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Cao Sishuo - - 2012
Bacillus thuringiensis rice is facing commercialization as the main food source in the near future. The unintended effects of genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to their promotion. We aimed to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by using metabonomics and bacterial ...
Mohd Ali Norlaily - - 2012
With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly ...
Stevenson Severin E - - 2012
Soybean (Glycinemax) is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch, and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing ...
Park MinHee - - 2012
Isoflavone profiles of a fermented soy food, cheonggukjang, were modified using almond powder. Isoflavones were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. Malonyl derivatives of isoflavones decreased and aglycones of isoflavones increased in samples with almond powder for 48 h. As added, almond powder increased from ...
Fotland T Ø - - 2011
Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI ...
Messer Anastasia - - 2011
Furocoumarins are phototoxic and photogenotoxic natural constituents occurring in a broad variety of plants used in cosmetics, food, and drugs. Grapefruit juice is considered as a major dietary source of furocoumarins although very few is known about the phototoxic properties of furocoumarins in grapefruit. Here we analyzed the phototoxicity and ...
Biedermann-Brem S - - 2011
POSH are polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons, such as oligomers from polyethylene or polypropylene. POSH that have migrated into foods are easily mistaken for mineral oil-saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). In fact, both POSH and MOSH largely consist of highly isomerised branched and possibly cyclic hydrocarbons, both forming humps of unresolved components in ...
Escribano M - - 2011
From a human safety perspective, the administration of ivermectin to food producing animal species entails potential risks related to the presence of drug residues in edible tissues, milk, and other derived products. The European Medicines Agency has established the maximum residue limits for ivermectin in the European Union, with values ...
Yu Yanxin - - 2011
This paper provides the results of an investigation on dietary intakes and internal doses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for non-smoking women from Beijing, China. Concentrations of PAHs were measured using GC/MS for human milk, placenta, and umbilical cord blood samples from 40 non-smoking women and for 144 composite food ...
Munday Rex - - 2011
Many organic sulfides (mono-, di- and poly-sulfides) are present in our environment. Simple derivatives are produced by some plants and animals, while complex sulfides are secondary metabolites of several genera of bacteria and fungi. Sulfides play an important role in the smell and taste of food, and many such compounds ...
Tan Chong Yew CY Metabolic Research Laboratories, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, - - 2011
The identification of functional brown adipose tissue in human adults has intensified interest in exploiting thermogenic energy expenditure for the purpose of weight management. However, food intake and energy expenditure are tightly regulated and it is generally accepted that variation in one component results in compensatory changes in the other. ...
Leijen Suzanne - - 2011
This Phase I study assessed whether food influences the rate and extent of selumetinib absorption in patients with advanced solid malignancies and determined the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of selumetinib and its active metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib in fed and fasted states. A single dose of 75 mg selumetinib was ...
da Silva Grazyelle Sebrenski - - 2011
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic organisms and along food chain. Many studies have reported the problem of mercury exposure in aquatic systems from Amazon basin, but very few have focused on the potential risks to wild fish. The present study reports the bioaccumulation of mercury ...
Chen Chen - - 2011
  This study was designed to estimate the dietary intake of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) (total and methyl), and arsenic (As) by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. The concentrations of these toxic elements (TEs) were determined in vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood samples randomly acquired in 5 districts of ...
Messer Anastasia - - 2011
Furocoumarins are phototoxic and photogenotoxic natural plant constituents occurring in cosmetics, food and drugs. Grapefruit juice is considered as a major dietary source of furocoumarins although few is known about the variability of furocoumarins in grapefruit juice. We analyzed the major furocoumarins in eight commercial grapefruit juices and in freshly ...
Zhang Qiong - - 2011
Despite the great concerns about dioxins in the marine environments, the biokinetics and bioaccumulation of these compounds in marine organisms remains little known. Using radioactive tracers the aqueous uptake, dietary assimilation efficiency, and elimination of dioxins were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods and seabream. The calculated uptake rate constant of ...
Abraham Klaus - - 2011
Acrolein is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde formed by thermal treatment of animal and vegetable fats, carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition it is generated endogenously. As an electrophile, acrolein forms adducts with gluthathione and other cellular components and is therefore cytotoxic. Mutagenicity was shown in some in vitro tests. Acrolein forms ...
Siedlinski M - - 2012
Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and ...
Aylward Lesa L - - 2011
Exposure assessment analyses conducted in Europe have concluded that the primary pathway of exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is through the diet. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether urinary DEHP metabolite data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) demonstrate relationships with reported food-fasting ...
Beleggia Romina - - 2011
The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolite variations during industrial pasta processing (from semolina to dried pasta) for five different commercial products. Up to 76 metabolites were detected. Significant differences were observed between wholemeal and refined pasta samples with the wholemeal pasta more rich in many classes ...
Kale V D - - 2011
Supervised field trials were conducted at the research farms of four agricultural universities located at different agro-climatic zones of India to find out the harvest time residues of flubendiamide and its des-iodo metabolite on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) during the year 2006-2007. Two spray applications of flubendiamide 20 WDG at ...
Ward Sara Jane SJ Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University Health Sciences Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2011
No medication is approved to treat cocaine addiction, but mounting evidence suggests that glutamate-directed approaches may reduce cocaine dependence and relapse. We tested the hypotheses that the glutamate transporter subtype 1 activator, ceftriaxone, disrupts acquisition of cocaine self-administration, motivation to self-administer cocaine, and conditioned place preference in mice. Repeated ceftriaxone ...
Visioli Francesco - - 2011
The metabolic syndrome is multifactorial in nature and its incidence is rapidly increasing along with its risk factors. This review discusses nutrition, functional foods, and nutraceuticals most frequently adopted in the co-treatment of the metabolic syndrome. In fact, several foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals with potential "pharmacological" activities are positioned ...
Naddy Rami B - - 2011
Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that ...
Su Guanyong - - 2011
Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100pg/g ww), but more in ...
Kirsi Myöhänen - - 2011
Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated by using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and ...
Perelló Gemma - - 2011
The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as those of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12-dioxin like (DL)-PCBs, were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in Catalonia (Spain) in November-December 2008. A total of 65 composite samples, belonging to various food groups were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The dietary ...
Antonijevic B - - 2011
The aim of this work was to assess the risk due to mercury (Hg), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs) intake via fish consumption in Serbia. We have developed 24 scenarios using four concentration levels (mean, maximum, 50th and 95th percentile) of contaminants, determined in 521 samples of ...
Panter Kip E - - 2011
As man-made chemicals (anthropogenic) are increasing in number and amount of use, it is not uncommon for farmers, ranchers, consultants, or veterinarians to suspect a xenobiotic (strange or foreign substance) as the cause of reproductive failures. In this article, the authors discuss toxicants that have been shown to affect reproduction, ...
Schuster Roseanne C - - 2011
The contamination of traditional foods with chemical pollutants is a challenge to the food security of Aboriginal Peoples. Mercury levels are generally low in terrestrial animals; however renal mercury levels have been shown to change over time in the Porcupine Caribou Herd, the principal food source for the Vuntut Gwitchin ...
Stefani Eduardo De - - 2011
In the period 1996-2004, a hospital-based case-control study on diet and adenocarcinoma of the lung in men was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 200 cases and 800 controls, frequency matched on age, residence, and interviewers. Factor analysis (principal components) was used to identify the major food patterns associated ...
Kaminuma Chie - - 2011
Objectives- The purpose of this study was to find a reliable procedure for performing virtual touch tissue quantification of the liver. Methods- Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled after informed consent was obtained. The liver and spleen of each volunteer were examined on the same day by two different sonologists. The ...
Roze Ludmila V LV Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Michigan State University, 227 GM Trout Bldg, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. - - 2011
Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen in many animals. Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed crops causes a significant global burden on human and animal health. However, available methods to eliminate aflatoxin from food and feed are not fully effective. Our goal is to discover ...
Cao Sishuo - - 2011
Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have ...
Rishniw Mark - - 2011
The effect of probiotic therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is poorly defined, but gaining in popularity. However, cat owners often prefer to administer probiotics by combining them with food, rather than administering capsules intact, as is prescribed by the manufacturer. The efficacy of such non-recommended administration is ...
Duarte Sofia C - - 2011
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, whose presence in feed- and foodstuffs is unavoidable. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the known mycotoxins with greatest public health and agro-economic significance. Several toxic effects have been ascribed following exposure, namely nephrotoxicity, as well negative impacts in the performance of farm animals, resulting ...
Petersen L H - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the fish liver is perfused with blood. Transonic® flow probes were therefore implanted around the ventral aorta and hepatic vein(s) to record baseline blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) previously held under two different feeding regimes ...
Lamy Evelyn - - 2011
Isothiocyanates from Brassica vegetables are of great interest for use in the cure of bacterial infections, as is their potential application in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Although much information is available on their mode of action within the cell, when it comes to the question of whether the ...
Mornagui B - - 2011
This study was performed to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in corticosterone, endpoint product of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and metabolic responses to 3 days of food deprivation. To investigate this aim, we used a nonspecific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). In food ...
Bayir Abdulkadir - - 2011
The effects of long-term starvation and food restriction (49days), followed by refeeding (21days) have been studied with respect to antioxidant defense in the liver and gills (branchial tissues) of the brown trout, Salmo trutta. Malondialdehyde levels in both tissues increased in parallel with starvation and food restriction and these values ...
Siegmund Werner - - 2011
The muscarinic receptor antagonist propiverine is unique insofar as extended-release (ER) tablets are of higher bioavailability than immediate-release (IR) tablets; this is caused by lower "first-pass" elimination of propiverine via CYP3A4 and efflux transporters in the distal small intestine and colon. Food may influence gastrointestinal transiting and, in turn, may ...
Stølevik Solvor Berntsen - - 2011
The birth cohort BraMat (n=205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants ...
Fullerton Marjorie - - 2011
The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the ...
Leidy Heather J HJ Department of Dietetics & Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA. - - 2011
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study identified whether breakfast consumption would alter the neural activity in brain regions associated with food motivation and reward in overweight "breakfast skipping" (BS) adolescent girls and examined whether increased protein at breakfast would lead to additional alterations. Ten girls (Age: 15 ± ...
Kanoski Scott E - - 2011
The increase in obesity prevalence highlights the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the neural systems controlling food intake; one that extends beyond food intake driven by metabolic need and considers that driven by higher-order cognitive factors. The hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory function, has ...
Katsuura Yoshihiro Y Department of Physiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2011
Infusion of a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) drives voracious food intake, an effect hypothesized to occur through increased tastant palatability. While intake of many palatable foods is elevated by MOR stimulation, this manipulation has a preferential effect on fatty food ingestion. Consumption of high-fat foods ...
Carai Mauro A M - - 2011
Previous lines of experimental evidence have suggested that Phaseolus vulgaris extracts reduce food intake, body weight, lipid accumulation, hedonic properties of food, carbohydrate absorption and metabolism, and glycaemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of multiple cycles of repeated treatments with a standardised P. vulgaris ...
Roy Christian - - 2011
Acylation stimulating protein (ASP, C3adesArg) stimulates triglyceride synthesis and glucose transport via interaction with its receptor C5L2, which is expressed peripherally (adipose tissue, muscle) and centrally. Previous studies have shown that ASP-deficient mice (C3KO) and C5L2-deficient mice (C5L2) are hyperphagic (59% to 229% increase, P<0.0001) counter-balanced by increased energy expenditure ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2011
Although it is known that urocortin 1 (UCN) acts on both corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRF(1) and CRF(2)), the mechanisms underlying UCN-induced anorexia remain unclear. In contrast, ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, stimulates food intake. In the present study, we examined the effects of CRF(1) and ...
Solomon Matia B - - 2011
Syrian hamsters, like many humans, increase food intake and body adiposity in response to stress. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) mediate these stress-induced effects on energy homeostasis. Because Syrian hamsters are dual secretors of cortisol and corticosterone, differential effects of each glucocorticoid on energy homeostasis were investigated. First, ...
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