Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 713
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Coldham N G - - 2002
An assay, employing microsomes prepared from rat liver and a recombinant cell bioassay (RCBA) expressing the human oestrogen receptor (alpha) linked to a reporter gene, was evaluated for the detection of pro-oestrogens in food using methoxychlor and mestranol as model compounds. Bio-activation of the hop phytoestrogen isoxanthohumol to the potent ...
Tirucherai Giridhar S - - 2002
Ganciclovir (GCV), a promising antiviral compound, has poor ocular bioavailability as a result of its relatively low partition coefficient. In this study, lipophilic ester prodrugs of GCV were synthesized in an effort to improve its uptake into ocular tissues. In vitro permeability studies were conducted on isolated rabbit corneal membranes ...
Krishnamoorthy K - - 2002
The costs and effects of two intervention strategies for the control of bancroftian filariasis-annual mass drug administrations (MDA) with a combination of diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin, with or without integrated vector control (VC)-were estimated in rural villages in South India. The aim was to compare the cost-effectiveness of MDA alone with ...
Jonker Johan W - - 2002
The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRPABCG2) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of drug transporters and confers resistance to various anticancer drugs. We show here that mice lacking Bcrp1Abcg2 become extremely sensitive to the dietary chlorophyll-breakdown product pheophorbide a, resulting in severe, sometimes lethal phototoxic lesions on light-exposed ...
Evans Emily C - - 2002
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that pregnant women, women of childbearing age, and young children avoid eating shark, swordfish, mackerel, and tilefish. These fish often harbor high levels of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin. Methylmercury readily crosses the placenta and has the potential to significantly damage the fetal ...
Haney Margaret - - 2002
This article presents data from two avenues of marijuana research. First, the author shows that daily marijuana smoking in healthy individuals produces dependence, as demonstrated by withdrawal symptoms such as increased irritability and depression and decreased food intake. In addition, two antidepressant medications were evaluated to assess their potential effectiveness ...
Rich Josiah D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine pharmacists' attitudes and obstacles to syringe sales to IDUs without prescriptions in Rhode Island, around the time that such sales became legal in the state. DESIGN: Self-administered written survey. SETTING: Rhode Island. PARTICIPANTS: 400 randomly selected pharmacist members of the Rhode Island Pharmacists Association. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Dupont G - - 2002
The aim of this work was to obtain 400 microm spheroids that can be sprinkled on food to improve patient compliance particularly in the case of children and old people. A methodology to select wet masses for extrusion-spheronization through a 400 microm orifice was developed. The first step was to ...
Williams Zinaria Y - - 2002
To determine if optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness can be used to predict the presence of visual field defects (VFD) associated with glaucoma. Quota-sampled, cross-sectional study. Retrospective study of OCT NFL thickness measurements in 276 eyes of 276 subjects. All persons received OCT NFL ...
Schiraldi Chiara - - 2002
Trehalose (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside) is a unique sugar capable of protecting biomolecules against environmental stress. It is a stable, colorless, odor-free and non-reducing disaccharide, and is widespread in nature. Trehalose has a key role in the survival of some plants and insects, termed anhydrobionts, in harsh environments, even when most of ...
Hart Carl L - - 2002
RATIONALE: Although smoked marijuana contains at least 60 cannabinoids, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC) is presumed to be the cannabinoid primarily responsible for many marijuana-related effects, including increased food intake and subjective effects. Yet, there has been no systematic comparison of repeated doses of oral delta(9)-THC with repeated doses of smoked marijuana in ...
Segarra-Newnham Marisel - - 2002
Oral valganciclovir recently was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. We performed MEDLINE (June 1998-May 2002) and AIDSLINE (June 1998-December 2000) searches of available information on valganciclovir, and the drug's prescribing information was used to identify relevant articles. Additional studies, case reports, reviews, ...
Kaberi-Otarod Jila - - 2002
A case of a young user of Thermadrene (SportPharma USA, Inc, Concord, Calif), an herbal remedy for weight loss, was studied. We believe that Thermadrene can cause serious complications such as ischemic stroke. Because these remedies are available over the counter and are not regulated by the Food and Drug ...
Futterman Laurie G - - 2002
Inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of arterial atherosclerosis. The stages of atheroma development from early recruitment of leukocytes and fatty streaks to the unstable plaque and finally rupture are mediated by the inflammatory process. Several markers of vascular wall inflammation that can predict future risk of plaque ...
Ruane Patrick H - - 2002
An investigation of potential photosensitive protecting groups for diazeniumdiolates (R2N-N(O)=NO-) has been initiated, and here the effect of meta electron-donating groups on the photochemistry of O2-benzyl-substituted diazeniumdiolates (R2N-N(O)=NOCH2Ar) is reported. Photolysis of the parent benzyl derivative (Ar = Ph) results almost exclusively in undesired photochemistry-the formation of nitrosamine and an ...
Cahouet A - - 2002
The aim of the present work was to study the biodistribution of a radiolabeled lipidic nanocapsule formulation after intravenous administration in rat by scintigraphy and gamma counting. This formulation is expected to be used as anticancer agent delivery devices and as transfection complexes. For this purpose, 99mTc-oxine was incorporated in ...
Basten Graham P GP Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Conley Lane, Norwich, NR4 7UA, - - 2002
Glucoraphanin in Brassica vegetables breaks down to either sulforaphane or sulforaphane nitrile depending on the conditions, and sulforaphane can be further conjugated with glutathione. Using a high-throughput microtitre plate assay and TaqMan real time quantitative RT-PCR to measure mRNA, we show that sulforaphane and its glutathione conjugate, but not the ...
Milman Harry A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports and case studies have described psychological disturbances and aggressive behavior in some men taking sildenafil. In the course of assisting the defense in a trial in which a man was alleged to have committed rape and in which sildenafil was implicated, a mechanistic hypothesis was formulated by ...
Pelchat Marcia L - - 2002
Is it more than a linguistic accident that the same term, craving, is used to describe intense desires for both foods and for a variety of drugs of abuse? There is strong evidence for common pathways that are affected by most addictive drugs. As the other contributors to this volume ...
Vargo John J - - 2002
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Propofol is increasingly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy because of its rapid recovery profile. There has been no prospective, randomized comparison of gastroenterologist-administered propofol to meperidine and midazolam for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. Additionally, its cost-effectiveness has not been studied. METHODS: Seventy-five randomized patients received either ...
Clarke Julie - - 2002
A biologically active extract containing bovine whey proteins, whey growth factor extract-A (WGFE-A) was administered topically to the oral mucosa of hamsters and its ability to prevent and treat chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis investigated. Oral mucositis was induced in Syrian golden hamsters through a combination treatment of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug ...
Houtsmuller Elisabeth J - - 2002
Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse ...
Li Zhihong - - 2002
The impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of a drug has important implications in drug development. This commentary is aimed at addressing two key challenges, developability of drugs whose pharmacokinetics are severely influenced by food, and the need for addressing the effects of fruit juice ingredients which modulate metabolic/efflux properties ...
Merry Anthony H - - 2002
The initial step in quantitative analysis of O-linked glycans of glycoproteins is to release them in high yield, nonselectively, unmodified, and with a free reducing terminus. In contrast to other techniques, hydrazinolysis can meet these criteria. However, when analyzing pools of O-linked glycans as described in the accompanying article by ...
Du Xiao-Ming - - 2002
Goodyerin is a flavonol glycoside isolated from the whole plants of Goodyera schlechtendaliana which has been used as a substitute for the crude drug, Anoectochilus formosanus. The pharmacological properties of goodyerin were assayed for effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, and on anticonvulsant activity against picrotoxin-induced seizures in ...
Gee Adrian P - - 2002
Cellular therapies offer new promise for the treatment of a variety of diseases. In order to protect patients and donors, the Food and Drug Administration in the USA has been developing specific regulations. These have undergone several iterations, however, a broad-based strategy has recently emerged. These proposals are reviewed and ...
Kiuchi Yoichi - - 2002
Amyloid beta-protein (A3) fibril in senile plaque may be related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Basement membrane (BM) components are associated with the plaques in AD brain. It suggests that the BM components may play an important role in the deposition of the plaque. We investigated the potential ...
Vaisman Nachum - - 2002
During the last 20 years the role of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in reducing the risk of colorectal cancer was shown in more than 100 animal studies. Support derives from 23 of 25 epidemiological studies confirming this protective effect. The COX-2 specific inhibitors and the selective apoptotic ...
Wallace Allison W - - 2002
In response to consumers' increased interest in preventive health care, the food industry is producing a variety of foods fortified with calcium, iron, and other minerals and vitamins. This well-meaning idea of food fortification is troubling in the context of clinical pharmacology. The recommended Food and Drug Administration (FDA) meal ...
Suzuki Hisashi - - 2002
Highly potent and selective CYP2C19 inhibitors are not currently available. In the present study, N-3-benzyl derivatives of nirvanol and phenobarbital were synthesized, their respective (+)- and (-)-enantiomers resolved chromatographically, and inhibitor potencies determined for these compounds toward CYP2C19 and other human liver cytochromes P450 (P450s). (-)-N-3-Benzyl-phenobarbital and (+)-N-3-benzyl-nirvanol were found ...
Hom David B - - 2002
The advent of new U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved products containing growth factors to improve soft tissue healing signifies a new era for wound healing. Over the last decade, some clinical growth factor studies have been promising, whereas others have not shown any positive effect. What many of these studies ...
Kofuji Kyoko - - 2002
Chitosan (CS) gel beads were prepared in 10% amino acid solution (pH 9) and modified by forming an electrostatic complex between the amino group of CS and the carboxyl group of chondroitin sulfate (Cho). Modification of the CS gel matrix by Cho inhibited the in vitro release of prednisolone (PS) ...
Thulesen Jesper - - 2002
The therapeutic potential of the intestinotrophic mediator glucagon-like peptide-2 (1-33) [GLP-2 (1-33)] has increased interest in the pharmacokinetics of the peptide. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the primary degradation product GLP-2 (3-33) interacts with the GLP-2 receptor. Functional (cAMP) and binding in vitro studies were carried out in ...
Burgess Diane J - - 2002
This is a summary report of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Pharmacopoeia co-sponsored workshop on "Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals." Experts from the pharmaceutical industry, the regulatory authorities and academia participated in this workshop to ...
Roberts Michael W - - 2002
The frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose and maltose is conducive to the development of caries in the teeth of susceptible individuals. Natural and artificial alternatives to these sugars have been and continue to be developed as non/low-caloric sweeteners. The US Food and Drug Administration have ...
Gorozhankin V M - - 2002
The IC(4) software developed to compare calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC) has been enhanced by adding new features through the use of Borland Delphi and TeeChart. Particularly, the 3D-graph option enhances the possibilities of analyzing calculated ICC values. For example, the comparison between the results given by three sets of ...
Schmidt Lars E - - 2002
Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. ...
Cook David W - - 2002
From June 1998 to July 1999, 370 lots of oysters in the shell were sampled at 275 different establishments (71%, restaurants or oyster bars; 27%, retail seafood markets: and 2%, wholesale seafood markets) in coastal and inland markets throughout the United States. The oysters were harvested from the Gulf (49%). ...
Fujita K - - 2002
AIMS: The aim was to investigate the antifungal actions of nonyl gallate against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754. METHODS AND RESULTS: The maximum potency of both the growth inhibitory and the fungicidal effect against the yeast strain was found in nonyl gallate among n-alkyl gallates tested. Nonyl gallate induced ROS generation ...
Terzano C - - 2002
Aim of our study was to evaluate if the type of nebulizer can influence the effects of steroid aerosol therapy. We considered 27 asthmatics allergic to grasses with FEV1<80% of the predictive value or methacholine PD20 FEV1<750 mcg. The patients were divided into three groups in relation to the type ...
Danker T - - 2001
The nuclear hourglass technique (NHT) was recently introduced as a novel technique that measures the electrical nuclear envelope (NE) conductance of isolated Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei. The main conclusion drawn from NHT work so far is that nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of oocytes are in an electrically open state under ...
Spencer J P - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative mechanisms by which the dietary form of the flavonoid epicatechin and its predominant in vivo metabolite, epicatechin glucuronide, influence oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts and neurons. The results demonstrate the contrasting influences of in vivo glucuronidation and methylation on ...
Arevalo I - - 2001
Treatment failures for leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimonate, are increasingly common in many endemic areas. Imiquimod (Aldara; 3M Pharmaceuticals) is a novel immune response-activating compound, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, that is currently used to treat cervical warts and has been shown to activate ...
Olson C J - - 2001
We propose and study a novel way to produce a dc transport of vortices when applying an ac electrical current to a sample. Specifically, we study superconductors with a graduated random pinning density, which transports interacting vortices as a ratchet system. We show that a ratchet effect appears as a ...
Tobacman J K - - 2001
In this article I review the association between exposure to carrageenan and the occurrence of colonic ulcerations and gastrointestinal neoplasms in animal models. Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 identified sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of degraded carrageenan in animals to regard it as posing a ...
Shankland W E WE - - 2001
Migraine and tension-type headaches have always plagued mankind. In spite of all the research dollars spent trying to determine the etiologies of these headaches, the neurology community still has not established a known cause of migraine and tension type headaches. This paper describes a study that was conducted for the ...
Igura K - - 2001
Resveratrol and quercetin are polyphenolic compounds found in grapes, red wine and other food products. In this study, we examined the effect of resveratrol and quercetin on the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro. Resveratrol and quercetin inhibited the growth of bovine aorta endothelial (BAE) cells in a concentration-dependent manner (6-100 ...
Shih I L - - 2001
This review article deals with the chemistry and biosynthesis of poly-(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) produced by various strains of Bacillus. Potential applications of gamma-PGA as thickener, cryoprotectant, humectant, drug carrier, biological adhesive, flocculant, or heavy metal absorbent, etc. with biodegradability in the fields of food, cosmetics, medicine and water treatments are ...
Hammerer-Lercher A - - 2001
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), NT-proBNP and NT-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) were measured in blood samples from 57 patients using immunoassays and immunoradiometric assays to evaluate the usefulness as diagnostic markers for the detection of heart failure. For the detection of impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), receiver operating characteristic curves ...
Decker G - - 2001
Mistletoe generally is categorized as American mistletoe or European mistletoe. Despite its well-known potential for toxicity, mistletoe continues to be used as an herbal remedy and recently has received a great deal of media attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration classified mistletoe as a food additive that cannot be ...
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