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Brand Walter - - 2006
The transcellular transport of ingested food ingredients across the intestinal epithelial barrier is an important factor determining bioavailability upon oral intake. This transcellular transport of many chemicals, food ingredients, drugs or toxic compounds over the intestinal epithelium can be highly dependent on the activity of membrane bound ATP binding cassette ...
Grabowski Henry - - 2006
With spending on biologics rising and patent expiry approaching for several blockbuster biologics, Congress and the Food and Drug Administration are considering creating a clear pathway for so-called follow-on biologics. Differences between drugs and biologics will affect market outcomes in various ways. Conservative budget impacts are appropriate in the short ...
Beer Kenneth R - - 2006
The addition of Sculptra to the esthetic dermatology landscape in September 2004 brought a new opportunity for facial rejuvenation. Sculptra, which is polymerized lactic acid (PLA), received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HIV-associated lipoatrophy. Since its approval, it has gained acceptance among cosmetic dermatologists ...
Epple Robert - - 2006
A series of PPARdelta-selective agonists was investigated and optimized for a favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic profile. Isoxazole LCI765 (17d) was found to be a potent and selective PPARdelta agonist with good in vivo PK properties in mouse (C(max)=5.1 microM, t(1/2)=3.1 h). LCI765 regulated expression of genes involved in energy homeostasis ...
Liu Yeting - - 2006
Many food materials exist in a disordered amorphous solid state due to processing. Therefore, understanding the concept of amorphous state, its important phase transition (i.e., glass transition), and the related phenomena (e.g., enthalpy relaxation) is important to food scientists. Food saccharides, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides, are among the ...
Tyler Kimberly A - - 2006
This study examined the circumstances surrounding a homeless youth's "decision" to trade sex for food, money, shelter, or drugs. Forty homeless youth in 4 Midwestern states participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. Interviewers recruited youth both through service agencies and through street outreach. The findings revealed that approximately 1/3 of ...
Bayer Ole - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Central venous catheterization is associated with a significant incidence of complications (5%-20%). The incidence of perforation is approximately 0.25% to 0.4%. To prevent cardiac tamponade associated with a high risk of death, Food and Drug Administration guidelines state that the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC) should not ...
McClements David Julian - - 2006
Foods with novel or improved properties can be created by utilizing non-covalent interactions between proteins and polysaccharides. In solution, either attractive or repulsive interactions between proteins and polysaccharides can be used to create microstructures that give foods novel textural and sensory properties. At interfaces, attractive electrostatic interactions can be used ...
Alexandre Paula - - 2006
The roof plate (RP) of the midbrain shows an unusual plasticity, as it is duplicated or interrupted by experimental manipulations involving the mid/hindbrain organizer or FGF8. In previous experiments, we have found that FGF8 induces a local patterning center, the isthmic node, that is essential for the local development of ...
Jayakumar R - - 2007
Chitin and chitosan are known to be natural polymers and they are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. Chemical modification of chitin and chitosan with sulfate to generate new bifunctional materials is of interest because the modification would not change the fundamental skeleton of chitin and chitosan, would keep the original physicochemical ...
Mentel Marek - - 2006
Many pathogenic yeast species are asexual and therefore not involved in intra- or interspecies mating. However, high-frequency transfer of plasmid DNA was observed when pathogenic and food-borne yeasts were grown together. This property could play a crucial role in the spread of virulence and drug resistance factors among yeasts.
Bischof Oliver - - 2006
Cellular senescence and apoptosis have evolved to restrain unwarranted proliferation of potentially tumorigenic cells. Here we show that overexpression of the E3 SUMO ligase PIASy in normal human fibroblasts recruits the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways to provoke a senescence arrest. By contrast, in Rb-deficient fibroblasts, expression of PIASy ...
Wright P J - - 2006
Of the current options available to treat erectile dysfunction, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are the recommended first-line treatment. This review compares the three currently licensed PDE5 inhibitors: sildenafil citrate (sildenafil), vardenafil HCl (vardenafil) and tadalafil. All three drugs have similar efficacy and toxicity profiles. Sildenafil and vardenafil have ...
Groeschke J - - 2006
Amphotericin B and nystatin are two polyene antibiotics that are potent antifungal agents. These drugs are active against most pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus and Candida. Mouthrinses containing these drugs are used for preventive and curative treatment of fungal infections like oral candidiasis, which can cause multiple diseases in cancer patients. ...
Nakata B - - 2006
Transplatin (TDDP), a trans-isomer of cisplatin (CDDP), is well known to have faint cytotoxicity because its geometric structure allows less adduct formation with DNA than does CDDP. However, TDDP might have the potential to enhance the anticancer effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as well as CDDP. In this study, five gastric ...
Shih Ing-Lung - - 2006
This review article deals with the microbial synthesis, physiochemical properties, and potential applications of poly-epsilon-lysine (epsilon-PL), which is a naturally occurring biomaterial that is water soluble, biodegradable, edible and non-toxic toward humans and the environment. The potential applications of epsilon-PL as food preservatives, emulsifying agent, dietary agent, biodegradable fibers, highly ...
Yang Aparche - - 2006
Effective antimicrobials are critical in controlling one of the most common conditions encountered in medicine, namely, skin and skin structure infections. Unfortunately, the identification of appropriate and novel antimicrobials is continually challenged by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria, fungi, and parasites. This work will focus on describing novel ...
Moreno D A - - 2006
People's diet offers a greater and more diverse group of plant bioactives than do drugs, and they often do not realise that many drugs are derived from the compounds originally discovered in plant foods. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that Brassica vegetables in general, and broccoli in particular, protect humans against ...
Greenberg A - - 2006
The first non-peptide vasopressin receptor antagonist (VRA) was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and several others are now in late stages of clinical development. Phase 3 trials indicate that these agents predictably reduce urine osmolality, increase electrolyte-free water excretion, and raise serum sodium concentration. They ...
Willett W C - - 2006
We presently have definitive evidence from multiple randomized trials that trans-fatty acids (TFA) have adverse effects on blood lipids, near definitive evidence that TFA increase inflammatory markers in blood, and strong evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies that high TFA intake is associated elevated risks of coronary heart disease. Food additives ...
Prather Chad L - - 2006
Liquid injectable silicone is a unique soft tissue augmenting agent that may be effectively utilized for the correction of specific cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophies. Although historical complications have occurred, resulting likely from the presence of adulterants and impurities, modern purified silicone products approved by the Food and Drug Administration for ...
Kimura Hideto - - 2006
Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds ...
Bingham Rory J - - 2006
Knowledge of the ocean dynamic topography, defined as the height of the sea surface above its rest-state (the geoid), would allow oceanographers to study the absolute circulation of the ocean and determine the associated geostrophic surface currents that help to regulate the Earth's climate. Here a novel approach to computing ...
Cartwright Lisa M - - 2006
Bladder acellular matrix (ACM) is being investigated as a urinary bladder replacement scaffold. We have demonstrated that ACM is porous and theorized that this contributes to ACM fibrosis and contracture over time in vivo and may preclude uptake and retention of molecules, which may aid cellular repopulation. We sought to ...
Gan Tong - - 2006
Forward error correction based multiple description (MD-FEC) transcoding for transmitting embedded bitstream over the packet erasure networks has been extensively studied in the past. In the existing work, a single embedded source bitstream, e.g., the bitstream of a group of pictures (GOP) encoded using three-dimensional set partitioning in hierarchical trees ...
Mathes Chris - - 2006
The QPatch 16 significantly increases throughput for gigaseal patch clamp experiments, making direct measurements in ion channel drug discovery and safety testing feasible. Released to the market in the Autumn of 2004 by Sophion Bioscience, the QPatch originated from work done at NeuroSearch (Denmark) in the early days of automated ...
Yaghoubi Shahriar S - - 2006
9-(4-(18)F-Fluoro-3-[hydroxymethyl]butyl)guanine ((18)F-FHBG) is a sensitive and specific PET reporter probe for imaging the PET reporter genes, herpes simplex 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and its mutant HSV1-sr39tk. (18)F-FHBG has suitable pharmacokinetics and dosimetry for clinical applications and imaging of HSV1-TK has been demonstrated in the livers of hepatocellular cancer patients. METHODS: ...
Meindl Thomas - - 2006
The optimal delay time after intravenous (i.v.) administration of contrast medium (CM) for opacification of the upper urinary tract (UUT) for multidetector computed tomography urography (MDCTU) was investigated. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 36 four-row MDCTU examinations. Single- (n=10) or dual-phase (n=26) MDCTU was performed with at least 5-min ...
Serafini Alessio - - 2006
A multimode uncertainty relation (generalizing the Robertson-Schrödinger relation) is derived as a necessary constraint on the second moments of n pairs of canonical operators. In turn, necessary conditions for the separability of multimode continuous variable states under (m+n)-mode bipartitions are derived from the uncertainty relation. These conditions are proven to ...
Zhang Huanyu - - 2006
AApoAII amyloid fibrils have exhibited prion-like transmissibility in mouse senile amyloidosis. We have demonstrated that AApoAII is extremely active and can induce amyloidosis following doses less than 1 pg. We tested physical and chemical methods to disrupt AApoAII fibrils in vitro as determined by thioflavin T binding and electron microscopy ...
Lee Sang Hee - - 2006
The present study aims to demonstrate the ability of ginseng total saponin (GTS), ginsenosides Rg3 and Rb1 to reduce brain polyamine levels in immobilization-stressed gerbil mice. A previous study reported that ginsenosides had an anti-stress property. So, we tested the anti-stress effect of ginseng by investigating the brain level of ...
Amnuaykanjanasin A - - 2006
Previous complementation of a chitin synthase class Vb null mutant (Colletotrichum graminicola chsA) indicated that the encoded protein is responsible for approximately 30% of the conidial chitin, is essential for conidial wall strength in media with high water potential, and contributes to strength of hyphal tips. We complemented a chsA ...
Karim Aftab - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has proven effective for indications including discogenic back pain, nonunion, and instability. Current practice involves posterior pedicle screw augmentation of the ALIF procedure (ALIF-PPS). This approach requires intraoperative repositioning of the patient for percutaneous posterior pedicle screw placement. We have developed a novel technique ...
Prego C - - 2006
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that high molecular weight (MW > 100 kDa) chitosan nanocapsules are efficient vehicles for improving the oral absorption of salmon calcitonin (sCT). In the present work, our objectives were, first, to investigate the influence of some formulation parameters on the efficacy of chitosan nanocapsules as ...
Wood Jennifer J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Carticel is an autologous cultured chondrocyte product that has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the repair of symptomatic cartilaginous defects of the femoral condyle that are caused by acute or repetitive trauma in patients who have been previously managed with arthroscopy or other ...
Wu Qingzhi - - 2006
The protective effect of ebselen, with documented glutathione peroxidase-like activity and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, on the cytotoxicity induced by oxysterol was investigated in ECV-304 cells with cholestane-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (3-triol), one of the most toxic oxysterols. 3-triol exhibited significant cytotoxicity to ECV-304 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Pre-incubations ...
Numazawa Mitsuteru - - 2006
Our rationale is based on the finding that estrone 3-sulfamate (EMATE, 2d), a typical estrone sulfatase (ES) inhibitor, can be hydrolyzed and the pharmacological effect of the free estrogen contributes to the bioactivity of the sulfamate. A number of 3-sulfamoylated derivatives of the good aromatase inhibitors, 2- and 4-halogeno (F, ...
Lavergne Sidonie N - - 2006
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an effective drug for the management of opportunistic infections, but its use is limited by hypersensitivity reactions, particularly in HIV-infected patients. The oxidative metabolite SMX-nitroso (SMX-NO), is thought to be a proximate mediator of SMX hypersensitivity, and can be reduced in vitro by ascorbate or glutathione. Leukocytes ...
Shah Samir A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Pressurized metered-dose inhalers with valved holding chambers and masks are commonly used for aerosol delivery in children. Drug delivery can decrease when the dead-space volume (DSV) of the valved holding chamber is increased, but there are no published data evaluating force-dependent DSV among different masks. METHODS: Seven masks were ...
Klinke David J DJ - - 2006
IL-12 is a 75 kDa heterodimer (IL12p70) comprised of independently regulated disulfide-linked 40 kDa (p40) and 35 kDa (p35) subunits. The p40 subunit exists extracellularly as a monomer (IL12p40) or dimer (IL12(p40)2) and can antagonize the action of IL12p70. Given the disagreement in the literature over the physiologic roles for ...
Pacini Stefania - - 2006
PURPOSE: In clinical practice heparin has to be administered by injection with obvious disadvantages; thus, transdermal delivery by electrically assisted methods have been studied. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of a Food and Drug Administration-approved pulsed current iontophoresis system in delivering heparin through living rat skin. METHODS: Fluorescent ...
Ochiai Hideharu - - 2006
K-Cl cotransport plays a crucial role in regulatory volume decrease of erythrocytes. K-Cl cotransport activities in dog erythrocytes with an inherited high Na-K pump activity (HK) and normal erythrocytes (LK) were compared. Nitrite (NO(2)) stimulated K-Cl cotransport activity in HK cells around 14-fold at 2.4 mM, and it also increased ...
Meisenheimer John L - - 2006
Early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) is most commonly treated with skin-directed therapies such as topical steroids, phototherapy (broadband or narrowband UVB), photochemotherapy (psoralen plus UVA), topical nitrogen mustard, and total skin electron-beam irradiation. Recently, several small studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of early-stage ...
Roy P P - - 2006
A 9-year-old male child presented with features of recurrent episodes of pneumonia. Following administration of different types of antibiotics, resolution of pneumonia was not complete. Antituberculous drugs were given on two occasions for sufficient period of time without any improvement. Following admission, history of a choking sensation during taking food ...
Stoner William I - - 2006
This article takes a snap-shot view of current tobacco control laws and where the nation is headed. Smoke-free workplace laws are highlighted, and the New York campaign experience is explained briefly. The article also creates a view into current trends in tobacco excise taxes; youth access laws, US Food and ...
Vueba M L - - 2006
The influence of cellulose ether derivatives on ibuprofen release from matrix tablets was investigated. Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were used, in order to examine the compatibility between the matrix components: both excipients and ibuprofen. While both the DSC and Raman results did not detect any incompatibilities, ...
Deacon Robert M J - - 2006
Mice exhibit various species-typical behaviors such as digging and burrowing. They dig in the ground to find food, to hoard food, to create a refuge from predators or cold and to make a safe nursery area for the young. In the laboratory, mice dig vigorously in deep bedding such as ...
Gruber Helen E - - 2005
STUDY DESIGN: Lower lumbar vertebral endplates from young and old sand rats were assessed in an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study for architectural endplate features using micro-computerized tomography (CT) 3-dimensional (3D) models and vascularization studies by an in vivo vascular tracer or immunocytochemical identification of blood vessels. ...
Arabi Yaseen - - 2005
A 27-year-old female with acute monocytic leukaemia (M5) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because of refractory hypoxaemia and severe barotrauma during conventional mechanical ventilation, the patient was switched to high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) as a salvage therapy. Her refractory hypoxaemia improved temporarily but worsened again. Approval of the ...
Zhao Jian - - 2006
beta-Thujaplicin is an antimicrobial tropolone derived from geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and monoterpene intermediate. Yeast elicitor-treated Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures accumulate high levels of beta-thujaplicin at early stages and other monoterpenes at later stages post-elicitation. The different regulation of beta-thujaplicin and monoterpene biosynthesis and signal transduction directing metabolic flux to beta-thujaplicin firstly ...
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