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Results 401 - 450 of 642
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Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This review will concentrate on the potential use of probiotics in treating or preventing allergic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract. In small infants, most reactions to foods are manifested in the gastro-intestinal tract. As children get older, cutaneous and even systemic or respiratory manifestations of food intolerances may be ...
Smejkal Christopher - - 2003
Functional foods such as probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals are of extreme interest to researchers. There is growing evidence that these food ingredients may improve and in some cases treat certain conditions that are implicated in women's health. The use of probiotics (live, beneficial bacteria) in improving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tract ...
Wells Jerry M - - 2003
Despite continued efforts to prevent and control food-borne illness it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The problem is made worse by the continuous threat from emerging pathogens that can evolve to adapt to the different environments resulting from ongoing changes in farming or food ...
Cashman Kevin - - 2003
A prebiotic substance has been defined as a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Therefore, compared to probiotics, which introduce exogenous bacteria into the colonic microflora, a prebiotic aims at ...
Ross Thomas - - 2003
Risk estimates for food-borne infection will usually depend heavily on numbers of microorganisms present on the food at the time of consumption. As these data are seldom available directly, attention has turned to predictive microbiology as a means of inferring exposure at consumption. Codex guidelines recommend that microbiological risk assessment ...
Burchell Mark J - - 2003
Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein ...
Christensen Allan B - - 2003
N-Acyl-L-homoserine-lactone-producing Serratia species are frequently encountered in spoiling foods of vegetable and protein origin. The role of quorum sensing in the food spoiling properties of these bacteria is currently being investigated. A set of luxR luxI homologous genes encoding a putative quorum sensor was identified in the N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL)-producing ...
Cooke Edward A - - 2003
Electric fly killers (EFKs) are commonly used to control flying insects that enter food establishments. For establishment of the incidence of pathogen-bearing insects in food establishments, insect samples obtained from EFK trays could be used. The principal difficulty with this approach is that the survival time of microorganisms on or ...
Rodríguez J M - - 2003
Over the last two decades, bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been the subject of considerable research and industrial interest due to their potential as food biopreservatives. The development of heterologous expression systems for such antimicrobial compounds may offer a number of advantages over native systems, such as ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 226. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Taormina, IT, 3 - 5 March 2003. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 66
Sahu Saura C - - 2003
Hepatocyte culture is a well-established, well-characterized, and widely used in vitro tool for pharamacological and toxicological studies. The hepatocytes of a wide range of species, including humans, can be maintained in culture with a high metabolizing capacity for several days under closely controlled and easily manipulated conditions. Numerous studies have ...
Cavanagh Heather M A - - 2003
Increasing interest in the health benefits of various culinary berries has led to investigation of their antibacterial activity. Commercial raspberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, and blackberry cordials (100% fruit) as well as fresh berries were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. Three ...
Mercenier A - - 2003
Since the early observations of Elie Metchnikoff, a wealth of experiments have described the use of selected microorganisms, mainly belonging to the lactic acid bacteria family, for the prevention or treatment of a variety of pathological situations. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the proposed actions remain vastly unknown, partly as a ...
Kanauchi Osamu - - 2003
Because the intestinal microflora play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the microflora towards a potentially more remedial community. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by ...
Sudakin Daniel L - - 2003
The term 'biopesticide' encompasses a broad array of microbial pesticides, biochemicals derived from micro-organisms and other natural sources, and processes involving the genetic incorporation of DNA into agricultural commodities that confer protection against pest damage (plant-incorporated protectants). Some microbial pesticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, have a long history of safe ...
Charalampopoulos D - - 2002
The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human ...
Brul Stanley - - 2002
In this mini-review, various aspects of homeostasis of microbial cells and its perturbation by antimicrobial agents will be discussed. First, outlining the position that the physiological studies on microbial behaviour using the modern molecular tools should have in food science sets the scene for the studies. Subsequently, the advent of ...
Ross R Paul - - 2002
Preservation of food and beverages resulting from fermentation has been an effective form of extending the shelf-life of foods for millennia. Traditionally, foods were preserved through naturally occurring fermentations, however, modern large scale production generally now exploits the use of defined strain starter systems to ensure consistency and quality in ...
Eaton Tracy J - - 2002
Enterococci are increasingly important causes of nosocomial disease. Also, they are associated with food and have a history of use as dairy starter and probiotic cultures. An enterococcal surface protein Esp(fs) is involved the virulence and biofilm-forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis and recently we demonstrated the presence of a homologue ...
Renault Pierre - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria have a long history of use in fermented food products. Progress in gene technology allows their modification by introducing new genes or by modifying their metabolic functions. These modifications may lead to improvements in food technology (bacteria better fitted to technological processes, leading to improved organoleptic properties ...
Zimmer Martin - - 2002
The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an ...
Strand Sabina P - - 2002
Three types of well-characterized chitosans of different composition were applied to flocculate 8 different bacterial species. The aim of this study was to relate chitosan structure and flocculation characteristic to general bacterial characteristics such as the cell surface charge and hydrophobicity. Large differences in the flocculation efficiency of chitosan were ...
Rastall Robert A - - 2002
Recent research in the area of prebiotic oligosaccharides and synbiotic combinations with probiotics is leading towards a more targeted development of functional food ingredients. Improved molecular techniques for analysis of the gut microflora, new manufacturing biotechnologies, and increased understanding of the metabolism of oligosaccharides by probiotics are facilitating development. Such ...
Gram Lone - - 2002
Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modern day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted based on knowledge of the ...
McMeekin T A - - 2002
This contribution considers predictive microbiology in the context of the Food Micro 2002 theme, "Microbial adaptation to changing environments". To provide a reference point, the state of food microbiology knowledge in the mid-1970s is selected and from that time, the impact of social and demographic changes on microbial food safety ...
Madden J A J - - 2002
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multi-factorial gastrointestinal condition affecting 8-22 % of the population with a higher prevalence in women and accounting for 20-50 % of referrals to gastroenterology clinics. It is characterised by abdominal pain, excessive flatus, variable bowel habit and abdominal bloating for which there is no ...
Kailasapathy Kaila - - 2002
In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse ...
Morelli L - - 2002
The primary claim of probiotics is their beneficial influence on the intestinal ecosystem, which, in turn, may provide protection against gastro-intestinal infections. The positive actions on human health include antagonistic activity against pathogens, anti-allergic effects and other effects on the immune system. In recent years, the concept of probiotics evolved ...
Fuatai Lafitai - - 2002
There are arguments for and against organic agriculture. The paper looks at the impact of changes and development, the need for sustainable development, organic farming as a viable alternative, organic certification and concluding thoughts on why organic farming makes sense. To go organic does not necessarily mean that organic products ...
Lee P C - - 2002
Carotenoids are important natural pigments produced by many microorganisms and plants. Traditionally, carotenoids have been used in the feed, food and nutraceutical industries. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications. The availability of ...
Floch Martin H. - - 2002
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Feord Jean - - 2002
The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, processing aids, feed additives and dietary supplements. On ...
Al-Khaldi Sufian F - - 2002
Microarray analysis is an emerging technology that has the potential to become a leading trend in bacterial identification in food and feed improvement. The technology uses fluorescent-labeled probes amplified from bacterial samples that are then hybridized to thousands of DNA sequences immobilized on chemically modified glass slides. The whole gene ...
Brigidi P - - 2002
The effect of rifaximin on the intestinal bacterial population was studied in a clinical trial. Twelve patients with ulcerative colitis were administered rifaximin 1800 mg/day in 3 treatment periods of 10 days, each followed by 25 days of wash-out. Fecal samples were collected at the beginning and at the end ...
Ellis David I - - 2002
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and ...
Kolida S - - 2002
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine. Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more 'beneficial' community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of ...
O'Sullivan L - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries in the fermentation of a variety of dairy products. The preservative ability of LAB in foods is attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites including organic acids and bacteriocins. Bacteriocins generally exert their anti-microbial action by interfering with the cell wall ...
Flickinger E A - - 2002
Prebiotics may be considered as functional food ingredients. They are attracting considerable interest from pet owners, pet food manufacturers, livestock producers and feed manufacturers. The most common forms of prebiotics are nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), including inulin, oligofructose mannanoligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides. These NDO are nondigestible by enzymes present in the ...
Martirani Luca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new ...
O'Byrne Conor P - - 2002
The control of water activity has been used as a means of preserving foods for thousands of years. This preservation strategy presents food-borne microorganisms with serious problems, many of which relate to the management of water flow. Although the specific details of how each organism deals with these problems are ...
Chow JoMay - - 2002
Probiotics and prebiotics are 2 food ingredients that confer physiologic effects through the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have been defined as viable microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions. These microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2002
Approximately 70% of the immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract: its glands, mucosa, and mucosa-associated lymphoid system. The system influences health conditions because it produces large amounts of important gastrointestinal secretions as rich as breast milk in health-supporting and disease-preventing factors, and because of its rich gastrointestinal flora. ...
Diep Dzung B - - 2002
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens that has caused a serious problem in hospitals worldwide, has intensified the search for novel drugs, in order to replace or to be used in complement with the existing antibiotics. In this connection much interest has been focused on a group of antimicrobial peptides, so-called ...
Leroy Frédéric - - 2002
Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of ...
Wilson P D G - - 2002
Historically, the ability of foods to support the growth of spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens has been assessed by inoculating a food with an organism of interest, and following its growth over a period of time. Information gained from such challenge tests, together with knowledge of the organoleptic stability of ...
Vereecken Karen M - - 2002
Next to the traditional application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures for food fermentations, the use of LAB as protective cultures against microbial pathogens and spoilage organisms in other food production processes gains more and more interest. The inhibitory effect of LAB is mainly accomplished through formation of ...
Markowitz Jonathan E - - 2002
Probiotics are truly a timeless concept. Initially standard components of the human diet, potentially beneficial bacteria and yeast have been eliminated systematically through modern methods of preparing and preserving foods. Although the concept of probiotics is not new, the science of probiotics is in its infancy. Only recently have techniques ...
Miller, Craig William
The health benefits of probiotic functional foods have been widely reported. However, manufacturers face great challenge in guaranteeing delivering beneficial numbers of viable probiotic bacteria through to the end of the product shelf life. The oxygen toxicity of some probiotic species has been shown to contribute to reduced viable counts. ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 219. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Saariselkä, FI, 1 - 3 Feb. 2002. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 62 - 63
Carr Frank J - - 2002
The purpose of this review article on the lactic acid bacteria grew from an early curiosity and a desire to convey and impart the broad scope of literary information on their functions as starter cultures, in the manufacture of fermentation products such as dairy products and alcoholic beverages, as well ...
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