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Deshpande Sonali A SA 1] Department of Metabolism and Aging, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, USA. - - 2014
Food intake is a fundamental parameter in animal studies. Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila in laboratory research, precise measurements of food intake remain challenging in this model organism. Here, we compare several common Drosophila feeding assays: the capillary feeder (CAFE), food labeling with a radioactive tracer or colorimetric dye ...
Zentall Thomas R TR University of Kentucky, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a ...
Smith Craig M CM The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
Behavioural arousal in mammals is regulated by various interacting central monoamine- and peptide- neurotransmitter/receptor systems, which function to maintain awake, alert and active states required for performance of goal-directed activities essential for survival, including food seeking. Existing anatomical and functional evidence suggests the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which signals via its ...
Diaz Sylvia Anaid - - 2014
Animals use environmental information to make developmental decisions to maximise their fitness. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans measures its environment to decide between arresting development as dauer larvae or continuing to grow and reproduce. Worms are thought to use ascarosides as signals of population density and this signalling is thought to ...
Weltens N N Translational Research Centre for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
Food in general, and fatty foods in particular, have obtained intrinsic reward value throughout evolution. This reward value results from an interaction between exteroceptive signals from different sensory modalities, interoceptive hunger/satiety signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, as well as ongoing affective and cognitive processes. Further evidence linking ...
Anderberg Rozita H RH Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, - - 2014
Mesolimbic dopamine plays a critical role in food-related reward processing and learning. The literature focuses primarily on the nucleus accumbens as the key dopaminergic target in which enhanced dopamine signaling is associated with reward. Here, we demonstrate a novel neurobiological mechanism by which dopamine transmission in the amygdala regulates food ...
Maurin Anne-Catherine AC UMR 1019 Nutrition Humaine, INRA, Université Clermont 1, Centre de Clermont-Ferrand-Theix, 63122 Saint Genès Champanelle, - - 2014
The reversible phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) is a highly conserved signal implicated in the cellular adaptation to numerous stresses such as the one caused by amino acid limitation. In response to dietary amino acid deficiency, the brain-specific activation of the eIF2α kinase GCN2 ...
Craig Andrew R AR West Virginia - - 2014
The effects of intermittent schedules of reinforcement for pausing were evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, across a series of conditions, a variable-interval (VI) baseline schedule, in which pigeons' key pecks produced food, alternated with conditions in which food was delivered according to a concurrent VI (for key pecking) ...
Abed-Vieillard Dehbia D Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, UMR 6265 CNRS, UMR 1324 INRA, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, 6, Bd Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon, - - 2014
Food choice and preference relies on multiple sensory systems that are under the control of genes and sensory experience. Exposure to specific nutrients and nutrient-related molecules can change food preference in vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, larval exposure of several holometabolous insects to menthol can change their adult response to ...
Chisada Shin-ichi - - 2014
The first studies that identified leptin and its receptor (LepR) in mammals were based on mutant animals that displayed dramatic changes in body-weight and regulation of energy homeostasis. Subsequent studies have shown that a deficiency of leptin or LepR in homoeothermic mammals results in hyperphagia, obesity, infertility and a number ...
Johnson Haley H Biology Department, University of Jamestown, Jamestown, North Dakota, United States of - - 2014
In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired ...
Yu Na N Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, - - 2013
Insects acquire essential nutrients from their food to support a diverse range of biological processes such as development and reproduction. An important role in the food intake regulation is attributed to the neurohormone sulfakinin signaling pathway. Sulfakinins (SKs) elicit satiety together with sulfakinin receptors (SKRs). In this project, the gene ...
Rice Nathaniel - - 2013
Previous research has shown rapid learning of multiple temporal relations between signals and food by pigeons when these relations are changed unpredictably each session (Kyonka & Grace, 2007). The goal of the present study was to test whether contextual temporal cues-that is, an alternative signal-food delay that was a valid ...
Riffell Jeffrey A JA Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
A new study reveals how Drosophila uses their sense of smell to decide on where to lay their eggs. These results have exciting implications for the evolution of fruit preference and parasitoid avoidance in fruit flies.
Durisko Zachary - - 2013
We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied ...
Zentall Thomas R - - 2013
Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a ...
Busscher Nicolaas - - 2013
How can food quality influence pattern of cucl2 crystals?
Wang Hong-Tao - - 2013
Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH) is the core component in the regulation circuits of food intake and energy homeostasis. ARH projections to other parts of the hypothalamus and to extrahypothalamic areas are established in the postnatal two weeks, which is a pivotal stage for individual development. β-catenin, a cell adhesion ...
Williams Michael J - - 2013
Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in rodents was shown to induce obesity, yet the mechanism by which BPA might induce obesity is still unclear. We employed the genetically tractable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, to test the effects of raising them on food containing various concentrations of BPA. Of note, raising ...
Chisada Shin-Ichi SI Aquatic Animal Health Division, National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Fisheries Research Agency, 224-1 Hiruta, Tamaki, Mie, 519-0423, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2013
The first studies that identified leptin and its receptor (LepR) in mammals were based on mutant animals that displayed dramatic changes in body-weight and regulation of energy homeostasis. Subsequent studies have shown that a deficiency of leptin or LepR in homoeothermic mammals results in hyperphagia, obesity, infertility and a number ...
Lopez Andrew L AL 3rd Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2013
Coupling the production of mature gametes and fertilized zygotes to favorable nutritional conditions improves reproductive success. In invertebrates, the proliferation of female germline stem cells is regulated by nutritional status. However, in mammals, the number of female germline stem cells is set early in development, with oocytes progressing through meiosis ...
Mietlicki-Baase Elizabeth G EG Translational Neuroscience Program - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is physiologically relevant for the control of palatable food intake. Here, we tested whether the food intake-suppressive effects of VTA GLP-1R activation are mediated by glutamatergic signaling within the VTA. Intra-VTA injections of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) reduced ...
Cha Dong H DH U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service, Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory, 5230 Konnowac Pass Rd., Wapato, WA 98951, - - 2013
We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were ...
Lizé Anne - - 2013
The animal gut commonly contains a large reservoir of symbiotic microbes. Although these microbes have obvious functions in digestion and immune defence, gut microbes can also affect behaviour. Here, we explore whether gut microbiota has a role in kin recognition. We assessed whether relatedness, familiarity and food eaten during development ...
Kanoski Scott E - - 2013
The adipose-derived hormone leptin signals in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) to suppress food intake, in part, by amplifying within-meal gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Here we show that mNTS leptin receptor (LepRb) signaling also reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding, and that these effects can depend on energy ...
Cook Amy - - 2013
Dogs are strongly influenced by human behavior, and they readily form bonds with specific humans. Yet these lines of inquiry are not often combined. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such bonds would play a role in how dogs behave in response to human signals. Using various ...
Stevanovic Darko - - 2013
Signalling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effectors the S6-kinases (S6K) in the hypothalamus is thought to be involved in nutrient sensing and control of food intake. Given the anatomical proximity of this pathway to circuits for the hormone ghrelin, we investigated the potential role ...
Zhang Weizhen - - 2013
Previous studies demonstrate that mTOR signaling in the hypothalamus is involved in the control of energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of mTOR signaling in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMNV) on the energy intake. Phosphor-mTOR was detected in the DMNV neurons and ...
Merkestein M - - 2013
Background:Rats that have restricted access to food at a fixed time point of the circadian phase display high levels of food anticipatory activity (FAA). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been implicated in the regulation of FAA. However, is not known via which brain area ghrelin exerts this effect. Ghrelin receptor ...
Jannat Khandaker Noor-E - - 2013
Mosquito larval habitat determines the fitness, survivorship, fecundity, and vector capacity of emerging adults. We manipulated larval density and food provisioning in the laboratory to determine their effects on a number of life history parameters of Anopheles gambiae. Larval mortality was positively correlated with larval density. In addition, increased density ...
Chambers Adam P - - 2013
Individual meals are products of a complex interaction of signals related to both short-term and long-term availability of energy stores. In addition to maintaining the metabolic demands of the individual in the short term, levels of energy intake must also maintain and defend body weight over longer periods. To accomplish ...
Matsuura Tetsuya - - 2013
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the odorant diacetyl is sensed by AWA sensory neurons in the amphid sensory organ and elicits an attractive response, whereas 2-nonanone is sensed by AWB amphid sensory neurons and elicits an avoidance response. In the present study, we report that nematodes exhibit a sensory interaction ...
Ladyman Sharon R - - 2013
The regulation of energy balance requires a complex system to homeostatically maintain the adult body at a precise set point. The central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus, plays a key role in integrating a variety of signals that can relay information about the body's energy stores. As part of this ...
Yu Na - - 2013
Sulfakinins (SK) are multifunctional neuropeptides widely found in insects that are structurally and functionally homologous to the mammalian gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK) neuropeptides. CCK is involved in various biological processes such as the feeding regulation where it induces satiety. In this project we characterized SK and SK receptor (SKR) of an important ...
Mietlicki-Baase Elizabeth G EG Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2013
The ability of amylin, a pancreatic β-cell-derived neuropeptide, to promote negative energy balance has been ascribed to neural activation at the area postrema. However, despite amylin binding throughout the brain, the possible role of amylin signaling at other nuclei in the control of food intake has been largely neglected. We ...
Uysal Handan - - 2013
Nowadays, food dyes obtained from herbal, animal, microbial and mineral sources are widely used as food additives. In this study, the toxic effects of three different natural food dyes (carmine, turmeric and annatto) on 72 ± 4 h larvae of Oregon-R wild type of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. For this ...
Wasserman Sara - - 2013
Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) elicits an attractive host-seeking response from mosquitos yet is innately aversive to Drosophila melanogaster despite being a plentiful byproduct of attractive fermenting food sources. Prior studies used walking flies exclusively, yet adults track distant food sources on the wing. Here we show that a fly tethered within ...
Fedurek Pawel - - 2013
There is an ongoing debate about the adaptive function of chimpanzee's food-associated calls. Here, we tested a new hypothesis that food-associated calls in male chimpanzees function to signal that the calling individual is likely to initiate or prolong feeding. We propose that the signal functions to coordinate activities between individuals ...
Shaka A J - - 2013
We have investigated the effects of brief, non-specific deuteration of Drosophila melanogaster by including varying percentages of 2H (D) in the H2O used in the food mix consumed during initial development. Up to 22.5% D2O in H2O was administered, with the result that a low percentage of D2O in the ...
Pimentel Emilio - - 2013
Previous findings suggest that copper plays a crucial role in the antimutagenic effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). The objective of the current research was to compare the antimutagenic effects of two SCC compounds with different amounts of copper (3.7% and 5.4%, respectively) on the genetic damage induced by gamma ...
Chhabra Ria - - 2013
The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila ...
Lee Wen-Chih - - 2013
Diet can affect a spectrum of biological processes ranging from behavior to cellular metabolism. Yet, the precise role of an individual dietary constituent can be a difficult variable to isolate experimentally. A chemically defined food (CDF) permits the systematic evaluation of individual macro- and micronutrients. In addition, CDF facilitates the ...
Grindon Adele J - - 2013
The origins of flora and fauna that are only found in Ireland and Iberia, but which are absent from intervening countries, is one of the enduring questions of biogeography. As Southern French, Iberian and Irish populations of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis sometimes have a similar shell character, we used ...
Ziegler Anna B - - 2013
Odors are key sensory signals for social communication and food search in animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful neurogenetic model commonly used to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in odorant detection. Males use olfaction together with other sensory modalities to find their mates. Here, we review known ...
Sakaguchi Honami - - 2013
Drosophila melanogaster larvae excrete amylase and perform external digestion of their food. In this study, to investigate whether their external digestion ability varies in response to changes in the external environment, we measured the relative amount of amylase excreted by larvae using a new method: the iodine starch agar method ...
Neal Scott J - - 2013
Environmental conditions experienced during early larval stages dictate the developmental trajectory of the nematode C. elegans. Favorable conditions such as low population density, abundant food, and lower temperatures allow reproductive growth, while stressful conditions promote entry of second-stage (L2) larvae into the alternate dauer developmental stage. Population density is signaled ...
Artyukhin Alexander B - - 2013
Availability of food is often a limiting factor in nature. Periods of food abundance are followed by times of famine, often in unpredictable patterns. Reliable information about the environment is a critical ingredient of successful survival strategy. One way to improve accuracy is to integrate information communicated by other organisms. ...
Zaninovich Orel A - - 2013
For many animals, hunger promotes changes in the olfactory system in a manner that facilitates the search for appropriate food sources. In this video article, we describe an automated assay to measure the effect of hunger or satiety on olfactory dependent food search behavior in the adult fruit fly Drosophila ...
Veling Harm H Department of Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen Nijmegen, - - 2013
The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go ...
Song Bo-Mi BM Department of Physiology and Biophysics , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , United States ; Department of Molecular Biology , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center , Dallas , United - - 2013
Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response ...
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