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Kirsi Myöhänen - - 2011
Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated by using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and ...
Perelló Gemma - - 2011
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as those of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12-dioxin like (DL)-PCBs, were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in Catalonia (Spain) in November-December 2008. A total of 65 composite samples, belonging to various food groups were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The dietary ...
Antonijevic B - - 2011
The aim of this work was to assess the risk due to mercury (Hg), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs) intake via fish consumption in Serbia. We have developed 24 scenarios using four concentration levels (mean, maximum, 50th and 95th percentile) of contaminants, determined in 521 samples of ...
Panter Kip E - - 2011
As man-made chemicals (anthropogenic) are increasing in number and amount of use, it is not uncommon for farmers, ranchers, consultants, or veterinarians to suspect a xenobiotic (strange or foreign substance) as the cause of reproductive failures. In this article, the authors discuss toxicants that have been shown to affect reproduction, ...
Schuster Roseanne C - - 2011
The contamination of traditional foods with chemical pollutants is a challenge to the food security of Aboriginal Peoples. Mercury levels are generally low in terrestrial animals; however renal mercury levels have been shown to change over time in the Porcupine Caribou Herd, the principal food source for the Vuntut Gwitchin ...
Stefani Eduardo De - - 2011
In the period 1996-2004, a hospital-based case-control study on diet and adenocarcinoma of the lung in men was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 200 cases and 800 controls, frequency matched on age, residence, and interviewers. Factor analysis (principal components) was used to identify the major food patterns associated ...
Kaminuma Chie - - 2011
Objectives- The purpose of this study was to find a reliable procedure for performing virtual touch tissue quantification of the liver. Methods- Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled after informed consent was obtained. The liver and spleen of each volunteer were examined on the same day by two different sonologists. The ...
Roze Ludmila V - - 2011
Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen in many animals. Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops causes a significant global burden on human and animal health. However, available methods to eliminate aflatoxin from food and feed are not fully effective. Our goal is to discover ...
Cao Sishuo - - 2011
Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have ...
Rishniw Mark - - 2011
The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is ...
Duarte Sofia C - - 2011
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting ...
Petersen L H - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the fish liver is perfused with blood. Transonic® flow probes were therefore implanted around the ventral aorta and hepatic vein(s) to record baseline blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) previously held under two different feeding regimes ...
Lamy Evelyn - - 2011
Isothiocyanates from Brassica vegetables are of great interest for use in the cure of bacterial infections, as is their potential application in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Although much information is available on their mode of action within the cell, when it comes to the question of whether the ...
Mornagui B - - 2011
This study was performed to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in corticosterone, endpoint product of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and metabolic responses to 3 days of food deprivation. To investigate this aim, we used a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In food ...
Bayir Abdulkadir - - 2011
The effects of long-term starvation and food restriction (49days), followed by refeeding (21days) have been studied with respect to antioxidant defense in the liver and gills (branchial tissues) of the brown trout, Salmo trutta. Malondialdehyde levels in both tissues increased in parallel with starvation and food restriction and these values ...
Siegmund Werner - - 2011
The muscarinic receptor antagonist propiverine is unique insofar as extended-release (ER) tablets are of higher bioavailability than immediate-release (IR) tablets; this is caused by lower "first-pass" elimination of propiverine via CYP3A4 and efflux transporters in the distal small intestine and colon. Food may influence gastrointestinal transiting and, in turn, may ...
Stølevik Solvor Berntsen - - 2011
The birth cohort BraMat (n=205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants ...
Fullerton Marjorie - - 2011
The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the ...
Leidy Heather J HJ Department of Dietetics & Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA. - - 2011
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study identified whether breakfast consumption would alter the neural activity in brain regions associated with food motivation and reward in overweight "breakfast skipping" (BS) adolescent girls and examined whether increased protein at breakfast would lead to additional alterations. Ten girls (Age: 15 ± ...
Kanoski Scott E - - 2011
The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has ...
Katsuura Yoshihiro Y Department of Physiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2011
Infusion of a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) drives voracious food intake, an effect hypothesized to occur through increased tastant palatability. While intake of many palatable foods is elevated by MOR stimulation, this manipulation has a preferential effect on fatty food ingestion. Consumption of high-fat foods ...
Carai Mauro A M - - 2011
Previous lines of experimental evidence have suggested that Phaseolus vulgaris extracts reduce food intake, body weight, lipid accumulation, hedonic properties of food, carbohydrate absorption and metabolism, and glycaemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of multiple cycles of repeated treatments with a standardised P. vulgaris ...
Roy Christian - - 2011
Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2) are hyperphagic (59% to 229% increase, P<0.0001) counter-balanced by increased energy expenditure ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2011
Although it is known that urocortin 1 (UCN) acts on both corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRF(1) and CRF(2)), the mechanisms underlying UCN-induced anorexia remain unclear. In contrast, ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, stimulates food intake. In the present study, we examined the effects of CRF(1) and ...
Solomon Matia B - - 2011
Syrian hamsters, like many humans, increase food intake and body adiposity in response to stress. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) mediate these stress-induced effects on energy homeostasis. Because Syrian hamsters are dual secretors of cortisol and corticosterone, differential effects of each glucocorticoid on energy homeostasis were investigated. First, ...
Alvarez-Guerrero Cesar - - 2011
To diminish the risk of transmission to humans of advanced third-stage larvae (A3L) of Gnathostoma binucleatum in fish foods, we evaluated the effects of some physical factors on larval viability. A3L protected within fish meatballs were subjected to freezing, refrigeration, boiling, dry heat, and immersion in lemon juice. By freezing, ...
Finkler Hilit - - 2011
Objective-To examine behavioral differences during a 1-year observational period between urban feeding groups of neutered and sexually intact free-roaming cats following a trap-neuter-return procedure. Design-Natural-setting trial. Animals-Free-roaming cats (n = 184) living in 4 feeding groups in an urban region of Israel. Procedures-Trap-neuter-return procedures were applied to 2 cat feeding ...
Peng Silvio - - 2011
The ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in certain foods mainly depends on stress response mechanisms. Insight into molecular properties enabling pathogenic bacteria to survive in food is valuable for improvement of the control of pathogens during food processing. Raw milk cheeses are a potential source for human infections with ...
Donny Eric C - - 2011
Concerns about body weight represent an important barrier to public health efforts aimed at reducing smoking. Epidemiological studies have found that current smokers weigh less than non-smokers, smoking cessation results in weight gain, and weight restriction is commonly cited as a reason for smoking. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between ...
Saneyasu Takaoki - - 2011
Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. In this study, we examined the involvement of orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks (Gallus gallus). First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY and its receptors (Y1 and Y5 receptors) ...
Carr Kenneth D KD Department of Psychiatry, Millhauser Laboratories, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2011
In the laboratory, food restriction has been shown to induce neuroadaptations in brain reward circuitry which are likely to be among those that facilitate survival during periods of food scarcity in the wild. However, the upregulation of mechanisms that promote foraging and reward-related learning may pose a hazard when food ...
Ong Pei Thing - - 2011
Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed ...
Goulas Vlassios - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruit (cv. Camarosa) upon postharvest ripening at room temperature (20 °C) and to correlate them with qualitative attributes. RESULTS: 'Camarosa' fruit retained an appreciable postharvest performance for up to 1 day ...
Takimoto Ayaka - - 2011
Our society is sustained by wide-ranging cooperation. If individuals are sensitive to others' gains and losses as well as the amount of labor, they can ensure future beneficial cooperative interaction. However, it is still an open question whether nonhuman primates are sensitive to others' labor. We asked this question in ...
Chen Shu - - 2011
Listeria monocytogenes is the etiologic agent of listeriosis responsible for severe and fatal infections in humans. Listeria contamination occurs quite often in a wide range of foods due to its ubiquitous nature. Isolates need to be characterized to a strain level for accurate diagnosis of Listeria infection, epidemiological studies, investigation ...
Ibias Javier J Laboratorios de Conducta Animal, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, - - 2011
Eight Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), 8 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and 8 Wistar rats, all male, maintained at 80-85% of their free-feeding weight by controlled access to food, were exposed to a series of fixed time (FT) schedules whereby food pellets were regularly delivered regardless of the animals' behaviour. The FT values ...
Vanden Bussche Julie - - 2011
In recent years, questions have been raised on the possible semi-endogenous status of the alleged xenobiotic thyreostatic drug thiouracil. This, because thiouracil has been detected in urine of various animals (livestock and domesticated) at concentrations between 1 and 10 µg L<sup>-1</sup>, and in humans. Although several studies suggest Brassicaceae-derived feed ...
Eckel Lisa A - - 2011
Despite a strong male bias in both basic and clinical research, it is becoming increasingly accepted that the ovarian hormone estradiol plays an important role in the control of food intake in females. Estradiol's feeding inhibitory effect occurs in a variety of species, including women, but the underlying mechanism has ...
De Guchtenaere A - - 2011
PURPOSE: Desmopressin is a standard treatment for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Different formulations are promoted as bioequivalent, although these claims are not supported by comparative pharmacodynamic data in children. Food interaction is known to influence the bioavailability of desmopressin. We compared the pharmacodynamics of the 2 most frequently used desmopressin formulations, ...
Marchini Leonardo - - 2011
Abstract Alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency can both affect bone physiology and have shown to have an adverse effect on dental implant therapy. However, the combination of both factors on osseointegration is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration in rats fed with alcohol and presenting induced ...
Rabiner E A EA GSK Clinical Imaging Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, - - 2011
Opioid neurotransmission has a key role in mediating reward-related behaviours. Opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, such as naltrexone (NTX), can attenuate the behaviour-reinforcing effects of primary (food) and secondary rewards. GSK1521498 is a novel OR ligand, which behaves as an inverse agonist at the μ-OR sub-type. In a sample of healthy ...
Currie Paul J - - 2011
The corticotropin releasing hormone-related ligand, urocortin-I (UcnI), suppresses food intake when injected into multiple hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic areas. UcnI also alters energy substrate utilization, specifically via enhanced fat oxidation as reflected in reductions in respiratory quotient (RQ). In the present study we compared the feeding and metabolic effects of ghrelin ...
Kaskani Charoula - - 2011
The effects of analogs of the diuretic peptides Locmi-DH, Dippu-DH(46) and Dippu-DH(31) on two aspects of appetitive behavior are investigated in previously food-deprived nymphs of Locusta migratoria. The analogs tested are the C-terminal 15-mer and nonapeptides and their corresponding cyclic analogs. At a nominal dose of 1pmol injected per nymph, ...
Apolzan John W JW Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, - - 2011
Limited research has suggested that the food form of nutritional supplements (FFNS) and resistance training (RT) influence ingestive behaviour and energy balance in older adults. The effects of the FFNS and RT on acute appetitive, endocrine and metabolic responses are not adequately documented. The present study assessed the effects of ...
Sui Jianxin - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a unique type of immunoglobulin found in egg yolks, and many reports have described its ability to inhibit corresponding antigen bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of IgY specific to Listeria monocytogenes, an important food pathogen to both ...
Lee Hongjoo J HJ Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, - - 2011
Rats orient to and approach localizable visual cues paired with food delivery. Previous studies from this laboratory show that the acquisition and expression of these learned cue-directed responses depend on integrity of a system including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ...
Foltin Richard W - - 2011
We examined the effects of periodic access to a palatable, high sugar content food (candy) in 8 male baboons on the anorectic response to d-amphetamine, which increases dopamine, and dexfenfluramine, which increases serotonin. During candy access, up to 200 candies containing 75% of energy as sugar were available during the ...
Tong Jenny - - 2011
Olfaction is an integral part of feeding providing predictive cues that anticipate ingestion. Although olfactory function is modulated by factors such as prolonged fasting, the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently identified ghrelin receptors in olfactory circuits in the brain. We therefore investigated the role of the appetite-stimulating ...
Lee Jinyoung - - 2011
Consequences of long-term exposure to diclofenac up to 3 months were evaluated using freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and a fish (Oryzias latipes). Marked decrease of reproduction was observed at 25mg/L for D. magna, and at 50mg/L for M. macrocopa. Three-month exposure of fish to 0.001-10mg/L of diclofenac ...
Zimmermann Michael B - - 2011
Recent studies suggest nanostructured oxides and phosphates of Fe and atomically mixed Fe/Zn may be useful for nutritional applications. These compounds may have several advantages over existing fortificants, such as ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)), NaFeEDTA and electrolytic iron. Because of their very low solubility and formation of soft agglomerates of micron ...
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