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Results 351 - 400 of 915
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Kerr Tricia D - - 2007
Maternal effects can have lasting fitness consequences for offspring, but these effects are often difficult to disentangle from associated responses in offspring traits. We studied persistent maternal effects on offspring survival in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) by manipulating maternal nutrition without altering the post-emergent nutritional environment experienced by ...
Müller Claudia - - 2007
Little is known about whether adaptations to an insular life also involve adaptations in basal corticosterone levels or in the adrenocortical stress response, thus being part of a genetically based island syndrome. However, differences in corticosterone between island and mainland may also be a direct phenotypic response to differences in ...
Pattison J - - 2007
In the Mexican state of Yucatan the Pel6n pig breed has been identified as being endangered. The gradual disappearance of this indigenous breed that is able to survive well in an extreme environment and under low-input conditions undermines food and livestock security for Yucatan's rural poor. This study uses contingent ...
Schoech Stephan J - - 2007
Recent work has shown that Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) living in suburban habitats, as well as birds that reside in a natural habitat (hereafter referred to as wildland birds) provided supplemental food during the pre-breeding period, have lower baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels than nonsupplemented wildland birds, suggesting that predictable and ...
Gupta Subash C - - 2007
The study highlights the adverse effects of organophosphate compounds dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos on reproduction in Drosophila. Freshly eclosed first instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster transgenic for hsp70 (hsp70-lacZ) Bg(9) were fed on 0.015-150.0ppb dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos mixed food. Virgin flies eclosing from the normal and contaminated food were pair-mated to ...
Calisi Rebecca M - - 2007
Conspicuous coloration in females is less well studied compared to that in males. Adult female Mexican boulder spiny lizards (Sceloporus pyrocephalus) have conspicuously colored throat, or gular, regions, ranging from red to yellow, while adult males only weakly express such color in their gular region. Both sexes have dark blue-black ...
Moreno, Juan
We conducted a study of the breeding biology of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in secondary forests on the continental island of Chiloe (42degreesS), southern Chile. Rayaditos are small insectivorous furnariids inhabiting the south-temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. We followed the reproduction of rayadito pairs breeding in nest-boxes. Rayaditos ...
Engels Sierk - - 2007
The basic requirement for selection to take effect is variation in fitness relevant traits among individuals of a population. This study is concerned with the question whether environmental conditions met during an early phase of life history that is dominated by the natural component of selection will affect traits and ...
Tachibana Shin-Ichiro - - 2007
Although the regulation of reproductive diapause by environmental factors has been extensively studied in a variety of insect orders, sexual differences in the regulation of diapause are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of environmental factors including photoperiod, temperature and food on the regulation of reproductive diapause in both ...
Sahulka, Danette
The yearly food habits and nightly emergence activity of a family of beavers (Castor canadensis) were studied from the spring of 1992 to the fall of 1993 in the taiga of Manitoba. In 1992 the adult female, the two yearling males and the yearling female of the beaver family were ...
Botto-Mahan Carezza - - 2007
Female fecundity increases with body size in a variety of insects, but it is unknown if this generalization applies for kissing bugs. In this study, we evaluate whether gonad weight in the bloodsucking insect Mepraia spinolai correlates with body size, or determined by nutrition or developmental time. We found that ...
Wiley C - - 2007
It is well understood that females may gain direct benefits from breeding with attractive males. However, the direct fitness effects of mate-choice are rarely considered with respect to mating between different species (hybridization), a field dominated by discussion of indirect costs of producing unfit hybrid offspring. Hybridizing females may also ...
Dutra B K - - 2007
Aquatic organisms exist in a constantly fluctuating habitat, with changes in photoperiod, temperature, pH, dissolved organic content, dissolved oxygen and food supply. Organisms must alter past of their physiological and biochemical processes to cope with these changes. We compared the effect of seasonal variations in factors related to energy metabolism ...
Champlin, Tracey B
We investigated the influence of arthropod availability and microclimate on avian use of forest canopy gaps in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and observation of foraging effort (attack rates) to determine the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) ...
Crespo J G - - 2007
We investigated if Brindley's and metasternal glands are involved in the sexual behavior of Triatoma infestans. In laboratory assays, we analyzed the effect of selective occlusion of Brindley's and metasternal glands of the female (separately and together) on the behavior of males. Control assays without occlusion of glands were also ...
Bell Matthew B V - - 2007
Vivid begging displays are common in species with parental care [1, 2]. They are usually seen as the way that rival offspring selfishly compete over parental investment [3], and individuals are expected to respond to the begging of rivals by increasing their own begging intensity [4, 5]. Here I show ...
López H - - 2007
The habitat use and the phenology of the large grasshopper Acrostira euphorbiae García and Oromí endemic to La Palma (Canary Islands) are studied. This grasshopper is entirely dependent on the Canarian endemic shrub Euphorbia lamarckii both for food and to avoid predation. Adults stay on subapical branches during the day, ...
Hayden Dominic - - 2007
Experiments were conducted to investigate the sex-specific differences to feeding responses of the shore crab Carcinus maenas throughout the year. Results demonstrate that female shore crabs exhibit stronger feeding responses than males throughout the year with a significantly reduced feeding response in males during the summer months' reproductive season. We ...
Loiseau Claire - - 2008
Begging is a complex display that is supposed to honestly indicate the need for food of nestlings, and, usually, parents use this information to adjust their investment in food provisioning. However, the mechanisms that ensure the honesty of begging as an indicator of need are still poorly known. It has ...
Herzner Gudrun - - 2007
Ground-nesting animals share their habitat with countless microorganisms that can play important roles as pathogens or competitors for food resources. Thus, species that store food in the soil, either for themselves or for their progeny, must protect these resources against microbial degradation. Females of the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, hunt ...
Waelti Marc Olivier - - 2007
Life history theory is concerned with the costs of survival, growth and reproduction under different ecological conditions and the allocation of resources to meet these costs. Typical approaches used to address these topics include manipulation of food resources, followed by measures of subsequent reproductive traits, and measures of the relationship ...
White Frances J - - 2007
Female dominance and feeding priority are considered unique behavioral strategies in many Malagasy lemuriformes, particularly Lemur catta. Two hypotheses have been introduced to explain these behavior patterns: 1) females are agonistically dominant over males to mitigate female-male food competition so that females can compensate for high energy demands and inefficient ...
Reneerkens Jeroen - - 2007
Birds living in seasonal environments change physiology and behavior in correspondence to temporally changing environmental supplies, demands and opportunities. We recently reported that the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of sandpipers (Scolopacidae, order Charadriformes) changes during the breeding season from mixtures of monoesters to diesters, which fulfill specific functions ...
Nagalakshmi V K - - 2007
Insect males produce accessory gland (MAG) factors that are transferred in the seminal fluid to females during copulation, and elicit changes in the mated female's behavior and physiology. Our previous studies showed that the injection of synthetic Drosophila melanogaster sex-peptide (DrmSP) into virgin females of the moth Helicoverpa armigera causes ...
Egonmwan Rosemary I - - 2007
The reproductive activity of the mangrove prosobranch, Pachymelania fusca was studied monthly in the University of Lagos mangrove swamp, at the edge of the Lagos lagoon. The reproductive cycle was analysed from November 2003 to March 2005 by histological examination and macroscopic features of the gonads. Four gonadal stages are ...
Chu, Li-ching
Black-naped Oriole (Oriolus chinensis), Oriolidae, Passeriformes, is a member of old world songbirds. It has a wide distribution all over the eastern Asia, and is divided into 18 to 20 subspecies by differences in breeding sites, residents or migrants, morphological characters and songs. The populations breeding in Taiwan are classified ...
Dawson Alistair - - 2007
Avian breeding seasons vary in length and in the degree of asymmetry with respect to the annual cycle in photoperiod to suit species-specific food resources. Asymmetry is the result of photorefractoriness. The degree of photorefractoriness, absolute or relative, is related to the length and asymmetry of the breeding season. Absolute ...
Pires Marcelo N - - 2007
Placental reproduction is widespread across vertebrate taxa, but little is known about its life-history correlates and putative adaptive value. We studied variation in life-history traits in two populations of the placental poeciliid fish Poeciliopsis prolifica to determine whether differences in post-fertilization maternal provisioning to embryos have a genetic basis and ...
Fricke Claudia - - 2007
Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the ...
Su Hsiu-Hui - - 2007
Feeding-related agonism among wild female Taiwanese macaques was investigated in two study groups at ecologically diverse sites (Fu-shan and Ken-ting) to determine whether contest-feeding competition was present in these groups. Females that contest for food within a primate group are hypothesized to form dominance hierarchies and tend to be philopatric. ...
Ketata I - - 2007
Progesterone, testosterone and estradiol-17beta were measured by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in the gonads of the clam Ruditapes decussatus. The reproductive cycle was also investigated. Our study covered a period of one year, from September 2003 to August 2004. The chosen site "Kerkennah", located out of industrial effluents, belongs to the gulf ...
Jonzén Niclas - - 2007
Recent climate change has sparked an interest in the timing of biological events, which is a general problem in life-history evolution. Reproduction in many organisms breeding in seasonal environments, e.g. migratory birds, is dependent on the exploitation of a short but rich food supply. If the seasonal timing of the ...
Yuan Liang-Chen - - 2007
The mutualistic interaction between insects and flowers is considered to be a major factor in the early evolution of flowering plants. The Schisandraceae were, until now, the only family in the ANITA group lacking information on pollination biology in natural ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this research was to document ...
Souter, David William
This is the first long-term study of A. planci based on repeated observations of&#13;recaptured specimens living in three low density populations at Lady Musgrave Island&#13;Reef, Heron Island Reef and One Tree Island Reef, situated in the southern Great&#13;Barrier Reef. This study describes the growth of adult specimens, their dietary&#13;preferences, their ...
Himeidan Y E - - 2007
The study investigated the role of climatic variables and irrigated agricultural on the seasonality of malaria transmission in New Halfa, eastern Sudan. A time-series analysis was performed using monthly climatic variables, monthly water available for irrigation of crops and monthly slide positive rate of malaria during the period 1986-2002. Cases ...
Teuschl Y - - 2007
Most life history traits are positively influenced by body size, whereas disadvantages of large body size are poorly documented. To investigate presumed intrinsic costs of large size in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae), we established two replicates each of three body size laboratory selection lines (small, control ...
Steiger Sandra - - 2007
In most animal species, brood size and body size exhibit some variation within and between populations. This is also true for burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus), a group in which the body size of offspring depends critically on the number of offspring competing for food due to the discrete nature of ...
Varanasi Subhose - - 2007
Brahmavaivartapurana is one of the important Mahapurana, which is considered as a Vaisnavapurana. The text is divided into four parts called khanda i.e., Brahma, Prakrti, Ganapati, and Srikrsnajanmakhanda. The total number of chapters are 276 and comprising about 20,500 verses. Brahmavaivartapurana comprises both ancient and medieval materials. It considers Ayurveda ...
Dierick Herman A - - 2007
Aggressive behavior is a complex social behavior that is difficult to measure. Here, we describe a simple method for the quantitative analysis of aggression in male Drosophila melanogaster. Traditional measurements of aggressive behavior have relied on a territorial context with a food territory and a female as factors that induce ...
Collier Karin F S - - 2007
Development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma preying on various stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch fed on papaya or snap bean plant were studied at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 77 +/- 2% RH and 12L:12D photoperiod. Most characteristics of the predator, ...
Hockings Kimberley J - - 2007
The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, ...
Grech Katrina - - 2007
The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. The presence of parental ...
P. Sarmento; Instituto da ...
Studies on the use of space and habitat selection of threatened species are useful for identifying factors that influence fitness of individuals and population viability. However, there is a considerable lack of published information regarding these factors for the European wildcat (Felis silvestris). Serra da Malcata Nature Reserve (SMNR), a ...
Zuk Marlene - - 2006
Sexual signals are often critical for mate attraction and reproduction, although their conspicuousness exposes them to parasites and predators. We document the near-disappearance of song, the sexual signal of crickets, and its replacement with a novel silent morph, in a population subject to strong natural selection by a deadly acoustically ...
Zhou Qihai - - 2007
Data on activity budgets and ranging patterns were collected from March to December 2001 for one group of François' langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) inhabiting a forested part of the Fusui Nature Reserve, Guangxi province, China. Our results indicate that the total size of the home range of the study group during ...
Sahinöz E - - 2007
This study was carried out to determine the milt quality in male Mesopotamian spiny eel (Mastacembelus mastacembelus; Bank & Solender in Russell, 1794) during spawning season. Review was performed using 58 M. mastecembulus males captured from Atatürk Dam Lake in Turkey. Milt samples were collected and evaluated daily during sampling ...
Rauque Carlos A - - 2006
The seasonality of recruitment and reproduction of Acanthocephalus tumescens at the component population level was investigated in Lake Moreno (Patagonia, Argentina). Seasonal samples of the principal fish host species were taken between spring 1999 and spring 2000. Prevalence, mean intensity, coefficient of dispersion, sex ratio, proportion of maturity stages of ...
Chen H - - 2006
Flight performance of laboratory-reared adults of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated under controlled conditions by using a flight mill system. Across all insects tested (n=198), median values of total distance traveled, total flight time, and maximum uninterrupted flight time were 122.7 m day(-1), 23.5 min ...
Hedström Ingemar - - 2006
In order to understand the implications of agriculture on the environment, ecosystem health must be measured. Observing the presence of a biological indicator within an ecosystem is one such method. In this study, male euglossine bees were observed using as attractant cineole 1:8, at adjacent organic (La Paz) and conventional ...
Lewis Rebecca - - 2006
The evolution of resource specializations is poorly understood, especially in marine systems. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is the largest of the phocid seals, sexually dimorphic, and thought to prey predominantly on fish and squid. We collected vibrissae from male and female southern elephant seals, and assessed stable C ...
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