of traditional green tea (Camellia sinensis) ...
Appleton K M - - 2011
Several short-term studies have investigated the effects of a vegetable oil emulsion on subsequent food intake, although findings have been inconsistent. This work aimed to review all studies, and investigate differences in study outcomes based on methodology. All known studies were identified. Data were abstracted from published studies (n = 7). Details ...
Lensu Sanna - - 2011
Aversion to novel food items was studied in male rats and mice after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure using chocolate consumption as an indicator. The correlation of this phenomenon with susceptibility to acute toxicity and CYP1A1 induction was examined by determining the dose-response of chocolate aversion in differently dioxin-sensitive rat lines after ...
Oztürk Mehmet - - 2011
Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the ...
Lateef Dalya M DM Gastroenterology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, - - 2011
Camostat mesilate (or mesylate) releases endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) or CCK-58, the only detectable endocrine form of CCK in the rat, and reduces cumulative food intake by activating CCK(1) receptor. However, the literature lacks meal pattern analysis and an appropriate dose-response curve for this peptide. Therefore, the current study determines meal ...
Kuhnen Shirley - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of 26 maize landraces cultivated in southern Brazil were determined to evaluate their potential as natural colorants or functional food ingredients. RESULTS: The major carotenoids detected in the whole grain flour were zeaxanthin and lutein. Anthocyanins of landraces with purple starchy endosperm (Lingua de Papagaio ...
Silalai Nattiga - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Stickiness correlates with changes in mechanical α-relaxation properties and often results from glass transition and plasticisation of amorphous food components. In this study, milk solids with maltodextrins with different dextrose equivalents (DE9 and DE17) were analysed for glass transition (T(g) ), α-relaxation (T(α) ) and sticky point (SPT) temperatures ...
Kessel Aharon - - 2011
The transition from milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome to IgE-mediated milk allergy is uncommon. Herein, we describe three infants that suffered from recurrent vomiting and restlessness in response to cow's milk formula with negative skin prick to milk and therefore diagnosed as milk protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. After recovering and reintroducing cow's ...
Inomata Naoko - - 2011
Background: Fermented soybeans (natto) have been reported to induce IgE-mediated, late-onset anaphylaxis without early-phase responses. However, the relevant allergens of natto allergy have never been identified. Case Summary: A 38-year-old man developed an anaphylactic reaction accompanied by flashing, generalized urticaria, conjunctival redness, and dyspnea 3 hours after ingestion of commercial ...
Soto-Jiménez Martín F - - 2011
This investigation aimed to assess the biological responses to Pb along a simplified four-level food chain, from primary producer, the microalgae (Tetraselmis suecica) grown in a control medium with <1μg/L of Pb, and exposed to a sub-lethal dose (20 μg/L of Pb) and used as the base of a simulated ...
Coronel M B - - 2011
Ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as its metabolite ochratoxin α (OTα) were detected in human urine in order to assess the exposure to OTA of a group of 72 adult inhabitants of the city of Lleida (Spain). Urine samples were enzymatically treated; OTA and OTα were separated by liquid-liquid extraction, ...
Faber Joyce - - 2011
Immune modulatory effects of EPA and DHA are well described. However, these fatty acids must be effectively incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids to modify cell function. To address the absence of human data regarding short-term incorporation, the present study investigated the incorporation of EPA and DHA into white blood cells ...
Distel Christopher A - - 2011
Priority effects are defined as asymmetric responses of different species colonizing the same habitat in different sequences and are important in structuring communities, particularly for ephemeral systems that are colonized annually. Amphibians often use ephemeral ponds and have been shown to experience priority effects from interspecific competition. Pesticide exposure can ...
Stice Eric E Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA. - - 2011
Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, ...
Geffroy Benjamin - - 2011
Abstract The impact of a daily ration of food containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of two sizes (12 and 50 nm) was investigated in the zebrafish Danio rerio at very low doses (from 36-106 ng gold/fish/day). AuNP exposure resulted in various dysfunctions at the sub cellular scale, and AuNP concentration in ...
Bengtsson Jonas M - - 2011
Few studies have systematically addressed evolutionary changes in olfactory neuron assemblies, either by genetic drift or as an adaptation to specific odor environments. We have studied the sense of olfaction in 2 congeneric scarab beetles, Pachnoda interrupta Olivier and Pachnoda marginata Drury (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), which are both opportunistic polyphages, ...
Lensu Sanna - - 2011
A conspicuous but scantly-studied feature of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity is avoidance of unfamiliar foodstuffs, which seems to be one of the very few exquisitely sensitive behavioural effects in adult laboratory animals. Here we characterized this peculiar response further after low doses of TCDD. The time-course of the novelty avoidance, the ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2011
The glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, liraglutide (Victoza) and the synthetic product of exendin-4 (Byetta), are approved for type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment and may be efficacious in obesity treatment as well, in part, due to the drugs' resistance to enzymatic degradation and prolonged half-life relative to endogenous GLP-1. To ...
Verty Aaron N A - - 2011
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent ...
Rico Cyren M - - 2011
The uptake, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and risks of nanomaterials (NMs) for food crops are still not well understood. Very few NMs and plant species have been studied, mainly at the very early growth stages of the plants. Most of the studies, except one with multiwalled carbon nanotubes performed on the model ...
Acosta-Galvan Guadalupe - - 2011
Food anticipatory behavior (FAA) is induced by limiting access to food for a few hours daily. Animals anticipate this scheduled meal event even without the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock. Consequently, a food-entrained oscillator has been proposed to be responsible for meal time estimation. Recent studies suggested the dorsomedial ...
Zygoura P D - - 2011
Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of ...
Steyn Catharina E - - 2011
Concentrated fruit products have a significant place in modern consumption markets and are valuable semi-prepared food components to the bakery, dairy, confectionary, canning, baby food, frozen food, distilling and beverage industries. There is continuous pressure on the beverage industry to improve the quality of concentrated fruit products in order for ...
Schilirò T - - 2011
Food is likely to be one of the most important routes of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In the present study, we evaluated the total estrogenic activity of fruits and vegetables, which was calculated using the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay (E-screen), in relation ...
de Roode Jacobus C - - 2011
Ecology Letters (2011) ABSTRACT: Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific ...
Zhou Hai-Feng - - 2011
Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been widely used as food and folk medicine in the Mediterranean basin and in central and west Asia. In this study, two biflavonoids, isoginkgetin, and ginkgetin, together with three other flavonoids, were isolated from caper fruits. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses ...
Finger Beate C - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Several fine-tuned and interconnected hypothalamic peptidergic systems orchestrate the regulation of energy homeostasis in the body. The orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic peptide leptin are among the most important, and both have been implicated in the development of eating disorders from obesity to anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVES: The goal ...
Keet Corinne C Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, CMSC 1102, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. - - 2011
Food-induced anaphylactic reactions are common and increasing in frequency. Despite the existence of a consensus definition of anaphylaxis, many cases are missed, recommended treatments are not given, and follow-up is inadequate. New aspects of its pathophysiology and causes, including atypical food-induced causes, are still being uncovered. Epinephrine remains the cornerstone ...
Nersesian Carolyn L - - 2011
1. Foraging herbivores must deal with plant characteristics that inhibit feeding and they must avoid being eaten. Principally, toxins limit food intake, while predation risk alters how long animals are prepared to harvest resources. Each of these factors strongly affects how herbivores use food patches, and both constraints can pose immediate ...
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