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- - 2008
The 2008 Guidelines for Gamete and Embryo Donation provide the latest recommendations for evaluation of potential sperm, oocyte, and embryo donors, incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), genetic diseases, and psychological assessments. This revised document incorporates recent information from the U.S. Centers for ...
Roth W - - 2009
The potential effect of ethanol to accelerate drug release from sustained release (SR) oral formulations is a general concern. Marketed Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker, mainly used as antihypertensive and anti-anginal drug and available in various dose and dosage forms. One is Verapamil Meltrex, combining an innovative and unique ...
Pintar Frank A - - 2008
Current standard frontal crash tests include full frontal or 40% offset. Frontal impacts with offsets less than 40% and corner impacts have received little attention. Because of the limited engagement of vehicle structures that would permit less energy dissipation, these crashes have the potential for severe trauma to the near-side ...
Cleland James C - - 2008
Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the neuromuscular ion channelopathies has increased rapidly over the past two decades due to the identification of many of the genes whose mutation causes these diseases. These molecular discoveries have facilitated identification and classification of the hereditary periodic paralyses and the myotonias, and ...
Roshkind David M - - 2008
The use of lasers in general dentistry is now an accepted--and to some extent, expected--treatment modality. Laser use can be either an adjunct to other procedures or the main form of treatment itself. For many procedures, lasers are now becoming the treatment of choice by both clinicians and patients, and ...
Conrad Peter - - 2008
The medicalisation of life problems has been occurring for well over a century and has increased over the past 30 years, with the engines of medicalisation shifting to biotechnology, managed care, and consumers. This paper examines one strand of medicalisation during the last century: direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of pharmaceuticals. In ...
Du Xiao Fei - - 2008
We investigated the synergistic effect of combined treatment with red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and pidotimod in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. The combination of pidotimod and RGAP restored concanavalin A-induced splenic T cell proliferation and LPS-stimulated B cell proliferation significantly. The production of nitric oxide from peritoneal ...
Younger Alastair - - 2008
Total ankle arthroplasty has followed two major design concepts: Mobile-bearing and constrained. The US Food and Drug Administration has not approved mobile-bearing designs. Therefore most of the experience and design of these replacements has been in Canada and Europe. Hydroxyapatite coats often used in Europe also are not used in ...
Shah T - - 2008
It is sometimes necessary for the contents of medication capsules to be mixed with certain foods and drinks because children are not always able to swallow the capsules. The compatibility and short-term stability (6h) of melatonin capsules mixed in a variety of liquids and foodstuffs (water, orange juice, semi-skimmed milk, ...
Charlton Karen E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a food-based intervention on blood pressure (BP) in free-living South African men and women aged 50-75 years, with drug-treated mild-to-moderate hypertension. METHODS: A double-blind controlled trial was undertaken in eighty drug-treated mild-to-moderate hypertensive subjects randomised to an intervention (n 40) or control (n 40) ...
Gulseth Michael P - - 2008
PURPOSE: The mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy in clinical trials, interactions, adverse effects and toxicity, and place in therapy of rivaroxaban are reviewed. SUMMARY: Rivaroxaban, the first oral, direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor to reach Phase III trials, inhibits thrombin generation by both the intrinsic and the tissue factor ...
Sakamaki Narue - - 2008
Interactions between grapefruit juice and medications have long been recognized. In recent years, several furanocoumarins (FCs) that inhibit P450 activity in intestinal microsomes have been isolated from grapefruit juice. FCs, i.e., bergamottin (BG), bergapten (BP), bergaptol (BT) and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), in samples was extracted with acetonitrile, and separated on a ...
Thompson Angele - - 2008
Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated ...
Iyer Smita S - - 2009
Several lines of evidence indicate that perturbations in the extracellular thiol/disulfide redox environment correlate with the progression and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide Cystine (CySS) constitute the most abundant, low-molecular-weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and Cys homeostasis is adversely affected during the ...
Stülten Dele - - 2008
Many pharmaceuticals along with their metabolites have been detected in environmental water samples in the recent decades. The analgesic diclofenac is widely used and thus enters the aquatic environment. Already at realistic environmental concentration levels harmful effects to different organisms have been demonstrated. As this could also be expected for ...
Grossman Lewis A - - 2008
This Article explores the evolution and interaction of the legal and cultural categories "food" and "drug" from the late nineteenth century to the present. The federal statutory definitions of "food" and "drug" have always been ambiguous and plastic, providing the FDA with significant regulatory flexibility. Nevertheless, the agency is not ...
Wells Kevin A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Difficulty swallowing is a common problem in the clinical setting, particularly in elderly patients, and can significantly affect an individual's ability to maintain a proper level of nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine if mixing duloxetine enteric-coated pellets in food substances is an ...
Tomita Mamoru - - 2009
Lactoferrin (LF) was identified as a milk protein in 1960. Large-scale manufacturing of bovine LF (bLF) was established more than 20 years ago. Using this commercially available material, research for bLF applications has advanced from basic studies to clinical studies, and bLF has been applied to commercial food products for ...
Lentz Kimberley A - - 2008
Food can impact the pharmacokinetics of a drug product through several mechanisms, including but not limited to, enhancement in drug solubility, changes in GI physiology, or direct interaction with the drug. Significant food effects complicate development of new drugs, especially when clinical plans require control and/or monitoring of food intake ...
Ghannoum Mahmoud A - - 2009
Currently available topical antifungals are often not satisfactory for the treatment of nail infections, because of the inability to penetrate the nail plate. Terbinafine HCl nail solution is a novel antifungal formulation containing a nail penetration enhancer dodecyl-2-N,N-dimethylaminopropionate hydrochloride (DDAIP HCl, trade name NexACT-88). In this study, we used a ...
Knutson Charles G - - 2008
Our laboratory is investigating the in vitro and in vivo metabolic processing of endogenously formed DNA adducts as a means of evaluating candidate urinary biomarkers. In particular, we have focused our studies on the metabolism and disposition of the peroxidation-derived pyrimidopurinone deoxyguanosine (dG) adduct, 3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-R]purin-10(3H)-one (M1dG), and its principal metabolite, ...
Debelle Frédéric D - - 2008
Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a progressive renal interstitial fibrosis frequently associated with urothelial malignancies, was initially reported in a Belgian cohort of more than 100 patients after the intake of slimming pills containing a Chinese herb, Aristolochia fangchi. Although botanicals known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) were no ...
Martins Suy Anne R - - 2008
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of riboflavin/UVA (365 nm) against common pathogens. METHODS: One group of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PA], Staphylococcus aureus [SA], and Staphylococcus epidermidis [SE]) was tested by using Kirby-Bauer discs with (1) empty disc (Control - C); (2) riboflavin 0.1% (B2); (3) riboflavin 0.1% previously activated ...
McCall Julianne Rose - - 2008
Crayfish rely on the chemosensory neurons in their antennules to help them find food and habitat and to mediate social interactions. These structures often sustain damage from aggressive interactions or from the environment, but they have the ability to regenerate. In this study, we examine whether the effects of antennule ...
Lerner Alan J - - 2008
Memantine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated the frequency and variables associated with its use in mild to moderate/severe AD as defined by criteria involving the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) ...
Carman Teresa L - - 2008
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Filters are indicated to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and a contraindication to anticoagulation or a complication of anticoagulation. Some of this increased use is the result of expanding relative indications for ...
Desai Narendra R - - 2008
Zosyn((R)) , also known as Tazocin((R)) for injection, contains piperacillin and tazobactam and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1993 for the treatment of indicated serious infections. In 1995, United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeias reduced the particulate limit for injectables by 40%, based on general ...
van Kan H J M HJ Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2008
Pharmacokinetic studies of riluzole show a large inter-individual variability of the drug's clearance and serum concentrations. Optimizing the individual dosage of riluzole may have the potential to improve the effect of riluzole treatment on survival of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Limited data are available on the in vivo ...
Sarapa Nenad - - 2008
The US Food and Drug Administration recommends submission of digital electrocardiograms in the standard HL7 XML format into the electrocardiogram warehouse to support preapproval review of new drug applications. The Food and Drug Administration scrutinizes electrocardiogram quality by viewing the annotated waveforms and scoring electrocardiogram quality by the warehouse algorithms. ...
Rosa Maria L - - 2008
The study investigated whether chronic ethanol (ETH) intake and subsequent ETH exposure of cell cultures affects osteoblast differentiation by evaluating key parameters of in vitro osteogenesis. Rats were treated with 5-20% (0.85-3.43 mm) ETH, increasing by 5% per week for a period of 4 weeks (habituation), after which the 20% ...
Detert James R - - 2008
Reports an error in "Managerial modes of influence and counterproductivity in organizations: A longitudinal business-unit-level investigation" by James R. Detert, Linda K. Treviño, Ethan R. Burris and Meena Andiappan (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2007[Jul], Vol 92[4], 993-1005). Table 2 on p. 1000 contains errors that were not the fault of ...
Makino Toshiaki - - 2008
According to the notification for definition of pharmaceuticals from the Director-General of the Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare of Japan, the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) and S. lateriflora (skullcap) are classified as "the raw materials exclusively used as pharmaceuticals", but their aerial ...
Dunn Sheila - - 2008
In 2005 the emergency contraception formulation of levonorgestrel (Plan B) became available in Ontario pharmacies without a prescription. We surveyed 239 pharmacies 1 month before the regulatory change and 14-17 months after the change to determine whether availability of the drug increased. The response rates were 79% and 70% before ...
Amar Thierry - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ocular pharmacokinetic parameters observed following systemic administration are also seen following topical administration. METHODS: Azithromycin concentrations were measured by HPLC-MS in pigmented rabbits' tears, cornea, bulbar conjunctiva, and aqueous humor following single instillation and twice-daily instillations for three consecutive ...
Sagis Leonard M C - - 2008
Polymer microcapsules can be used as controlled release systems in drugs or in foods. Using layer-by-layer adsorption of common food proteins and polysaccharides, we produced a new type of microcapsule with tunable strength and permeability. The shell consists of alternating layers of pectin and whey protein fibrils, yielding a fiber-reinforced ...
Walters Iain - - 2008
The CXCR2 SAR of a series of bicyclic antagonists such as the 2-aminothiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine 3b was investigated by systematic variation of the fused pyrimidine-based heterocyclic cores. Replacement of the aminothiazole ring with a 2-thiazolone alternative led to a series of thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(3H)-one antagonists with markedly improved biological and pharmacokinetic properties, which are ...
Wright Stephanie K - - 2008
PURPOSE: To review the literature on hyponatremia as a complication of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the elderly; to summarize the prevalence, clinical findings, treatment modalities, and likely pathophysiological mechanisms related to the problem. DATA SOURCES: All published articles that could be located since Food and Drug Administration approval ...
Agin Marilyn A - - 2008
In an ongoing effort to try to understand the variability of QT/QTc data and determine how that variability would affect the design, analysis, and conclusions drawn from data collected in thorough QT/QTc studies, five Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (PhRMA) companies recently performed retrospective analyses of placebo and nondrug 12-lead ...
Kumar M V Pradeep - - 2008
Choking while consuming food is a cause of death that has long been known and studied. Such deaths were popularly known as 'café coronary deaths', which denoted a fatal occlusion of the upper airway by food substances. The event commonly occurs while also consuming large quantities of ethyl alcohol or ...
Addi M Mohd - - 2008
Parallel or concurrent stimulation in an epiretinal neuroprosthesis is likely necessary in order to deliver sufficient phosphenes for effective vision. Important issues with concurrent stimulation are the effect of current distribution which introduces current leakage or 'cross talk' between adjacent electrodes and charge recovery which determines balanced charge being delivered/recovered ...
Volvert Marie-Laure - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Lipid-soluble thiamine precursors have a much higher bioavailability than genuine thiamine and therefore are more suitable for therapeutic purposes. Benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate), an amphiphilic S-acyl thiamine derivative, prevents the progression of diabetic complications, probably by increasing tissue levels of thiamine diphosphate and so enhancing transketolase activity. As the brain ...
Saum Stephan H - - 2008
The moderate halophile Halobacillus halophilus is the paradigm for chloride dependent growth in prokaryotes. Recent experiments shed light on the molecular basis of the chloride dependence that is reviewed here. In the presence of moderate salinities Halobacillus halophilus mainly accumulates glutamine and glutamate to adjust turgor. The transcription of glnA2 ...
Madden Tessa - - 2007
The vaginal contraceptive ring is comprised of ethinyl vinyl acetate that releases ethinyl estradiol and the third-generation progestin, etonorgestrel. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001. The vaginal contraceptive ring is highly efficacious with a Pearl Index of 1.18 and an efficacy of 99.1%. Effectiveness is ...
Moura M José - - 2007
This paper reports the rheological behavior of chitosan solutions that have been cross-linked with different amounts of genipin, at body temperature and physiological pH. The effect of the cross-linker loading on the rheological properties of hydrogels has been evaluated. The oscillatory time sweep method was used to monitor the dynamic ...
Carruthers Alastair - - 2007
Recent advances in the technology and biocompatibility of the hyaluronans in all skin types mean that they are becoming the temporary facial filling agents of choice for many aesthetic physicians and surgeons. The hyaluronan products that have been approved for clinical usage by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and ...
Del Rosso James Q - - 2007
Newer topical therapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acne vulgaris are dapsone gel 5% and clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% combination gel. Both are formulated in aqueous-based gel vehicles. These newer topical acne products have been shown to be effective and ...
Keiser Jennifer - - 2007
Over 40 million people are infected with food-borne trematodes and 750 million are at risk of food-borne trematodiasis, and yet this tropical disease is neglected. The current arsenal for the treatment and control of food-borne trematodiasis comprises praziquantel and triclabendazole, which were developed 20-30 years ago. The safety, therapeutic profiles ...
Straub Stephen J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous research has indicated that not all ultrasound transducers heat at equal rates; however, the cause of this disparity is unclear. Variability in spatial average intensity (SAI) has been implicated in this disparity at 3 MHz. This variability has not been explored at 1 MHz. METHODS: Sixty-six ...
Chen Chen - - 2007
A potent and selective antagonist of the melanocortin-4 receptor, 1-[2-[(1S)-(3-dimethylaminopropionyl)amino-2-methylpropyl]-6-methylphenyl]-4-[(2R)-methyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propionyl]piperazine (10d), was identified from a series piperazinebenzylamine attached with a N,N-dimethyl-beta-alanine side chain. This compound possessed high water solubility and exhibited good metabolic profiles. In animals, 10d showed moderate to good oral bioavailability and promoted food intake in tumor-bearing mice ...
Lockman Paul R - - 2008
The quaternary ammonium compound N,N'-dodecyl-bispicolinium dibromide (bPiDDB) potently and selectively inhibits nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) mediating nicotine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release and decreases nicotine self-administration, suggesting that this polar, charged molecule penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This report focuses on 1) BBB penetration of bPiDDB; 2) the mechanism of permeation; and 3) comparison ...
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