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Results 301 - 350 of 675
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Mann Reinier M - - 2011
Artificial substrates consisting of fine milled silica with or without α-cellulose were evaluated for their capacity to support survival, growth and fecundity in the amphipod, Melita plumulosa. There were no significant differences in the survival and fecundity of adult amphipods maintained for up to 13 d on natural sediment, silica-only ...
Pearce-Duvet Jessica M C - - 2011
An understanding of foraging behavior is crucial to understanding higher level community dynamics; in particular, there is a lack of information about how different species discover food resources. We examined the effect of forager number and forager discovery capacity on food discovery in two disparate temperate ant communities, located in ...
Selmi Marco - - 2011
The authors describe a large outbreak of canine salmonellosis in a municipal kennel in Tuscany. During the outbreak, 174 samples of 'diarrhetic' and 'normal' faeces and two batches of commercial dehydrated dog food were cultured for pathogenic bacteria. The results of 25, out of a total of 41 dogs (60.9%) ...
Dean Wesley R - - 2011
This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos ...
Postollec Florence - - 2011
Molecular methods are being increasingly applied to detect, quantify and study microbial populations in food or during food processes. Among these methods, PCR-based techniques have been the subject of considerable focus and ISO guidelines have been established for the detection of food-borne pathogens. More particularly, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is ...
Beloglazova Natalia V - - 2011
A quantitative immunochemical rapid test for sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BAP) as a model analyte was developed making use of a handheld reader for results evaluation. The covalent immobilization of antibodies to different Sepharose gels, i.e., CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and CNBr-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow was compared with adsorption to ...
McClements David Julian - - 2011
Nanoemulsions fabricated from food-grade ingredients are being increasingly utilized in the food industry to encapsulate, protect, and deliver lipophilic functional components, such as biologically-active lipids (e.g., ω-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid) and oil-soluble flavors, vitamins, preservatives, and nutraceuticals. The small size of the particles in nanoemulsions (r < 100 ...
Ogah C O - - 2011
Pesticides are used widely in agriculture to control destructive pests and hence increase food supply. Their use inadvertently leads to residues in food crops and the environment. Pesticides, by nature are poisonous and exposure of humans to their residues may cause health hazards which include neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity among others. ...
Brandon David L - - 2011
Ricin is a highly toxic protein present in the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor), grown principally as a source of high quality industrial lubricant and as an ornamental. Because ricin has been used for intentional poisoning in the past and could be used to contaminate food, there is a need ...
Chen Jianshe - - 2011
There have been some reports in the literature of model gastric digestion systems to mimic the dynamic physiological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. However, such devices often require the specification of many control parameters making routine digestion tests unfeasible. This paper introduces a simple in vitro digestion device, comprising of ...
Milner Sinead Eileen - - 2011
Potatoes, tomatoes, and aubergines are all species of the Solanum genus and contain a vast array of secondary metabolites including calystegine alkaloids, phenolic compounds, lectins, and glycoalkaloids. Glycoalkaloids have been the subject of many literature papers, occur widely in the human diet, and are known to induce toxicity. Therefore, from ...
Chan Wing Hei - - 2011
Ciguatera is food poisoning caused by human consumption of reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The expanding international trade of tropical fish species from ciguatera-endemic regions has resulted in increased global incidence of ciguatera, and more than 50000 people are estimated to suffer from ciguatera each year worldwide. The Republic ...
Perchonok Michele H - - 2011
The food systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have evolved tremendously since the early manned spaceflights of the 1960s. To date, NASA's mission focus has been limited to exploration of low Earth orbit (LEO), and the agency's prepackaged food systems have been adequate to enable success of ...
Ikeda Shinya - - 2011
Colloidal and polymer systems are not only abundant in food but also useful for gaining insights into structure-function relationships of food. Colloid and polymer systems are composed of mesoscopic scale particles dispersed in a liquid. Because of a relatively small potential barrier against aggregation between mesoscopic particles, a small change ...
Lineback David R - - 2011
Acrylamide occurs in foods commonly consumed in diets worldwide. It is formed from the reaction of glucose and fructose with the amino acid asparagine via the Maillard reaction, which occurs during heat-processing of foods, primarily those derived from plant origin, such as potato and cereal products, above 120°C (248°F). The ...
Onwulata C I - - 2011
The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components and protect the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organs. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in processed foods. Microencapsulation efficiency is balanced ...
Eden Sally - - 2011
This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering ...
Jacob Casey J - - 2011
Incidents become crises through a constant and intense public scrutiny facilitated by the media. Two incidents involving dioxin contamination of food led to crises in Belgium and the Republic of Ireland in 1999 and 2008, respectively. Thought to cause cancer in humans, dioxins reached the food supply in both incidents ...
Pozzebon Alberto - - 2011
Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects ...
Wiedenfeld H - - 2011
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are toxic for human and livestock. They undergo a metabolic toxication process in the liver which is the first target organ for PA poisoning. Worldwide many episodes of human PA intoxications are well reported. In many cases the reason for these intoxications has been PA contamination in ...
Stefanazzi Natalia - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The composition and bioactivity of essential oils from Tagetes terniflora Kunth, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. and Elyonurus muticus (Spreng) Kuntz were evaluated against stored-grain pests. RESULTS: Fumigant and contact toxicities were observed with T. terniflora on adults of both pests. In contact toxicity, this oil was less toxic to Tribolium ...
Shao Yongqi - - 2011
In the animal kingdom, carotenoids are usually absorbed from dietary sources and transported to target tissues. Despite their general importance, the uptake mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we report the "red crop" phenomenon, an accumulation of α- and β-carotene in crystalline inclusions in the enlarged foregut of the polyphagous ...
Pastor J F - - 2011
The eight current species of bear (Ursidae) are widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and America. They are mainly encountered in the northern hemisphere, except for the spectacled bear and the sun bear, which are also found in the south of the equator. Adaptations of the masticatory apparatus (teeth, tongue, and ...
Arnich Nathalie - - 2011
Since more than 10 years, risk assessment of bisphenol A (BPA) is debated at the international level. In 2008, the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) expressed some concern for adverse effects, at current level of exposure to BPA, on developmental toxicity. In this context, the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) ...
Daly Alison M - - 2011
Obesity is an important public health problem in Australia, and monitoring the nutritional intake of the population is an important endeavour. One way to assess food habits is via Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ). This pilot study used a routine telephone risk factor surveillance survey to recruit participants in South Australia ...
Hurtado Christine Waasdorp - - 2011
The aim of the study was to measure clinicopathological features of children presenting to a tertiary care emergency department with esophageal food impaction. A retrospective chart review of children with esophageal food impaction seen between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2009, including all patients from age 1 month to ...
O'Flaherty Sarah - - 2011
The advent of the molecular biology era in the 1950s and the subsequent emergence of new technologies positively impacted on all areas of biology. New discoveries in molecular biology and experimental tools were developed over the next 60 years that have revolutionized the study of food microbiology. Previously, food microbiology ...
Croissant A E - - 2011
Comprehensive food flavor analysis requires a multidisciplinary approach. This article presents a comprehensive review of the relationship between sensory and instrumental analysis in the research of food flavor. Common practices for aroma flavor compound isolation, separation, and identification are discussed with strengths and weaknesses of the respective methodologies. A review ...
Knorr D - - 2011
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), ultrasound (US), and cold plasma (CP) are emerging technologies that have already found application in the food industry or related sectors. This review aims to describe the basic principles of these nonthermal technologies as well as the state of the art concerning ...
Melito H S - - 2011
Rheological methods are continually evolving to encompass novel technologies and measurement methods. This review highlights novel techniques used to analyze the rheological properties of foods over the previous decade. Techniques reviewed include large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) testing and rheological techniques coupled with other measurement methods, such as microscopy and ...
Uebelacker Michael - - 2011
Acetaldehyde (ethanal) is a genotoxic carcinogen, which may occur naturally or as an added flavour in foods. We have developed an efficient method to analyze the compound in a wide variety of food matrices. The analysis is conducted using headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector. Using a ...
Rodriguez-Saona L E - - 2011
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an appealing technology for the food industry because simple, rapid, and nondestructive measurements of chemical and physical components can be obtained. Advances in FTIR instrumentation combined with the development of powerful multivariate data analysis methods make this technology ideal for large volume, rapid screening ...
Hajslova Jana - - 2011
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microscopic filamentous fungi. With regard to the widespread distribution of fungi in the environment, mycotoxins are considered to be one of the most important natural contaminants in foods and feeds. To protect consumers' health and reduce economic losses, surveillance and control of mycotoxins in food ...
Stöcker P - - 2011
In March 2010 the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) was used to inform about Salmonella Montevideo in a herbal food supplement, formulated in capsules, distributed under a Dutch label in Germany. Simultaneous to the first RASFF notice, in the last two weeks of March 2010 an unusual ...
Dudak Fahriye Ceyda - - 2011
New methods to identify trace amount of food components and/or contaminants (infectious pathogens and chemicals) rapidly, accurately, and with high sensitivity are in constant demand to prevent foodborne illnesses. Multipurpose biofunctionalized engineered nanomaterials are very promising for the detection of food components and contaminants. The unique optical and magnetic properties ...
Moore P G - - 2011
Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the ...
Neill Carly - - 2011
This research investigates facilitators and barriers that rural women aged 65 to 75 years in Southwestern Ontario experience in acquiring and preparing food through the use of photovoice methodology. Eighteen participants in five rural communities used a camera and log book to document their experiences and perspectives relating to the ...
Chu Xiaogang - - 2011
Food safety is essential to people's health and people's livelihood. To ensure that food safety is an important current strategy of the governments, both regulation and standardization are important support for implementing this strategic initiative effectively. The status and prospects of China's food laws, regulations, and standards system are introduced. ...
Walch Stephan G - - 2011
The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health ...
Pochop Jaroslav - - 2011
The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready to eat milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the StepOne real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Classical microbiological methods for detection of foodborne bacteria involve the use of pre-enrichment and/or specific enrichment, following isolation of bacteria in ...
Louis Elan D - - 2011
Harmane, a potent neurotoxin linked with several neurological disorders, is present in many foods, coffee, and cigarettes. We assessed whether morning food/coffee consumption and smoking were reflected in blood harmane concentrations (BHCs) we obtained in an epidemiologic sample (n = 497). Participants who smoked on the morning of phlebotomy had ...
Maurer John J - - 2011
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an important diagnostic tool in the detection of foodborne pathogens. Many PCR tests have been validated, harmonized, and commercialized to make PCR a standard tool used by food microbiology laboratories to detect pathogens in foods. Current PCR technology allows for rapid detection of pathogens ...
Noroozifar Meissam - - 2011
The present work describes the construction of a new modified graphite-multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode by casting the appropriate mixture of tetraheptylammonium iodide-iodine as a new modifier. The modified paste electrode was used for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.0). When compared to ...
Myae Aye Chan - - 2011
Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, ...
Lavecchia Teresa - - 2011
The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. ...
Helle Norbert - - 2011
An overview is given in this chapter of the main potential benefits of using automated Solid phase Extraction (SPE) in the preparation of food samples for LC-MS analysis, both in terms of quality of results and in terms of performance and productivity. Automated SPE instrumentation is described and a range ...
Fürst Peter - - 2011
The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality ...
El-Shenawy Moustafa - - 2011
Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria ...
Mochizuki Naoki - - 2011
An accurate analysis is required to address various issues concerning the food safety. Many risk factors, such as agricultural chemical residues, residual veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, food additives, and carcinogens produced during food processing may be present in foodstuffs. High-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an analytical system advanced in ...
Engler-Stringer Rachel - - 2011
Purpose: This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. Methods: This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 ...
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