Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 916
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Lewis Rebecca - - 2006
The evolution of resource specializations is poorly understood, especially in marine systems. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is the largest of the phocid seals, sexually dimorphic, and thought to prey predominantly on fish and squid. We collected vibrissae from male and female southern elephant seals, and assessed stable C ...
Hoshooley Jennifer S - - 2007
Previous research presents a mixed picture of seasonal variation in the hippocampus of food-storing black-capped chickadees. One field study has shown an October peak in hippocampus volume, although laboratory studies conducted to determine whether photoperiod regulates this seasonal growth have failed to find changes in the size of the hippocampus. ...
Kemkes Ariane - - 2006
The observation that declines in the human secondary sex ratio (SSR) may be linked to stressful periconceptional periods has received considerable attention (Catalano [2003] Hum Reprod 18:1972-1975; Catalano et al. [2005] Int J Epidemiol 34:944-948, [2005] Hum Reprod 20:1221-1227, [2005] Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 19:413-420). For the purpose of testing the ...
Yamaguchi Sachi - - 2007
Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have three sexual patterns: simultaneous hermaphroditism, dioecy and androdioecy. In dioecy and androdioecy, large individuals (females and hermaphrodites, respectively) are attached by dwarf males. Depending on species, some dwarf males grow up, others do not in their life time. To investigate which environmental conditions affect growth patterns ...
Brandner J M - - 2006
The influence of androgens, especially testosterone and its effector dihydrotestosterone, results in a constitutive disadvantage for male skin, e.g. reduced viability of hair at the scalp and reduced epidermal permeability barrier repair capacity. Dihydrotestosterone can act, among others, as an adenyl cyclase inhibitor. Caffeine on the other hand is an ...
Axenovich T I - - 2007
Natural populations of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus, Canidae, Carnivora) differ drastically in their reproductive strategy. Coastal foxes, which depend on stable food resources, produce litters of moderate size. Inland foxes feed on small rodents, whose populations are characterized by cycling fluctuation. In the years with low food supply, inland ...
Harrison Mark E - - 2007
The orang-utan is unique among apes in having an unusually long male developmental period and two distinct adult male morphs (flanged and unflanged), which generally, but not exclusively, employ different reproductive strategies (call-and-wait vs. sneak-and-rape). Both morphs have recently been shown to have roughly similar levels of reproductive success in ...
Anaya Carlos A - - 2007
N cycling in tropical dry forests is driven by rainfall seasonality but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We studied the seasonal variation in N dynamics and microbial biomass in the surface litter of a tropical dry forest ecosystem in Mexico over a 2-year period. Litter was collected at ...
Tomaszycki Michelle L - - 2006
Accurate song perception is likely to be as important for female songbirds as it is for male songbirds. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) show differential ZENK expression to conspecific and heterospecific songs by day 30 posthatch in auditory perceptual brain regions such as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudomedial ...
Reilly Sarah J - - 2006
Although most temperate-zone mammals are seasonal breeders, many populations display variation in winter reproductive phenotype. For most mammals, the primary environmental cues regulating reproductive status are food availability and photoperiod, and these two factors can interact in their effect. Low food availability is primarily thought to suppress reproduction by reducing ...
Medeiros L - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different artificial diets, in which sucrose and brewer's yeast were offered separately (food-pair treatment) or mixed (single-food treatment), on the regulation of nutrient ingestion and the performance of wild adult females of Anastrepha obliqua. The amount of diet ...
Gunnarsson Tómas G - - 2006
1. In migratory species, early arrival on the breeding grounds can often enhance breeding success. Timing of spring migration is therefore a key process that is likely to be influenced both by factors specific to individuals, such as the quality of winter and breeding locations and the distance between them, ...
Bize Pierre - - 2006
As fitness returns during a breeding attempt are context-dependent, parents are predicted to bias their food allocation within a brood from poor towards good condition nestlings when environmental conditions deteriorate. We tested this prediction in the Alpine swift and the European starling, two migratory bird species, by modifying an ultraviolet ...
Nielsen Jan Tøttrup - - 2006
The reproductive success of predators depends on abiotic environmental conditions, food abundance and population density, and food abundance, density and their interactions may respond to changes in climatic conditions. Timing of reproduction by five of the eight numerically most common prey of the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus advanced significantly since 1971, ...
Lloyd Elisabeth A - - 2006
David Puts and Khytam Dawood's recent critique of my book, The Case of the Female Orgasm: Bias in the Science of Evolution, attempts to make plausible an adaptive account of female orgasm based on a hypothesized mechanism of uterine upsuck and sperm competition. Yet the authors fail to respond to ...
Schneider Jill E - - 2006
During evolution, the ability to overeat and store the extra energy as glycogen and lipids in specialized tissues must have conferred a reproductive advantage by releasing animals from the need to eat constantly, enabling them to engage in behaviors that improved reproductive success. Mechanisms that inhibited ingestive behavior might have ...
García-Macías Vanesa - - 2006
The effect of seasonality (temperate environment, Spain) on the chromatin status of ovine (Churra breed), Iberian red deer, and brown bear spermatozoa was studied. This work aims to improve genetic resource banks (GRBs) by enhancing existing knowledge of the effect of season on sperm quality. Samples were obtained by electroejaculation ...
Wolovich C K - - 2006
Captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. azarai) share food frequently within both families and pairs. In this study food sharing was observed in seven mated pairs and four families (i.e., four mated pairs and their offspring). Patterns of food sharing were examined with respect to age class, sex, and the ...
Ng'ang'a C J - - 2006
An investigation was carried out to assess the effects of weather on the occurrence and magnitude of the periparturient rise (PPR) in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in breeding Dorper ewes. The study was conducted over three breeding seasons on a ranch in the semi-arid area of Kajiado District in Kenya ...
Munday K K Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, Fulbourn Road, Cambridge CB1 9NL, United - - 2006
Seasonal and interindividual differences in food availability and illnesses cause variations in growth, including bone growth, in children in developing countries. We investigated seasonal differences in biochemical (serum) markers of bone metabolism and relationships between these markers (procollagen type I N propeptide [P1NP], serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen ...
Taborsky Barbara - - 2006
Through non-genetic maternal effects, mothers can tailor offspring phenotype to the environment in which young will grow up. If juvenile and adult ecologies differ, the conditions mothers experienced as juveniles may better predict their offspring's environment than the adult environment of mothers. In this case maternal decisions about investment in ...
Smith Robin J - - 2006
Three living male darwinulid ostracods of a new species of the genus Vestalenula have been found in Yakushima, Japan. This is the first report of living darwinulid males for over 100 years and their morphology casts doubt on the two previous records from the late 1800' s. The presence of ...
Monteiro Frederico Ozanan Barros - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Gynecological and obstetrical ultrasonography has become an indispensable tool in the routine management, health evaluation and research on captive non-human primates. METHODS: Ultrasound was used to evaluate the uterus and estimate the gestation of owl monkeys. Twelve couples were selected, where five were primiparous and seven multiparous females from ...
Jiang Zhaowen - - 2006
We assessed sexual variation in food quality and gut macrostructure in adult male and pregnant female sika deer, Cervus nippon (Temminck, 1838), in Japan during winter. These variations might have important implications relative to sexual differences in habitat use, forage acquisition, and digestive strategy. According to the sexual dimorphism-body size ...
Both Christiaan - - 2006
Phenological responses to climate change differ across trophic levels, which may lead to birds failing to breed at the time of maximal food abundance. Here we investigate the population consequences of such mistiming in the migratory pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. In a comparison of nine Dutch populations, we find that ...
Hoover Jeffrey P - - 2006
Interspecific brood parasitism in birds presents a special problem for the host because the parasitic offspring exploit their foster parents, causing them to invest more energy in their current reproductive effort. Nestling brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are a burden to relatively small hosts and may reduce fledgling quality and adult ...
Brown David R - - 2006
The hypothesis that migratory bird populations are limited during the non-breeding season is increasingly supported by empirical studies that also suggest consequences that carry-over into subsequent seasons. Although variation in food supply is the best supported explanation for non-breeding season limitation, the ecological mechanisms and physiological consequences are not well ...
Carvalho Gil B GB Division of Biology 156-29 and 216-76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 91125, - - 2006
Mating elicits a dramatic reprogramming of female behavior in numerous insect species. In Drosophila, this postmating response (PMR) comprises increased egg-laying rate and reduced sexual receptivity and is controlled by the products of the male accessory glands, a family of approximately 80 small peptides transferred in the male seminal fluid ...
Jacobson Therese - - 2006
An endocrine disruptor, the fungicide fenarimol, was investigated regarding its effects on reproduction and hormone (ecdysteroid) levels in the deposit-feeding amphipod Monoporeia affinis. In addition, the influence of food shortage, both by itself and in combination with fenarimol, on reproduction was examined. Field-collected amphipods were exposed in flow-through microcosms during ...
Taborsky Barbara - - 2006
There is increasing evidence that the environment experienced early in life can strongly influence adult life histories. It is largely unknown, however, how past and present conditions influence suites of life-history traits regarding major life-history trade-offs. Especially in animals with indeterminate growth, we may expect that environmental conditions of juveniles ...
Snover M L - - 2006
Sexual maturation profoundly affects population dynamics, but the degrees to which genetic, top-down, and bottom-up controls affect age at maturity are unclear. Salmonid fishes have plastic age at maturity, and we consider genetic and environmental effects on this trait by developing fitness functions for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The functions ...
Markman Shai - - 2006
Sex-specific foraging behaviour might be influenced by digestive constraints. However, evidence for sex differences in digestive performance is limited. Various physiological traits are known to be body size dependent. Therefore, we hypothesized that body size differences between male and female birds may lead to differences in their digestive characteristics. We ...
Beckerman Andrew P - - 2006
The well studied trade-off between offspring size and offspring number assumes that offspring fitness increases with increasing per-offspring investment. Where mothers differ genetically or exhibit plastic variation in reproductive effort, there can be variation in per capita investment in offspring, and via this trade-off, variation in fecundity. Variation in per ...
Scott Jennifer - - 2006
Minimal feeding competition among female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) has resulted in egalitarian social relationships with poorly defined agonistic dominance hierarchies. Thus, gorillas are generally viewed as non-competitive egalitarian folivores that have had little need to develop effective competitive strategies to access food resources. However, this generalization is inconsistent ...
Liang Hong - - 2006
Food restriction in parent may have long-term consequence on the reproductive capabilities of the offspring, and these consequences may, in turn, play an important role in population regulation. In this paper, we systematically examined the effect of maternal food restriction on reproduction and survival of maternal individuals, and F1 and ...
Minh D V - - 2006
An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of season (dry and rainy), location (lowland and highland villages) and breed (local and improved) on the amount and physical and chemical composition of the scavenged feed. This was done by crop content analysis of a total of 192 Ri (local) ...
Sendacz S - - 2006
This paper reports on a study involving an estimate of the biomass of rotifers, cladocerans, and cyclopoid and calanoid copepods found in reservoirs in different trophic conditions, comparing and relating numerical density data and pointing out differences between the dry and rainy seasons. In terms of numerical densities, both reservoirs ...
Bashey Farrah - - 2006
The existence of adaptive phenotypic plasticity demands that we study the evolution of reaction norms, rather than just the evolution of fixed traits. This approach requires the examination of functional relationships among traits not only in a single environment but across environments and between traits and plasticity itself. In this ...
Hanya Goro - - 2006
Previous studies on Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) densities suggest that both total annual food abundance and the quality of fallback foods in the winter bottleneck period affects density. We reviewed data on the seasonal changes in home range size to explain how both factors affect density. In general, home range ...
Sirot Laura K - - 2006
Molecules transferred from males to females via seminal fluids are important to the study of insect reproduction because they affect female physiology, reproductive behavior, and longevity. These molecules (seminal fluid molecules or SFMs) interest applied entomologists because of their potential use in insect control. SFMs are also interesting because of ...
Charmantier Anne - - 2006
Life-history traits in wild populations are often regarded as being subject to directional selection, and the existence of substantial variation and microevolutionary stasis of these characters is therefore a problem in need of explanation. Avian clutch size is an archetypal life-history trait in this context, and many studies have sought ...
Poulet, S.A.
ABSTRACT: Egg production rates (EPR) by Calanus helgolandicus females were investigated with specimens sampled weekly, from April to November 2003 and from March to October 2004, at a station located in the English Channel off Roscoff. Comparison of results between 1994, 2003 and 2004 showed that C. helgolandicus was a ...
Brown G P - - 2006
Most species reproduce seasonally, even in the tropics where activity occurs year-round. Squamate reptiles provide ideal model organisms to clarify the ultimate (adaptive) reasons for the restriction of reproduction to specific times of year. Females of almost all temperate-zone reptile species produce their eggs or offspring in the warmest time ...
Tarnaud Laurent - - 2006
In past decades, cathemerality--as defined by Tattersall [1987]--has been documented in two primate families: Cebidae and Lemuridae. In the Lemuridae, in particular the genus Eulemur, cathemeral activity seems to be a regular behavioural trait. Nevertheless, ultimate and proximate determinants responsible for this behaviour remain unclear. In this study, in a ...
Chaturvedi C M - - 2006
Circadian rhythms in many metabolic functions including neural (transmitters) and hormonal secretion appear to change with physiological condition. It is also reported that seasonal changes in photoperiodism/reproduction and other metabolic conditions may result from a temporal interaction of circadian neural oscillations that change seasonally. To test this hypothesis, the present ...
Korslund Lars - - 2006
1. In Fennoscandia during winter small rodents spend most of their time in the subnivean space, between the snow cover and the ground. The subnivean space is probably not a uniform habitat, but broken into accessible and inaccessible patches by ice covering the vegetation. This might reduce access to otherwise ...
Moore Ignacio T - - 2006
Timing of seasonal reproduction in high latitude vertebrates is generally regulated by photoperiodic cues. Increasing day length in the spring is associated with changes in the brain that are responsible for mediating reproductive activities. A primary example of this is the increased content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the preoptic ...
Kosztolányi András - - 2006
1. One of the fundamental insights of behavioural ecology is that resources influence breeding systems. For instance, when food resources are plenty, one parent is able to care for the young on its own, so that the other parent can desert and became polygamous. We investigated this hypothesis in the ...
G. Varga; The Somogy ...
Lungworm (Metastrongylus spp.) occurrence in wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus) was examined in two boar enclosures (fenced areas) and in the surrounding open area of middle Somogy county, SW-Hungary, in the 2002/03 hunting season. The studied areas presented the following characteristics: 1) S-enclosure (E1): 300 ha, 88% forest cover and ...
Kjellander Petter - - 2006
We investigated the influence of population density on juvenile body mass in two contrasting roe deer populations, in Sweden (Bogesund) and France (Chizé), in which density was monitored for >or=15 years. We investigated the effect of population density and climatic conditions on cohort performance. We predicted that: (1) body mass ...
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