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Results 351 - 400 of 712
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Serdar M A - - 2001
Determination of creatinine clearance (Ccr) is not a reliable indicator of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), owing to tubular secretion of creatinine. It has been reported that Ccr measurements can approximate true GFR after cimetidine (Ci) administration. In this study, GFR was estimated by Cockcroft and Gault's equation (C(C-G)) based on ...
Baltes M R - - 2001
Classical inhibitors of human cytochrome P450 3A4 activity, such as ketoconazol and quercetin, are tested to prove the efficiency of a new metabolisation model using living entire cells. Grapefruit juice is a well-known potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity. With regard to the clinical relevance of grapefruit juice-drug interactions, ...
Terra W R - - 2001
There is a a fluid (peritrophic gel) or membranous (peritrophic membrane, PM) film surrounding the food bolus in most insects. The PM is composed of chitin and proteins, of which peritrophins are the most important. It is proposed here that, during evolution, midgut cells initially synthesized chitin and peritrophins derived ...
Schiller L R - - 2001
Constipation is a common symptom that may be idiopathic or due to various identifiable disease processes. Laxatives are agents that add bulk to intestinal contents, that retain water within the bowel lumen by virtue of osmotic effects, or that stimulate intestinal secretion or motility, thereby increasing the frequency and ease ...
Tamminga W J - - 2001
AIMS: To further evaluate mephenytoin as a probe for CYP2C19 phenotyping. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 2638) were phenotyped using the urinary (S)-mephenytoin to (R)-mephenytoin ratio. This method was evaluated for (a) the stability of the S/R-ratio following sample storage, (b) the intraindividual reproducibility of the ratio, and (c) the ...
Rodgers P - - 2001
Onychomycosis accounts for one third of fungal skin infections. Because only about one half of nail dystrophies are caused by fungus, the diagnosis should be confirmed by potassium hydroxide preparation, culture or histology before treatment is started. Newer, more effective antifungal agents have made treating onychomycosis easier. Terbinafine and itraconazole ...
Soni M G - - 2001
Aluminum is a nonessential metal to which humans are frequently exposed. Aluminum in the food supply comes from natural sources, water used in food preparation, food ingredients, and utensils used during food preparations. The amount of aluminum in the diet is small, compared with the amount of aluminum in antacids ...
Kim C K - - 2001
To improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (BDD), a drug used in treating liver diseases, a premicroemulsion concentrate composed of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant for oral administration of BDD was prepared, and its physicochemical properties and the pharmacokinetic parameters of BDD were evaluated. Among the ...
Ryland S - - 2001
The 1990s saw the introduction of significantly new types of paint binder chemistries into the automotive finish coat market. Considering the pronounced changes in the binders that can now be found in automotive paints and their potential use in a wide variety of finishes worldwide, the Paint Subgroup of the ...
Mullin J L - - 2001
Previous studies have suggested that clots with thinner fiber diameter lyse at slower rates than clots with thicker fiber diameter. We examined lysis of fibrin clots formed from three variant fibrinogens, each with substitutions in the N-terminal region of the B beta chain. When we measured lysis as the rate ...
Burman W J - - 2001
The rifamycin antibacterials, rifampicin (rifampin), rifabutin and rifapentine, are uniquely potent in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis and chronic staphylococcal infections. Absorption is variably affected by food; the maximal concentration of rifampicin is decreased by food, whereas rifapentine absorption is increased in the presence of food. The rifamycins are ...
Krakoff Lawrence R - - 2001
This commentary has two purposes: to summarize the rationale, design and initial results of the Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) trial; and to provide a history of the response to ALLHAT that led to a civil action and a Citizens Petition that was the ...
Lizio R - - 2001
Aim of this study was to elaborate an efficient method for the micronization of the decapeptide cetrorelix (a GnRH-antagonist), in order to obtain a microsuspension as basis for other pharmaceutical preparations, such as e.g. inhalation aerosols. A modified pearl-mill coupled with a cryostat was used for the micronization of cetrorelix ...
Sorokin P - - 2000
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common adult leukemia and has historically been treated with intensive multiagent chemotherapy. In May 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a new agent, gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) to treat patients who are 60 years and older in first relapse with CD33+ AML ...
Bohn M - - 2000
Ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer is a recently introduced topical formulation of the hydroxypyridone antimycotic ciclopirox. In vitro data indicate that ciclopirox has activity against the important pathogenic dermatophytes responsible for onychomycosis. The lacquer delivery system provides a high concentration gradient for the transfer of the antifungal agent through the nail ...
Doyle S - - 2000
Parvovirus B19 infection can cause severe effects in high-risk groups including pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. Although serological detection of B19 infection is commonplace, minimal information is available on the absolute performance characteristics of various tests for the detection of B19 IgM. The performance of the first parvovirus B19 IgM ...
Bray G A - - 2000
Drugs to treat obesity can be divided into three groups: those that reduce food intake; those that alter metabolism; and those that increase thermogenesis. Monoamines acting on noradrenergic receptors, serotonin receptors, dopamine receptors, and histamine receptors can reduce food intake. A number of peptides also affect food intake. The noradrenergic ...
Anderson D L - - 2000
Multiple units of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 1566 Oyster Tissue, 1567 Wheat Flour, 1568 Rice Flour, and 1570 Trace Elements in Spinach, produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards), were analyzed 17-20 years after the original certification dates and 12-15 years ...
Dringenberg H C - - 2000
Recent work has shown that transport of food items from open, exposed food sources to a covered shelter is reduced by drugs thought to have anxiolytic properties in rodents and humans. We studied the effects of amphetamine and the dopamine D2/3-receptor antagonist, raclopride, in this test of food transport that ...
Nordby E J - - 2000
Chemonucleolysis using chymopapain is the least invasive technique used to treat a herniated lumbar pulposus. After 37 years of clinical experience, multiple clinical trials, a national multicenter, double-blind study mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, and heated controversy in the scientific community, the injection of chymopapain to treat herniated ...
Hackney C - - 2000
The spiraling costs of prescription drugs have prompted the states to take a closer look at their elderly. What they are finding is a rude awakening: that the state's fixed income and poorer senior citizens are having to make the difficult choice between food, utilities, clothing and life-sustaining pharmaceuticals.
Gallez B - - 2000
The observation of the fate of free radicals coming from food after oral administration could be important in evaluating their reactivity in vivo. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that it is feasible to detect directly in vivo free radicals coming from food with the use of low ...
Nasu K - - 2000
Administration of pro-R-methyl-13C-labeled isofucosterol to cultured cells of Oryza sativa revealed that the pro-R and pro-S methyls at C-25 become the pro-R and pro-S methyls at C-25 of sitosterol, respectively. Similar administration experiments using pro-S-methyl-13C-labeled 24-methylenecholesterol established that the pro-R and pro-S methyls at C-25 of 24-methylenecholesterol become the pro-R ...
Feldman S R - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A new preparation of betamethasone valerate in a novel foam vehicle is available for treatment of scalp dermatoses. The vehicle spreads between hair until it reaches the scalp, where it melts and delivers the active drug. Solids make up only a tiny fraction of the foam vehicle, leaving no ...
Hinton D M - - 2000
The rapid advances in the field of immunology and an understanding of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system have resulted in the development of a discipline in toxicology now referred to as immunotoxicology. This discipline has evolved steadily over the last 2 decades as a result ...
Miyakoshi M - - 2000
A saponin fraction from the stems of Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca) exhibited potent growth-inhibitory activities against certain food-deteriorating yeasts, film-forming yeasts, and dermatophytic yeasts and fungi. From this fraction, a number of new anti-yeast monodesmosidic spirostanol saponins, named schidigera-saponins A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), B1 (4), C1 (5),C2 (6); ...
Williams J R - - 2000
With the passage of the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 5-androsten-3beta-ol-17-one) has become widely available, and a large and growing market has developed for this "fountain of youth." DHEA has been shown to have significant beneficial effects in animals, which may lead to clinical ...
Suzumura A - - 2000
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs), when used in combination, synergistically suppress TNFalpha production by various cells and also suppress experimental demyelination at very low concentrations. We conducted a pilot study to determine whether the combination of three PDEIs suppresses the relapse of MS at the usual therapeutic doses. Of the 12 relapsing ...
De Diego M A - - 2000
Cell transplantation using biocompatible, biodegradable scaffolds offers the possibility of creating or regenerating tissue to replace organ function when deficiency arises. The role of these temporary substrates is to support and guide the expanding cell culture until it becomes structurally integrated with the host tissue. 45S5 Bioglass(R) is a 4-component, ...
Baraldi M - - 2000
The existence of endogenous benzodiazepines such as diazepam and nordiazepam has been provided in human blood and brains as well as in medicinal plants and foods. It must be stressed, however, that in plasma and brain tissue there are also other benzodiazepine-like compounds termed 'endozepines' which are not halogenated. A ...
Akompong T - - 2000
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum digests hemoglobin and polymerizes the released free heme into hemozoin. This activity occurs in an acidic organelle called the food vacuole and is essential for survival of the parasite in erythrocytes. Since acidic conditions are known to enhance the auto-oxidation of hemoglobin, we investigated ...
Pariza M W - - 1999
The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in animals are reviewed. In most of the CLA preparations that have been investigated to date for biological activity, two CLA isomers are present in about equal concentrations: cis-9,trans-11 CLA, and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The occurrence of these isomers in foods and their production ...
Poirier L A - - 1999
Recently, changes have been proposed in the criteria historically used in the evaluation of the applicability to humans of some of the results obtained from the rodent carcinogenicity bioassay data. These questions center on the suitability of the rodent model for agents that exert their toxic effects via specific enzyme ...
Johnson G - - 1999
Research and clinical interest in lithium in the USA lagged behind that in Europe, largely because of the experience of deaths due to lithium in cardiac patients. The first American report on lithium was published in 1960 by Sam Gershon, the Australian psychiatrist who had undertaken lithium studies in Melbourne ...
Solntseva E I - - 1999
Isolated common snail neurons were studied using two-microelectrode potential clamping to record high-threshold (threshold = 10 mV) rapidly-inactivating potassium current (I(Aht)); the effects of the nootrope vinpocetine on this current were studied and were compared with the effects of cyclic nucleotides. Intracellular application of dibutyryl derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate ...
Wardle E N - - 1999
In view of the role of oxidative processes in inflicting damage that leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal medullary interstitial fibrosis, more attention could be paid to the use of antioxidant food constituents and the usage of drugs with recognized antioxidant potential. In any case atherosclerosis is an important component of ...
Arbogast M - - 1999
ABSTRACT Six potato cultivars were grown with or without the addition of Verticillium dahliae inoculum and were watered at 50, 75, or 100% estimated consumptive use. The applied water x cultivar interaction was significant (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001 for 1996 and 1997, respectively) for the relative area ...
Bhisutthibhan J - - 1999
Artemisinin derivatives are endoperoxide antimalarials widely used to treat falciparum malaria in areas where drug resistance is common. In Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, radiolabeled artemisinin derivatives have been shown to react with malarial proteins, one of which is the Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP). The P. falciparum TCTP was found by ...
Nagasawa H - - 1999
We have found that the chronic administration of the diet containing 5% hydroxyapatite (HAP) derived from bovine or swine bone or drinking water containing 0.5% extract of coffee cherry (CC), the residue left after the removal of coffee beans, induced a marked inhibition of spontaneous mammary tumourigenesis in SHN mice, ...
Singh B N - - 1999
Food-drug interactions can be associated with alterations in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of various drugs that may have clinical implications. The various phases in which food may interact with a coadministered drug are: (i) before and during gastrointestinal absorption; (ii) during distribution; (iii) during metabolism; and (iv) during elimination. ...
Nakashima M - - 1999
In vitro release behavior and cytotoxic activity, and in vivo plasma disposition of newly synthesized macromolecular derivatives of cisplatin (CDDP) were investigated and compared with CDDP. The derivatives included oxidized dextran conjugate of CDDP (OX-Dex/CDDP) and dicarboxymethylated dextran conjugate of CDDP (DCM-Dex/CDDP). In vitro release of platinum complex from dextran ...
Kucinski B J - - 1999
We have recently shown that under some circumstances, sensitization produced by a stimulant such as cocaine (COC) can give way, with successive drug administrations, to alternating attenuations and reinstatements of the effect, an outcome that we have termed oscillation. Because sensitization to COC can be conditioned, we inquired whether COC-induced ...
Weerts E M - - 1999
Chronic administration of benzodiazepine (BZ) agonists in baboons typically increases food intake, in a dose-dependent manner, during drug administration and suppresses food intake after termination of drug dosing. To determine if suppressed food intake after termination of chronic BZ administration (i.e. withdrawal) was related to increased food consumption during drug ...
Leonelli F M - - 1999
The optimal electrode configuration for endocardial defibrillation is still a matter of debate. Current data suggests that a two pathway configuration using the right ventricle (RV) as cathode and a common anode constituted by a superior vena cava (SVC) and a pectoral can (C) is the most effective combination. This ...
Loguercio C - - 1999
The primary role of glutathione is to protect cells from oxidative stress. It is abundantly distributed in the mucosal cells of gastrointestinal tract both in animals and man. The highest concentration is found in the duodenum. The amount of glutathione ingested with foods, age and drug or ethanol consumption affect ...
Evans S M - - 1999
Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS) report negative mood premenstrually, and increased food cravings and food intake. Although the benzodiazepine alprazolam has been used to treat PMS, alprazolam has been shown to increase food intake. The present study investigated the acute effects of alprazolam (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mg) on ...
Knegtel R M - - 1999
A set of 32 known thrombin inhibitors representing different chemical classes has been used to evaluate the performance of two implementations of incremental construction algorithms for flexible molecular docking: DOCK 4.0 and FlexX 1.5. Both docking tools are able to dock 10-35% of our test set within 2 A of ...
Sulak P - - 1999
This six-cycle, multicenter, open-label, randomized study compared the clinical experience of two low-dose oral contraceptives (OC): a triphasic OC containing norgestimate (NGM) and 35 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) (Ortho Tri-Cyclen) and a monophasic OC containing norethindrone acetate (NETA) and 20 micrograms EE (Loestrin Fe 1/20). Cycle control, lipid and androgen ...
Ku N N - - 1999
The cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is the most effective and inexpensive cancer screening test in medical history for the identification of premalignant cervicovaginal lesions. Despite this fact, false-negative rates ranging from 6% to 55% have been sporadically reported, resulting in an increase in litigation. With the development of computer-based automated ...
Penner M J - - 1999
An in vitro study was carried out comparing the elution characteristics of Palacos-R and CMW acrylic cements. Three groups of 6 antibiotic-loaded cement disks were prepared, incorporating 1.0 g vancomycin and 2.4 g tobramycin per 40 g packet of cement. Palacos-R bone cement was used for group 1, CMW 1 ...
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