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Results 301 - 350 of 915
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Gotoh Tetsuo - - 2008
Females of some insects and mites that mate repeatedly (multiple-mated females) or that have limited food supply have a shortened life span, compared to females that are allowed to mate only once (single-mated females) or that have ample food. The present study focused on the relationship between mating frequency and ...
Yamaguchi Sachi - - 2008
Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have various patterns of sexuality depending on species including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites and dwarf males), and dioecy (females and dwarf males). We develop a model that predicts the pattern of sexuality in barnacles by two key environmental factors: (i) food availability and (ii) the fraction of ...
Riback T I S - - 2008
In this study, the seasonal variation of fecundity, wing and tibia length were investigated in natural populations of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) in an attempt to determine the changes in life history of the species as a function of seasonality. A relative constant temporal trajectory was found for fecundity, wing ...
Barta Zoltán - - 2008
Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can ...
Schradin Carsten - - 2008
Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and ...
Cho Wan-Seob - - 2008
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food processing contaminant in a wide range of foods and ingredients and is a suspected cause of cancer. In this study, the 13-week toxicity of 3-MCPD was examined in B6C3F1 mice (10/sex/group) administered 3-MCPD doses of 0, 5, 25, 100, 200 and 400 ppm dissolved in ...
Agh N - - 2008
This study deals with effects of different salinities on the survival, growth, reproductive and lifespan characteristics of three Artemia populations from Urmia Lake and small lagoons at the vicinity of the lake under laboratory conditions. Experimental salinities ranged from 75 to 175 g L(-1). Salinity was proved to have significant ...
Stueckle Todd A - - 2008
Insect growth regulator application for wetland mosquito control remains controversial due to the potential for disruption of normal development and growth processes in non-target crustaceans and beneficial arthropods, e.g. Apis mellifera. Concerns include slow-release methoprene formulations and its environmental breakdown products which mimic an endogenous crustacean hormone and retinoids, respectively. ...
Ibarrola I - - 2008
Seasonal variation in size-dependence of seawater clearance rate, absorption efficiency, oxygen consumption, gill area, length of the crystalline style and dry weight of digestive gland was analyzed in cockles Cerastoderma edule from the Mundaka Estuary, Spain. Experimental determinations were performed monthly (from July 1998 to November 1999) in cockles being ...
Ekner Anna - - 2008
The study was carried out in extensive farmland area near the town of Odolanów, Poland. During two breeding seasons (April-May, 2006-2007) lizards were counted on transect routes and captured by hand or by noosing. In total, 123 specimens of L. agilis and 153 specimens of Z. vivipara were captured. The ...
Gwynne Darryl T - - 2008
Edible and seminal gifts that male arthropods transfer to their mates range from important material donations to items that provide little direct benefit. Recent reviews and research have emphasized the negative effect of gifts on female fitness, suggesting that male donations reduce the female's remating rate below her optimum or ...
Strohm Erhard - - 2008
Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) hunt exclusively honeybee workers as ...
Savini Tommaso - - 2008
A three-year (2001-2003) study was carried out on the home range characteristics of seven wild white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) groups focusing on the spatio-temporal distribution of food resources at Khao Yai National Park in northeastern Thailand. These results were combined with 23 years (1980-2003) of reproductive performance data on seven ...
van de Wolfshaar K E - - 2008
For most consumer species, winter represents a period of harsh food conditions in addition to the physiological strain that results from the low ambient temperatures. In size-structured populations, larger-bodied individuals do better during winter as they have larger energy reserves to buffer starvation periods. In contrast, smaller-bodied individuals do better ...
Pohl Hans - - 2008
An evolutionary scenario for the enigmatic group Strepsiptera is provided, based on the results of a comprehensive cladistic analysis of characters of all life stages. A recently described fossil--+Protoxenos janzeni--the most archaic strepsipteran, sheds new light on the early evolution of the group and reduces the "morphological gap" between Strepsiptera ...
Shepherd Brittany L - - 2008
Body size and shape affect thermoregulatory properties of organisms, and in turn are believed to have shaped macroevolutionary patterns of morphological diversity across many taxa. However, it is less clear whether thermoregulation plays a role in shaping intraspecific morphological diversity such as sexual dimorphisms or the conditional expression of exaggerated ...
Descamps Sébastien - - 2008
1. Environmental conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on individual performance, thereby creating 'silver-spoon effects'. 2. We used 15 years of data from a North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) population to investigate influences of food availability, density and spring temperature experienced early in life on ...
Tachibana Shin-Ichiro - - 2008
Food has an influence on many life history traits related to dormancy in insects. In our previous study with the rice bug Leptocorisa chinensis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), diapausing females transferred to conditions physically favorable for promoting the gonad development required food intake to resume gonad development, whereas males did not. ...
Karl Isabell - - 2008
The temperature-size rule (TSR), which states that body size increases at lower developmental temperatures, appears to be a near-universal law for ectotherms. Although recent studies seem to suggest that the TSR might be adaptive, the underlying developmental mechanisms are thus far largely unknown. Here, we investigate temperature effects on life-history ...
Rothman Jessica M - - 2008
We tested the effects of age, sex, and season on the nutritional strategies of a group of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Through observations of food intake of individual gorillas and nutritional analyses of dietary components over different seasons and environments, we estimated nutrient ...
Shultz Michael Todd - - 2008
The question of whether changes in glucocorticoid concentrations reflect consistent changes in physiology associated with transitions between different stages of reproduction, or whether they reflect responses to environmental conditions, is one the central issues in field endocrinology studies. We examined the temporal and spatial dynamics of corticosterone (CORT, baseline, and ...
Mercado Eduardo - - 2007
Singing humpback whales within a population appear to continuously modify the content of their songs such that at any given time, most whales in a particular region are singing stereotypically-structured songs. This phenomenon is widely regarded as evidence that humpback whales learn songs from conspecifics, and is often cited as ...
McCoy Krista A - - 2007
Tradeoffs between time to and size at metamorphosis occur in many organisms with complex life histories. The ability to accelerate metamorphosis can increase survival to the next life stage, but the resulting smaller size at metamorphosis is often associated with lower post-metamorphic survival or reduced fecundity of adults. Reduced fecundity ...
Marcello Gregg J - - 2008
1. Pulsed food resources are often considered equivalent in their potential impact on the reproduction and population dynamics of consumers, but differences in the attributes of food pulses and their distribution in the landscape may cause differences in their effects. 2. We tested whether a perishable pulsed resource (periodical cicadas, ...
Rodewald Amanda D - - 2008
1. Despite the fact that studies of urban ecology have become commonplace in the literature, ecologists still lack empirical evidence of the underlying mechanisms responsible for relationships between urbanization and animal community structure. In an effort to understand the processes that govern an apparent avoidance of urban landscapes by many ...
Haas Karin - - 2007
It is notoriously difficult to study population interactions among highly mobile animals that cannot be meaningfully confined to experimental plots of limited size. For example, migratory water birds are believed to suffer from competition with resident fish populations for shared food resources. While observational evidence in support of this hypothesis ...
Grodzinski Uri - - 2007
Despite extensive theoretical and empirical research into offspring food solicitation behaviour as a model for parent-offspring conflict and communication, the adaptive value of parental responsiveness to begging has never been tested experimentally. Game theory models, as well as empirical studies, suggest that begging conveys information on offspring state, which implies ...
Moya-Raygoza Gustavo - - 2007
Although the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong and Wolcott) is the most important vector of maize pathogens in Latin America, little is known about how and where it overwinters (passes the dry season), particularly in Mexico. The objectives of this study were (1) to monitor the abundance of D. maidis ...
Scopece Giovanni - - 2007
The evolution of reproductive isolation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. In plants, this is typically achieved by a combination of pre- and postpollination mechanisms that prevent, or limit, the amount of interspecific gene flow. Here, we investigated and compared two ecologically defined groups of Mediterranean orchids that differ ...
Bustnes J O - - 2008
Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and associations between OCs and fitness components were examined in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) in three colonies along the coast of northern Norway. In one of the colonies, data were collected in two subsequent seasons. Concentrations of four OCs (HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCB) ...
Boon Adrienne K - - 2007
Animal personality is now frequently reported in wild and captive populations. It has been shown to be moderately heritable and to have potentially important fitness consequences. Variation in personality within a population may be maintained by balancing selection if different values of personality traits are favoured under different conditions. We ...
Lane, William L.
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) were imported into New Zealand in 1967. Their existence in this country provoked great anxiety regarding possible competition with the established trout populations, and led to the present study of ...
Hay, J. R.
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. The behavioural ecology of the wrybill (Anarhynchus frontalis) is examined in its breeding and wintering areas. Anarhynchus is a monotypic genus closely related to the cosmopolitan genus Charadrius (Family: Charadriidae). It breeds exclusively on ...
Harris Donna B - - 2007
Replicated field experiments were used to quantify and to describe the mechanism of competition between the introduced black rat Rattus rattus and the endemic Santiago rice rat Nesoryzomys swarthi on Santiago Island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The removal of R. rattus significantly slowed the rate of seasonal population decline in N. ...
Lester Sarah E - - 2007
Reproductive output is a central attribute of life history, providing a measure of individual and population performance. The fields of ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology take disparate approaches in addressing spatial variation in reproduction, and thus we lack clear predictions for how reproductive output should vary geographically. We empirically investigate ...
Carlson Kristian J - - 2007
Throughout much of prehistory, humans practiced a hunting and gathering subsistence strategy. Elevated postcranial robusticity and sexually dimorphic mobility patterns are presumed consequences of this strategy, in which males are attributed greater robusticity and mobility than females. Much of the basis for these trends originates from populations where skeletal correlates ...
Buchanan K L - - 2007
Nestling birds solicit food from their parents with vigorous begging displays, involving posturing, jostling and calling. In some species, such as canaries, begging is especially costly because it causes a trade off against nestling growth. Fitness costs of begging like this are predicted by evolutionary theory because they function to ...
Sonne Christian - - 2007
Sexual organs and their development are susceptible to atmospheric transported environmental xenoendocrine pollutants and climate change (food availability). We therefore investigated sexual organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to obtain information about growth/size and sexual maturity. Then, the genitalia size was compared with ...
Martin Jennifer K - - 2007
Mammalian mating systems are thought to be shaped by the spatial distribution and abundance of key resources, which in turn influence the spacing behaviour of individuals. In particular, female home range size is predicted to reflect the availability of key resources. We documented the availability and distribution of food and ...
Willan, R. C. (Richard ...
An intertidal population of the anaspidean Aplysia dactylomela Rang was followed for three consecutive years at the Leigh Marine Reserve, North Auckland, New Zealand. Field assessments were made of recruitment, growth (by recapture of tagged individuals), density, crawling rate, gonad index and mortality. These data allowed monthly estimates of the ...
Boiani L - - 2007
Oligoryzomys flavescens, a common rodent of the temperate regions of South America, has been identified as a Hantavirus reservoir. There is still little information concerning its reproductive biology, which is essential to devise effective control measurement of natural populations. This rodent is a seasonal breeder and adult males exhibit a ...
BaƄbura Jerzy - - 2007
Nutrition during the time spent at the nest is critical for the development of the body condition in altricial birds, including nestling blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Trophic conditions tend to be variable in time and space, which should influence the physiological condition of growing birds. In this paper, we consider ...
Rho Jeong Rae - - 2007
We investigated mutual grooming by Jeju pony (Equus caballus) foals to determine whether male foals preferentially interact with potential future sexual partners or competitors. We predicted that relative to female foals, male foals would exchange grooming more frequently with young mares and that in general, foals would mutually groom more ...
White Frances J - - 2007
The question of whether bonobos show feeding priority and female dominance has been proposed and examined, both in the wild and in captive studies, with differing results. The relationship between female dominance and female feeding priority has been best studied in prosimian primates. These studies use established criteria of females ...
Zagrobelny Mika - - 2007
Zygaena larvae sequester the cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabaceae) and also de novo biosynthesize these compounds. In Zygaenidae, CNglcs serve as defence compounds during the entire life cycle, and their content and ratio are tightly regulated. We demonstrate that Z. filipendulae males transfer a ...
De Roos Andre M - - 2007
We analyze a stage-structured biomass model for size-structured consumer-resource interactions. Maturation of juvenile consumers is modeled with a food-dependent function that consistently translates individual-level assumptions about growth in body size to the population level. Furthermore, the model accounts for stage-specific differences in resource use and mortality between juvenile and adult ...
Christian Keith - - 2007
The responses of animals to seasonal food shortages can have important consequences for population dynamics and the structure and function of food webs. We investigated how an ambush foraging snake, the northern death adder Acanthophis praelongus, responds to seasonal fluctuations in prey availability in its tropical environment. In the dry ...
Geiser Fritz - - 2007
Many mammals hibernate each year for about 6 months in autumn and winter and reproduce during spring and summer when they are generally not in torpor. I tested the hypothesis that the marsupial pygmy-possum (Cercartetus nanus), an opportunistic nonseasonal hibernator with a capacity for substantial fattening, would continue to hibernate ...
Dmitriew C - - 2007
Acceleration of growth following a period of diet restriction may result in either complete or partial catch-up in size. The existence of such compensatory growth indicates that organisms commonly grow at rates below their physiological maxima and this implies a cost for accelerated growth. We examined patterns of accelerated growth ...
Higham James P - - 2007
Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in ...
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