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Wright Barth W - - 2012
Colobines have been generally described as primates that use the anterior teeth minimally, but the posterior teeth extensively, to process leaves and related food items. However, variation among leaf monkeys in both anterior and posterior dental morphology has been recognized for decades. In this study, we turn to Hylander's (Science ...
Yokoyama Victoria Y - - 2012
The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring ...
Mitchell-Foster K - - 2012
New larval control strategies for integrated vector management of Aedes aegypti are in high demand, including the use of biological control agents. Exposure of Aedes aegypti to parasites, starvation, and overcrowded conditions during larval development reduces the probability of survival to eclosion, can directly affect fitness parameters such as adult ...
Serafini Mauro - - 2012
Dietary polyphenols have been shown to scavenge free radicals, modulating cellular redox transcription factors in different in vitro and ex vivo models. Dietary intervention studies have shown that consumption of plant foods modulates plasma Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), a biomarker of the endogenous antioxidant network, in human subjects. However, the ...
Shinkaruk Svitlana - - 2012
Glycitein is a Selective Estradiol Receptor Modulator (SERM) from soy. The study reports plasma bioavailability and urine excretion of glycitein compared to other soy isoflavones after a unique intake of food supplement based on soy germ containing 55.24mg isoflavones. Eighteen plasma and urinary sampling profiles collected over 48h from healthy ...
Peñalver Enrique - - 2012
Within modern gymnosperms, conifers and Ginkgo are exclusively wind pollinated whereas many gnetaleans and cycads are insect pollinated. For cycads, thrips are specialized pollinators. We report such a specialized pollination mode from Early Cretaceous amber of Spain, wherein four female thrips representing a genus and two species in the family ...
Abiru Yasuhiro - - 2012
A recent epidemiological study showed that daily intake of mg quantities of S-equol is required for health-promoting effects in menopausal women. However, the maximum equol content in food was reported to be approximately 130 μg/100 g in egg yolk. The objective of this study was to find a high equol-containing food. We ...
Schaerlaeken Vicky - - 2012
Most lizards feed on a variety of food items that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioral characteristics. Several lizard families are known to feed upon hard-shelled prey (durophagy). Yet, specializations toward true molluscivory have been documented for only a few species. As snails are hard and brittle food ...
Pradhan P K - - 2012
The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus from hatching to 30 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract of butter catfish consisted of a straight tube with a smooth lumen dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Between 1 and 2 dph, the mouth ...
Perini V R - - 2012
Curimatella lepidura and Steindachnerina elegans are small forage fish, constituting an important link in the food chain, serving as food for larger commercial fish. In this study, characteristics of the eggs, of the oocyte's surface ultrastructure and of the embryogenesis are first described for these species. Absolute fecundity was 40864 ± 8769 ...
Martín-Vega Daniel - - 2012
Flies of family Piophilidae have been recorded as major pests in the food industry, as agents of human myiasis and typically associated with carcasses in advanced stages of decay, being thus important in forensic entomology. Despite that the cosmopolitan species Piophila casei is the most cited in entomological studies, many ...
Srivastava Kamal D - - 2012
Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) prevents anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut allergy. Multiple food allergies (MFA) are common and associated with a higher risk of anaphylaxis. No well-characterized murine model of sensitization to multiple food allergens exists, and no satisfactory therapy for MFA is currently available. To determine ...
Philpott Stacy M - - 2012
Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon ...
Deneo-Pellegrini Hugo - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The role of foods and beverages has been studied in detail in order to establish probable risk factors for prostate cancer. METHODS: Data were derived from 326 cases with incident and microscopically confirmed adenocarcinomas of the prostate and 652 controls. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of prostate cancer ...
Wardhaugh Carl W - - 2012
1. We tested the hypotheses that feeding guild structure of beetle assemblages changed with different arboreal microhabitats and that these differences were consistent across rainforest tree species. 2. Hand collection and beating techniques were used from the gondola of the Australian Canopy Crane to collect beetles from five microhabitats (mature leaves, flush ...
Nieh James C - - 2012
After their queen has left with a swarm, orphaned larvae exhibiting rebel traits emerge in honeybee colonies. As adults, these orphans have reduced food glands to feed the colony's larvae and more developed ovaries to selfishly reproduce their own offspring.
Day Rusty D - - 2012
Mercury concentration ([Hg]), δ(15)N, and δ(13)C values were measured in eggs from common murres (Uria aalge), thick-billed murres (U. lomvia), glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and glaucous-winged gulls (L. glaucescens) collected in Alaska from 1999 to 2005. [Hg] was normalized to a common trophic level using egg δ(15)N values and published Hg trophic ...
Small Dana M - - 2012
Flavor is perhaps the most multi-modal of all of our sensory experiences. Here flavor is defined as a perception that includes gustatory, oral-somatosensory, and retronasal olfactory signals that arise from the mouth as foods and beverages are consumed. Although the sights, sounds and smells of foods that occur just before, ...
Khuda Sefat E - - 2012
Among the major food allergies, peanut, egg, and milk are the most common. The immunochemical detection of food allergens depends on various factors, such as the food matrix and processing method, which can affect allergen conformation and extractability. Here we aimed to 1) develop matrix-specific incurred reference materials for allergen ...
Lilley T - - 2012
Chironomid species are a vital component in many benthic and terrestrial food webs; they have an important role in the detritus cycle, and are an important source of food for many species. We studied how tributyltin (TBT) in brackish water sediments affect the composition of chironomid species communities. Emergence traps ...
Vickery Brian P - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood and no interventional therapy is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Much recent research has focused on the safety, efficacy, and mechanism of oral immunotherapy (OIT) as a disease-modifying treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Small ...
Daley Allison C - - 2012
The Cambro-Ordovician anomalocaridids are large ecdysozoans commonly regarded as ancestors of the arthropods and apex predators. Predation is indicated partly by the presence of an unusual "peytoia"-type oral cone, which is a tetraradial outer ring of 32 plates, four of which are enlarged and in perpendicular arrangement. This oral cone ...
Stökl Johannes - - 2012
Chemical defense mechanisms are widespread among insects but have rarely been demonstrated in parasitoid wasps. Here, we show that the Drosophila parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera, Figitidae) produces (-)-iridomyrmecin and (+)-isoiridomyrmecin in a cephalic gland, and that these chemicals have a highly repellent effect on ants. Stereoselective synthesis of 4 stereoisomers ...
Samraoui Farrah - - 2012
Herons and ibis are colonially nesting waders which, owing to their number, mobility and trophic role as top predators, play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are also good biological models to investigate interspecific competition between sympatric species and predation; two processes which structure ecological communities. Odonata are also ...
Roy Kuladeep - - 2012
We studied the feeding ecology of 3 sympatric primate species, the lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) and Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus), in a tropical rain forest of the Central Western Ghats, India. Since the availability of leaves is much higher than that of fruits, we expected that ...
Sáenz-de-Cabezón Irigaray Francisco J - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Transovarial transport is defined as the passage of chemicals from the maternal body to eggs within the ovaries. Little is known about the effects of transovarial transport on non-target species. This study evaluates etoxazole (a transovarial acaricidal compound) on a terrestrial trophic web consisting of a ubiquitous phytophagous mite, ...
Woyciechowski Michal - - 2012
According to kin selection theory, the colony kin structure of eusocial insects motivates workers' altruistic behaviors and therefore their sterility or restricted reproduction [1]. Indeed, theory and cross-species comparison confirm that workers engage in their own reproduction depending on relatedness among colony members [2, 3]. We show that in a ...
Elsheikh E H - - 2012
The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish Oreochromis niloticus was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. The buccal cavity distinguished into the roof and the floor. Three different types of taste buds (type I, II and III) are distributed in the buccal cavity. The proximal part of the buccal ...
Sui L - - 2012
This study investigated the protective effect of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, zoea larvae challenged with pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum. PHB was delivered to the crab larvae through rotifer and Artemia bioencapsulation. Zoea 3 larvae were challenged with V. anguillarum at a final concentration of 10(5 ) CFU mL(-1) . PHB-enriched ...
Dubuc Constance - - 2012
Food sharing among nonkin-one of the most fascinating cooperative behaviors in humans-is not widespread in nonhuman primates. Over the past few years, a large body of work has investigated the contexts in which primates cooperate and share food with unrelated individuals. This work has successfully demonstrated that species-specific differences in ...
Le Jeune Anne-Hélène - - 2012
MeHg biomagnification by the phantom midge Chaoborus in relation to MeHg concentrations in their prey and its migratory behavior was investigated in two Canadian Precambrian Shield lakes. Three Chaoborus species with contrasted migratory behavior were collected in a fishless and a fish-inhabited lake. All species accumulated MeHg through their ontogenic ...
Gujral Naiyana - - 2012
Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a promising alternative for prevention of enteric gliadin absorption, the predisposing factor of celiac disease (CD). IgY antibody was produced from egg yolk of Single Comb White Leghorn chickens during the immunization period for the development of an oral immunotherapeutic agent. Here, we ...
Yang Shih-Tsai - - 2012
Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) ...
Tallent Sandra M - - 2012
Bacillus cereus is a group of ubiquitous facultative anaerobic sporeforming Gram-positive rods commonly found in soil. The spores frequently contaminate a variety of foods, including produce, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Foodborne illnesses associated with toxins produced by B. cereus can result in self-limiting diarrhea or vomiting. Plate enumeration methods ...
Lai Shu-Mei - - 2012
Identifying important species for maintaining ecosystem functions is a challenge in ecology. Since species are components of food webs, one way to conceptualize and quantify species importance is from a network perspective. The importance of a species can be quantified by measuring the centrality of its position in a food ...
Milan Neil F - - 2012
Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved ...
Saveer Ahmed M - - 2012
Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females ...
Armitage Sophie A O - - 2012
Fungus-growing ants (Myrmicinae: Attini) live in an obligate symbiotic relationship with a fungus that they rear for food, but they can also use the fungal mycelium to cover their brood. We surveyed colonies from 20 species of fungus-growing ants and show that brood-covering behavior occurs in most species, but to ...
Martinson Vincent G - - 2012
Previous surveys have shown that adult honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers harbor a characteristic gut microbiota that may play a significant role in bee health. For three major phylotypes within this microbiota, we have characterized distributions and abundances across the life cycle and among gut organs. These distinctive phylotypes, called Beta, ...
de Moraes Augusto César Ferreira - - 2012
We investigated dietary intake patterns (DIP) in adolescents (14-18 year-olds) and the association with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle variables. This school-based survey was carried out among high school students from the city of Maringá in the state of Paraná (PR), Brazil (2007). The sample included 991 students (54.5% ...
Meikle William G - - 2012
Two kinds of experiments were conducted with Aethina tumida Murray larvae over four temperatures: "consumption" experiments, in which larvae and diet were weighed to determine food consumption rates under conditions of unlimited food and few conspecifics; and "competition" experiments, in which varying numbers of larvae were presented with the same ...
Nuñez-Vazquez Erick J - - 2012
The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used ...
Garcia Constantino Macías - - 2012
Male ornaments can evolve through the exploitation of female perceptual biases such as those involved in responding to cues from food. This type of sensory exploitation may lead to confusion between the male signals and the cues that females use to find/recognize food. Such interference would be costly to females ...
Park Sohyun - - 2012
This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for ...
Shen Ping - - 2012
The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess ...
Topolinski Sascha - - 2012
We investigated the impact of food deprivation on oral and manual haptic size perception of food and non-food objects. From relevant theories (need-proportional perception, motivated perception, frustrative nonreward, perceptual defence, and sensory sensitisation) at least four completely different competing predictions can be derived. Testing these predictions, we found across four ...
Shen Ping - - 2012
The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess ...
Shen Ping - - 2012
The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Omnivores, including humans, tend to avoid noxious or ...
Shen Ping - - 2012
The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess ...
Faraj Zein - - 2012
Cow's milk and hen's egg are the most frequently encountered food allergens in the pediatric population. Skin prick testing (SPT) with commercial extracts followed by an oral food challenge (OFC) are routinely performed in the diagnostic investigation of these children. Recent evidence suggests that milk-allergic and/or egg-allergic individuals can often ...
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