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Results 451 - 500 of 1049
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Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2010
Why do chronic dieters often violate their dieting goals? One possibility is that they experience stronger hedonic responses to tempting food than normal eaters do. We scrutinized hedonic processing in dieters and normal eaters (a) by manipulating food preexposure and (b) by assessing both immediate and delayed hedonic responses to ...
Leston Sara - - 2011
The use of pharmaceuticals in the food production industry as prophylatic and therapeutic agents is necessary to promote animal health, but may entail significant consequences to natural ecosystems, especially in the cases of overdosing and use of banned pharmaceuticals. The vast effects that antibiotics released into the environment have on ...
Moran Timothy H TH Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2011
Signaling from energy stores provides feedback on overall nutrient availability to influence food intake. Beginning with seminal studies by Woods and colleagues identifying insulin as an adiposity signal, it has become clear that such factors affect food intake by modulating the efficacy of within meal feedback satiety signals. More recent ...
Yoshida Hideyo - - 2011
Glutathione is a valuable tri-peptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Glutathione is produced industrially by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that expression of amylase genes in glutathione-producing S. cerevisiae enables direct use of starch as a carbon source, thus eliminating the Crabtree effect ...
Gupta Nitin N Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, - - 2011
Much human behavior is driven by urges. Yet research into urges is hampered by a paucity of tools to objectively index their strength, timing and control. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and concurrent electromyography to examine whether urges for food and money are detectable via motor system excitability. ...
Novoseletsky Nataly - - 2011
The cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) was studied primarily in mammals where it was found to comprise a link between reward processes and addictive behavior such as food consumption. The purpose of this study was twofold: first to characterize the effect of the chicken CB(1) receptor inverse agonist AM251 on food intake, ...
Sepúlveda Wilmer S - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the different evaluations made by the agents at either end of the lamb meat chain, i.e. producers and consumers, in relation to the parameters that consumers use when purchasing lamb meat and the factors that affect the production of quality ...
Strok Marko - - 2011
(210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in fish from the Slovenian part of Adriatic Sea, in the vicinity of a former uranium mine at Žirovski vrh and from the Slovenian market were determined. In addition, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in squid from the Slovenian market and in mussels from the ...
Rudders Susan A SA Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2011
Food-induced anaphylaxis may be more difficult to recognize in younger children. We describe age-related patterns in the clinical presentation of children with anaphylaxis, which may facilitate the early recognition and treatment of this potentially life-threatening condition.
Ladero Victor - - 2011
Biogenic amines (BA) are low molecular weight nitrogenous bases commonly found in fermented foods and beverages and their consumption can induce undesirable reactions. In this work, the BA content in natural cider from Spain and France was determined. Samples from commercially available cider or obtained during the elaboration process were ...
Fernández de Palencia Pilar - - 2011
Biogenic amines in food constitute a human health risk. Here we report that tyramine-producing Enterococcus durans strain IPLA655 (from cheese) was able to produce tyramine under conditions simulating transit through the gastrointestinal tract. Activation of the tyramine biosynthetic pathway contributed to binding and immunomodulation of enterocytes.
Salvy Sarah-Jeanne SJ Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York at Buffalo, USA. - - 2011
There is growing evidence that the experience of being ostracized can impair individuals' abilities to self-regulate, which in turn, leads to negative health behaviors, such as increased unhealthy eating. Research has focused on adults, but deficits in eating regulation in response to ostracism may be particularly detrimental for overweight or ...
Tang Xiaofeng - - 2011
Xanthine (Xa) determination is of considerable importance in clinical analysis and food quality control. Therefore, a sensitive nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for Xa based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been proposed. The CNFs, which were prepared by electrospinning technique and subsequent thermal treatment, were used to modify carbon paste electrode (CNF-CPE) ...
Radford Andrew N - - 2011
Parasitism generally imposes costs on victims, yet many victims appear to tolerate their parasites. We suggest that in some cases this may be because parasites provide victims with mitigating benefits, paradoxically giving rise to selection for advertisement rather than concealment by parasites. We investigate this possibility using the interaction between ...
Brassard Julie - - 2011
Water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. The pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. Laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent ...
Tserennadmid Rentsenkhand - - 2011
The anti-yeast activities of four essential oils (EOs) from clary sage, juniper, lemon and marjoram against wild-type isolates of the food-related yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in malt extract (ME) medium, apple juice and milk were investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the EOs and ...
Battistoni Serena - - 2011
Our previous study found that when injected with Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) into the brain, male Dark Agouti (DA) rats, which are resistant to metabolic syndrome, have greater hyperphagia than male Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) animals, which are prone to this disease. We attributed this difference to the fact that ...
Randhawa Gurinder Jit - - 2011
The novel proteins introduced into the genetically modified (GM) crops need to be evaluated for the potential allergenicity before their introduction into the food chain to address the safety concerns of consumers. At present, there is no single definitive test that can be relied upon to predict allergic response in ...
Ottaviani Javier I - - 2011
Extensive epidemiological and clinical evidence associates diets high in flavanol-containing foods with cardiovascular health benefits in humans. Catechin and epicatechin, the most common flavanols in foods, are present in the diet in different enantiomeric forms. This study investigated the influence of the stereochemical configuration of flavanols on their absorption, metabolism, ...
Fowler Scott W - - 2010
The distribution and behaviour of the natural-series alpha-emitter polonium-210 in the marine environment has been under study for many years primarily due to its enhanced bioaccumulation, its strong affinity for binding with certain internal tissues, and its importance as a contributor to the natural radiation dose received by marine biota ...
Simsek S - - 2011
Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan ...
Merwad A M A - - 2011
High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae ...
Hilty Florentine M - - 2011
  Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in ...
Ponce Alejandra - - 2011
Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of 3 essential oils, clove, tea tree, and rosemary, as natural preservatives during the postharvest of lettuce leaves. The effect of different concentration (1 and 0.5 MIC) of plant essential oils applied in 3 forms (spray, immersion, and capsules) was studied on ...
Moseley-Stevens Jennifer - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to measure the fluoride concentrations in ready-to-eat infant food, and to determine if significant differences exist among flavors and brands. One hundred fifty samples of 5 infant food flavors from an organic infant food manufacturer and the largest infant food manufacturer were compared using ...
Myoung Hyeon-Jong - - 2010
Energy balance is monitored by the hypothalamus, which responds to peripheral signals by releasing neuropeptides that regulate energy intake and expenditure. In this study, we constructed pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and "cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript" (CART) promoter-driven luciferase plasmids and transformed them permanently into both N29-2 neuronal cells and human SHSY5Y cells. ...
Sagdic Osman - - 2010
This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast ...
Feng Tao - - 2010
Nano flavor preparation and its application have been reviewed in this paper. Nano flavor could be prepared by physical methods such as spray drying with microfluidization and ultrasonication, physical adsorption and so on, chemical methods such as complex formation, nano-sized self-structured liquid, and nano emulsification and so on. Different preparation ...
Depieri Rogério A - - 2010
Studies were conducted to test the effect of age and food sources on wear of the mandibular teeth of the phytophagous pentatomid, Euschistus heros (F.). The total length (µm) of the area bearing the mandibular teeth, the length of the 1st tooth, and the height of the 2nd tooth for ...
Ignatova Ju P - - 2010
Threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in starving and preliminary fed (satiated) rabbits in the absence of feed induces searching behavior associated with burst-like impulse activity of proper masticatory muscle with a bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals, what represents an anticipatory type of reaction. The increase in the level of ...
Machackova M - - 2010
The aim of this project was to launch a new Food Composition Database (FCDB) Programme in the Czech Republic; to implement a methodology for food description and value documentation according to the standards designed by the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence; and to start the compilation of ...
Ganesh Vijayalakshmi - - 2010
About 40000 people fall victim to Salmonella infections every year in the United States. Recent occurrences of Salmonella contaminated spinach and its recalls have accelerated the need for efficient antimicrobials targeting these pathogens. Our study was aimed at evaluating the inhibitory properties of malic, tartaric, and lactic acids, and grape ...
Dhaked Ram Kumar - - 2010
Botulinum neurotoxins, causative agents of botulism in humans, are produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-former Gram positive bacillus. Botulinum neurotoxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. ...
Schäfer Sabine - - 2011
Female and male individuals of the same species often differ with respect to their susceptibility to toxicant stress. In the present study, sea urchins (Psammechinus miliaris) of both sexes were exposed to high (150 μg L⁻¹) and environmentally relevant (5 μg L⁻¹) concentrations of phenanthrene over 10 days. While food ...
Knutsson Rickard - - 2011
A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the ...
Dwivedi Hari P - - 2011
Over the last fifty years, microbiologists have developed reliable culture-based techniques to detect food borne pathogens. Although these are considered to be the "gold-standard," they remain cumbersome and time consuming. Despite the advent of rapid detection methods such as ELISA and PCR, it is clear that reduction and/or elimination of ...
Senda Akitsugu - - 2010
The Carnivora include the superfamilies Canoidea and Feloidea. In species of Canoidea other than the domestic dog, Canis lupus, the milk contains only traces of lactose and much larger concentrations of oligosaccharides. In this study, lactose was found to be the dominant saccharide in the milk or colostrum of two ...
Magalhães Luís M - - 2010
In the present work, a rapid and high-throughput Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) reducing capacity assay adapted to routine/screening analysis was developed. In order to attain a fast F-C reducing kinetic reaction, the reaction conditions of the classical time-consuming F-C assay were modified and the influence of alkali and F-C reagent concentration was ...
Larson-Meyer D Enette - - 2010
Increased per capita consumption of sweeteners may be responsible in part for the rising prevalence of obesity in the United States. Recent studies suggest that consumption of honey is not associated with this same obesogenic effect and may have beneficial effects neuro on body weight. The purpose of this study ...
Nolin David A - - 2010
Exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) is used here to test hypotheses derived from human behavioral ecology about the adaptive nature of human food sharing. Respondents in all (n=317) households in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia were asked to name those households to whom they had more frequently ...
Girma Anteneh - - 2011
Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia is caused by food dependency on grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). In the study area, a large proportion of the farmers are growing grass pea since it can withstand harsh environments. Socio-economic factors (poverty; lack of money to buy other food legumes) and environmental problems (such as ...
Appelhans Bradley M BM Department of Preventive Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, 1700 W Van Buren Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. - - 2011
Emotional eating appears to contribute to weight gain, but the characteristics that make one vulnerable to emotional eating remain unclear. The present study examined whether two negative affect response styles, rumination and distraction, influenced palatable food intake following an anger mood induction in normal weight and obese adults. We hypothesized ...
Tittlemier Sheryl A - - 2011
Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a relatively new and diverse set of compounds analyzed as contaminants in food. Their unique physical-chemical properties dictate the methods used for their analysis. Current analyses of the more volatile PFCs involve gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is generally used for the less volatile ...
Bonerba Elisabetta - - 2010
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera, frequently detectable in moldy fruits and their derivatives fruit products. The EC Regulation 1881/06 has imposed the limit for the presence of patulin equal to 10 μg/kg or 10 μg/L in baby food on the ...
Park Hyeonjin - - 2010
We evaluated and optimized each step in an analytical method for detecting norovirus from various foods. We characterized the buffers needed for eluting norovirus from foods such as ham and lettuce. Two different concentration methods, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HUF), were compared using both murine norovirus ...
Wang Yueqiu - - 2010
Lincomycin (LIN) is an antibiotic widely used in veterinary medicine to cure infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Although the toxicity of LIN is not serious, it will cause adverse effects in humans, such as pseudomembranous enteritis and bacterial resistance. In this study, for the preparation of a LIN derivative, a ...
Patil S - - 2010
  Traditionally, ozone processing within the food industry has focused on solid foods by either gaseous treatment or washing with ozonized water. However, with the FDA's approval of ozone as a direct additive to food, the potential for liquid applications has emerged. This study investigates the effect of ozone processing ...
Luo Yaguang Y Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Building 002, Room 117, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. - - 2010
This study investigated the impact of storage temperature and duration on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on commercially packaged lettuce salads, and on product quality. Fresh-cut Romaine and Iceberg lettuce salads of different commercial brands were obtained from both retail and wholesale stores. The packages were cut open at ...
Sankaran Sindhuja - - 2010
Detection of food-borne bacteria present in the food products is critical to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Intelligent quality sensors are being developed for detecting bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella in beef. One of our research thrusts was to develop novel sensing materials sensitive to specific indicator alcohols at ...
Wang Weiyu - - 2010
A novel capillary electrophoresis and amperometric detection method was achieved by adding an electroactive additive (3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, 3,4-DHBA) to the running buffer, so that both electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives were simultaneously determined. Under the selected optimum conditions, four electroactive preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) and two non-electroactive preservatives (potassium ...
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