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Results 351 - 400 of 765
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Burrowes Jerrilynn D - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To determine analytically the amount of potassium in raw tuberous root vegetables (TRV); to estimate the amount of potassium that can be leached from raw TRV by soaking in water; and to determine whether the duration of soaking and the cooking method selected affect potassium extraction. DESIGN: Fresh TRV ...
Fournand David - - 2006
Quantitative and qualitative modifications of tannins and anthocyanins in grape skin were investigated at different dates of harvest, from berries sorted on the basis of their density. Free anthocyanins accumulated until 170 g/L of sugars in pulp before undergoing a slight decrease. Changes in anthocyanin composition were observed with increasing ...
Hunt Gavin R - - 2006
New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides (NC crows) display sophisticated tool manufacture in the wild, but the cognitive strategy underlying these skills is poorly understood. Here, we investigate what strategy two free-living NC crows used in response to a tool-length task. The crows manufactured tools to extract food from vertical holes ...
Abdel-Ghaffar Fathy - - 2007
Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 ...
Macrini Thomas E - - 2006
A digital cranial endocast of the Miocene platypus Obdurodon dicksoni was extracted from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans. This endocast represents the oldest from an unequivocal member of either extant monotreme lineage and is therefore important for inferring character support for Monotremata, a clade that is not well diagnosed. We ...
Agradi Elisabetta - - 2006
The Italian-style Mediterranean diet has been defined as healthy by epidemiologists and nutritionists. Besides being low fat, the Mediterranean diet is rich in biologically active minor compounds. Among these, phytoestrogens seem to have an impact on the prevention of chronic degenerative disease. It is important to understand how this occurs. ...
Sproll Constanze - - 2006
The opiate alkaloids present in poppy seed intended for use in food recently have raised major concerns. An efficient method for routine analysis of morphine and codeine using liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry on a triple quadrupole instrument (LC/MS/MS) was therefore developed. The optimal sample preparation was ...
de Rezende Ramos Alessandra - - 2007
Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient ...
Pedreschi Romina - - 2006
The antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of various phenolic fractions obtained from Andean purple corn were examined by the Ames test and the DPPH antiradical assay. An anthocyanin-rich water fraction (WF) and an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed a dose-dependent antimutagenic behavior against the food mutagen Trp-P-1 with IC50 values of ...
Miller Kenneth B - - 2006
In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed ...
Zeller Annette - - 2006
The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, ...
Kubanek Julia - - 2006
Bromophycolides C-I (1-7) were isolated from extracts of the Fijian red alga Callophycus serratus and identified by NMR and mass spectral techniques. These novel natural products share a carbon skeleton and biosynthetic origin with previously identified bromophycolides A (8) and B (9), which form a rare group of diterpene-benzoate macrolides. ...
Musabayane C T - - 2006
Previous studies in our laboratories suggest that oral administration of some herbal extracts reduce blood glucose concentrations in rats, possibly by interfering with food consumption and/or gastrointestinal absorption of food. Accordingly, we monitored the amounts of food consumed and body weights in separate groups of nondiabetic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, ...
Goldmann T - - 2006
It has recently been suggested that the analytical methods that have been developed to date for the determination of acrylamide (AA) may underestimate the concentration of AA in certain foods, because significantly higher results were obtained upon extraction of the food matrix under alkaline conditions. The present study employs food ...
Kumarnsit Ekkasit - - 2006
Acute administration of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) extract (45 and 50 mg/kg) significantly resulted in dose-dependent decreases in food and water intakes (P<0.05) in rats. Prolonged suppressing effects were observed following administration of the MS extract (40 mg/kg) for 60 consecutive days. Moreover, the long-term administration also significantly suppressed weight gaining.
Sheng Guo-Ping - - 2006
The roles of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) in the shear stability of aerobic and anaerobic flocs were investigated. Both pH and EDTA concentration had a significant effect on the floc stability. The sludge flocs became much weaker as the solution pH increase to above 10. Addition of 1 mM EDTA ...
Lagarda M J - - 2006
Phytosterols are bioactive compounds, one of their most studied and outstanding properties being their cholesterol-lowering activity. This explains the growing interest in the phytosterol contents of foods as either intrinsic or added components. The different steps (extraction, saponification, clean up, chromatographic determination) of plant sterol determination are reviewed, and emphasis ...
Smith Kilian E C - - 2006
Pasture vegetation plays an important role in the air-surface exchange and food chain transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, considerable research has been focused towards measuring PAHs in vegetation using different analytical methods. However, in most cases information on the efficiencies of the different extraction methods employed is missing. ...
Ventanas S - - 2006
Analysis of nitrosamine (NA) standards in a model system was carried out by extraction using SPME coupled to a direct extraction device (DED) and subsequent GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. Gelatine (20%, w/v) systems of a NA standard (10mugL(-1)) were prepared, in order to mimic food protein matrix systems ...
Díaz-Reinoso Beatriz - - 2006
Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), based on the utilization of a fluid under supercritical conditions, is a technology suitable for extraction and purification of a variety of compounds, particularly those that have low volatility and/or are susceptible to thermal degradation. The interest in SCFE is promoted by legal limitations of conventional ...
Kulkarni Sunil D - - 2006
The antioxidant activity of wheatgrass, which is consumed as a dietary supplement, was estimated at different levels. The methods employed include FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), ABTS (2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of wheatgrass grown under different conditions over a period of 6, 7, 8, ...
Smelcerovic A - - 2006
The methanol extracts of the aerial parts of nine Hypericum species (H. barbatum, H. hirsutum, H. linarioides, H. maculatum, H. olympicum, H. perforatum, H. richeri, H. rumeliacum and H. tetrapterum), collected on different locations in Serbia and the F.Y.R. Macedonia, were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed for ...
MozŇ≠raitis Raimondas - - 2006
Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of crude sex pheromone gland extracts revealed that virgin Synanthedon tipuliformis (Clerck), currant borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) females, produced 6 compounds, structurally related to sex pheromone components of clearwing moths. By comparison of retention times and mass spectra of natural products with corresponding properties of ...
Moulari B - - 2006
Harungana madagascariensis is well known for its topical antibacterial properties used in the elaboration of a lot of skin hygiene products. The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Harungana madagascariensis leaves ...
Arredondo J - - 2006
After oviposition, females of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann deposit a host-marking pheromone on the fruit surface that deters oviposition by conspecifics. Methanolic extracts of fruit fly faeces elicit a similar deterrent effect. The results of laboratory and field experiments using raw methanolic extracts of C. capitata faeces ...
Pallos Ferenc M - - 2006
The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives ...
Brennan Nerida J - - 2006
Bioactivity-directed separation of a foliage extract from the New Zealand shrub Pseudowintera axillaris led to a compound with fungicidal activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. This was identified as a new sesquiterpene dialdehyde cinnamate named paxidal. Two 6-hydroxy derivatives were present at lower levels in the extract. A further ...
Actis-Goretta Lucas - - 2006
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was evaluated in the presence of flavanol-rich foods, i.e., wines, chocolates, and teas, and of purified flavonoids. All foods assayed inhibited ACE activity, red wines being more effective than white wine, and green tea more effective than black tea. The inhibition of ACE activity was ...
Visioli Francesco - - 2006
For decades, most of the attention of nutritionists and health professionals has focused on the impact of the major dietary components, such as the amounts and types of fats, proteins, carbohydrates and fibers, on human health. However, interest in the role of minor components is rapidly growing. Many constituents of ...
Kazi Feroz Kabir M - - 2006
The volume of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products coming out of service is expected to increase dramatically during the next decade. There is a need for an alternative waste management approach to landfilling. This paper investigates the variables affecting extraction of CCA components from wood particles and the ...
Korotkich Igor - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Common perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton) is a plant cultivated in many countries around the world. Although its immunomodulating and antioxidative properties are well known, there is a lack of data about the cardiotropic activity of the plant. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of ...
Ortiz Esteban H - - 2005
Apotransferrin (aTf), has been shown to accelerate the differentiation of oligodendroglial cells (OLGcs) in primary cultures and to increase the expression of different components of the myelin cytoskeleton (CSK). We examined the incorporation and distribution of human aTf (aTfh) exogenously added to OLGcs cultures and its effects on the CSK ...
Caccia Silvio - - 2005
Extracts of Hypericum perforatum are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of mild to moderate depression, despite the lack of consensus on their efficacy. Although the mechanism(s) of this action are still debated, several components, including the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the acylphloroglucinol hyperforin and some flavonols, are believed to ...
Mols Raf - - 2005
Sulfasalazine is characterised by low oral bioavailability. In this study, its intestinal transport characteristics were studied in an in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-situ system. The absorptive transport of sulfasalazine across Caco-2 monolayers appeared to be lower than the secretory transport (P(app-abs) = 0.21 +/- 0.02 x 10(-6) cm s(-1) and P(app-secr) ...
Phillips Katherine M - - 2005
Phytosterols were quantified in nuts and seeds commonly consumed in the United States. Total lipid extracts were subjected to acid hydrolysis and then alkaline saponfication, and free sterols were analyzed as trimethylsilyl derivatives by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. Delta5-Avenasterol was quantified after alkaline saponification plus direct analysis of the glucoside. ...
Mulinacci Nadia - - 2005
Solid olive residues (SOR) are byproducts of the olive-milling process, but they have an increasing importance in the pharmaceutical industry due to their rich content of biophenols. Such compounds are studied widely for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but there is a lack of information about their quantitative recovery. This ...
Tuetun Benjawan - - 2005
In our search for new bioactive products against mosquito vectors, we reported the slightly larvicidal and adulticidal potency, but remarkable repellency of Apium graveolens both in laboratory and field conditions. Repellency of the ethanolic preparation of hexane-extracted A. graveolens was, therefore, investigated and compared with those of 15 commercial mosquito ...
Assimopoulou A N - - 2005
Radical scavenging activity is involved in aging processes, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. Hence, in the present study the DPPH radical scavenging activity of a natural product that possesses biological properties, an extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron), grown in Crocos, Kozani (Greece), and some of its bioactive constituents ...
Tsao Rong - - 2006
This study mainly focused on lutein content in several selected crops grown in southern Ontario, Canada. Marigold flower, a good rotation crop for the control of nematodes in tobacco fields was found to contain 0.77% lutein (after saponification, on dry basis). A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using a two-phase ...
Yanagida Akio - - 2006
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using the type-J coil planet centrifuge was applied to compositional analysis of tea catechins and separation of other food-related polyphenols. The HSCCC separation of nine different standard compounds and those from extracts of commercial tea leaves was performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of tert-butyl ...
Murakami Akira - - 2005
Okinawa prefecture in Japan is a distinct area characterized by unique traditional food habits and longevity. Prolonged exposure to activated leukocytes, playing pivotal roles in chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis, is known to lead to oxidative and nitrosative damage to macromolecules in the body since they are primary sources of free radicals, ...
- - 2005
Epidemiological data indicate a beneficial effect of Mediterranean diets on human health, especially on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. These observations are supported by recent intervention studies. However, very little is known about the current role of local Mediterranean food products, which are consumed on a less regular basis and ...
Méndez Enrique - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Analytical methods for measurements of gluten in the low level range of 20-200 ppm of gluten, as required for gluten-free food, have never been endorsed by the Codex Alimentarius. With the aim of investigating standardized and reliable methods for the detection of gliadin in food with detection limits lower ...
Carabias-Martínez R - - 2005
Originally, the use of the pressurized liquid extraction technique (PLE) was mainly focused on the extraction of environmental pollutants present in soil matrices, sediments, and sewage sludge. However, more recently the distinct advantages of this technique are being exploited in diverse areas, including biology, and the pharmaceutical and food industries. ...
Pandey Manoj K - - 2006
Repeated frying of vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods in edible oil is a common practice round the globe. Our studies suggest that repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may lead to hazardous effect on human health. In order to understand the mechanism of toxicity of RFFO ...
Mebs Dietrich - - 2005
Toads belonging to the genus Melanophryniscus contain toxic alkaloids in their skin. From six locations in south-eastern Uruguay 81 specimens of Melanophryniscusmontevidensis were collected. In whole animal methanolic extracts of individual specimens, alkaloids of the pumiliotoxin (PTX) group and indolizidines were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the predominant component PTX ...
Hardeland Rüdiger - - 2005
Melatonin, originally discovered as a hormone of the pineal gland, is also produced in other organs and represents, additionally, a normal food constituent found in yeast and plant material, which can influence the level in the circulation. Compared to the pineal, the gastrointestinal tract contains several hundred times more melatonin, ...
Suvardhan K - - 2005
A simple, sensitive, convenient and low cost spectrofluorometric technique for determination of quinalphos is described. Quinalphos is decomposed with sodium ethoxide. Resultant sodium diethyl thiophosphate (Na-DETP) is extracted with a cationic fluorescein as ion pair complex into 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene. The fluorescence of the ion pair, fluorescein-DETP is measured at 530 nm ...
Nagatsuka Norie - - 2005
Oxygen-related free radicals have been suggested as a cause of aging and various diseases, for example, various cancers and rheumatoid arthritis. Because of this a radical scavenger as an antioxidant has been sought in many foods. 'Nikogori' gelatin gel from cooked fish is a traditional food in Japan. Recently, 'Nikogori' ...
Adom Kafui Kwami - - 2005
This paper reports a simple, rapid, and sensitive assay for assessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) of both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds and food extracts. The assay is based on the degree of inhibition of dichlorofluorescin oxidation by antioxidants that scavenge peroxyl radicals, generated from thermal degradation of 2,2'-azobis(amidinopropane). ...
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