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Renault Pierre - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria have a long history of use in fermented food products. Progress in gene technology allows their modification by introducing new genes or by modifying their metabolic functions. These modifications may lead to improvements in food technology (bacteria better fitted to technological processes, leading to improved organoleptic properties ...
Zimmer Martin - - 2002
The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an ...
Strand Sabina P - - 2002
Three types of well-characterized chitosans of different composition were applied to flocculate 8 different bacterial species. The aim of this study was to relate chitosan structure and flocculation characteristic to general bacterial characteristics such as the cell surface charge and hydrophobicity. Large differences in the flocculation efficiency of chitosan were ...
Rastall Robert A - - 2002
Recent research in the area of prebiotic oligosaccharides and synbiotic combinations with probiotics is leading towards a more targeted development of functional food ingredients. Improved molecular techniques for analysis of the gut microflora, new manufacturing biotechnologies, and increased understanding of the metabolism of oligosaccharides by probiotics are facilitating development. Such ...
Gram Lone - - 2002
Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modern day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted based on knowledge of the ...
McMeekin T A - - 2002
This contribution considers predictive microbiology in the context of the Food Micro 2002 theme, "Microbial adaptation to changing environments". To provide a reference point, the state of food microbiology knowledge in the mid-1970s is selected and from that time, the impact of social and demographic changes on microbial food safety ...
Madden J A J - - 2002
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multi-factorial gastrointestinal condition affecting 8-22 % of the population with a higher prevalence in women and accounting for 20-50 % of referrals to gastroenterology clinics. It is characterised by abdominal pain, excessive flatus, variable bowel habit and abdominal bloating for which there is no ...
Kailasapathy Kaila - - 2002
In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse ...
Morelli L - - 2002
The primary claim of probiotics is their beneficial influence on the intestinal ecosystem, which, in turn, may provide protection against gastro-intestinal infections. The positive actions on human health include antagonistic activity against pathogens, anti-allergic effects and other effects on the immune system. In recent years, the concept of probiotics evolved ...
Fuatai Lafitai - - 2002
There are arguments for and against organic agriculture. The paper looks at the impact of changes and development, the need for sustainable development, organic farming as a viable alternative, organic certification and concluding thoughts on why organic farming makes sense. To go organic does not necessarily mean that organic products ...
Lee P C - - 2002
Carotenoids are important natural pigments produced by many microorganisms and plants. Traditionally, carotenoids have been used in the feed, food and nutraceutical industries. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications. The availability of ...
Floch Martin H. - - 2002
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Feord Jean - - 2002
The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, processing aids, feed additives and dietary supplements. On ...
Al-Khaldi Sufian F - - 2002
Microarray analysis is an emerging technology that has the potential to become a leading trend in bacterial identification in food and feed improvement. The technology uses fluorescent-labeled probes amplified from bacterial samples that are then hybridized to thousands of DNA sequences immobilized on chemically modified glass slides. The whole gene ...
Brigidi P - - 2002
The effect of rifaximin on the intestinal bacterial population was studied in a clinical trial. Twelve patients with ulcerative colitis were administered rifaximin 1800 mg/day in 3 treatment periods of 10 days, each followed by 25 days of wash-out. Fecal samples were collected at the beginning and at the end ...
Ellis David I - - 2002
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and ...
Kolida S - - 2002
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine. Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more 'beneficial' community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of ...
O'Sullivan L - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries in the fermentation of a variety of dairy products. The preservative ability of LAB in foods is attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites including organic acids and bacteriocins. Bacteriocins generally exert their anti-microbial action by interfering with the cell wall ...
Flickinger E A - - 2002
Prebiotics may be considered as functional food ingredients. They are attracting considerable interest from pet owners, pet food manufacturers, livestock producers and feed manufacturers. The most common forms of prebiotics are nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), including inulin, oligofructose mannanoligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides. These NDO are nondigestible by enzymes present in the ...
Martirani Luca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new ...
O'Byrne Conor P - - 2002
The control of water activity has been used as a means of preserving foods for thousands of years. This preservation strategy presents food-borne microorganisms with serious problems, many of which relate to the management of water flow. Although the specific details of how each organism deals with these problems are ...
Chow JoMay - - 2002
Probiotics and prebiotics are 2 food ingredients that confer physiologic effects through the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have been defined as viable microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions. These microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2002
Approximately 70% of the immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract: its glands, mucosa, and mucosa-associated lymphoid system. The system influences health conditions because it produces large amounts of important gastrointestinal secretions as rich as breast milk in health-supporting and disease-preventing factors, and because of its rich gastrointestinal flora. ...
Diep Dzung B - - 2002
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens that has caused a serious problem in hospitals worldwide, has intensified the search for novel drugs, in order to replace or to be used in complement with the existing antibiotics. In this connection much interest has been focused on a group of antimicrobial peptides, so-called ...
Leroy Frédéric - - 2002
Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of ...
Wilson P D G - - 2002
Historically, the ability of foods to support the growth of spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens has been assessed by inoculating a food with an organism of interest, and following its growth over a period of time. Information gained from such challenge tests, together with knowledge of the organoleptic stability of ...
Vereecken Karen M - - 2002
Next to the traditional application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures for food fermentations, the use of LAB as protective cultures against microbial pathogens and spoilage organisms in other food production processes gains more and more interest. The inhibitory effect of LAB is mainly accomplished through formation of ...
Markowitz Jonathan E - - 2002
Probiotics are truly a timeless concept. Initially standard components of the human diet, potentially beneficial bacteria and yeast have been eliminated systematically through modern methods of preparing and preserving foods. Although the concept of probiotics is not new, the science of probiotics is in its infancy. Only recently have techniques ...
Miller, Craig William
The health benefits of probiotic functional foods have been widely reported. However, manufacturers face great challenge in guaranteeing delivering beneficial numbers of viable probiotic bacteria through to the end of the product shelf life. The oxygen toxicity of some probiotic species has been shown to contribute to reduced viable counts. ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 219. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Saariselkä, FI, 1 - 3 Feb. 2002. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 62 - 63
Carr Frank J - - 2002
The purpose of this review article on the lactic acid bacteria grew from an early curiosity and a desire to convey and impart the broad scope of literary information on their functions as starter cultures, in the manufacture of fermentation products such as dairy products and alcoholic beverages, as well ...
Oh Y - - 2002
AIMS: To evaluate a traditional yoghurt used as folk medicine for its ability to kill Helicobacter pylori in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Micro-organisms from the yoghurt were identified and tested in different food substrates for their effects on H. pylori in a co-culture well system. Two yeasts and several strains ...
Bourn Diane - - 2002
Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for three key areas: nutritional value, sensory ...
Cleveland J - - 2001
Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used ...
Takeuchi K - - 2001
Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over other conventional microscopic techniques as a tool for studying the interaction of bacteria with food and the role of food microstructure in product quality and safety. When using confocal microscopy, samples can be observed without extensive preparation processes, which allows for the evaluation of ...
Madsen K L KL University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. - - 2001
Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or ...
Oh H I - - 2001
Four different kinds of chitosans were prepared by treating crude chitin with various NaOH concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of the chitosans were tested against four species of food spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Serratia liquefaciens, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii). The initial effect of the chitosans was biocidal, and counts of ...
Mollapour M - - 2001
A factor influencing resistances of food spoilage microbes to sorbate and benzoate is whether these organisms are able to catalyse the degradation of these preservative compounds. Several fungi metabolize benzoic acid by the beta-ketoadipate pathway, involving the hydroxylation of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use benzoate as ...
Lanoil B D - - 2001
Although there is significant interest in the potential interactions of microbes with gas hydrate, no direct physical association between them has been demonstrated. We examined several intact samples of naturally occurring gas hydrate from the Gulf of Mexico for evidence of microbes. All samples were collected from anaerobic hemipelagic mud ...
French M R - - 2001
A survey was used to determine the use of low microbial diets for pediatric bone marrow transplantation patients at hospitals in Canada and the northwestern United States. Five out of 7 hospitals responding to the survey provided a low microbial diet to this population to reduce the potential risk posed ...
Schiffrin E J - - 2001
Human studies have demonstrated that selected probiotic strains can influence the composition of the intestinal microflora and modulate the host immune system. Considerable promise was also demonstrated for the application of probiotics in human disease. However, the extension of probiotic applications demands increasing scientific attention to their functionality and the ...
DeLorenzo M.E. - - 2001
Understanding microbial food web dynamics is complicated by the multitude of competitive or interdependent trophic interactions involved in material and energy flow. Metabolic inhibitors can be used to gain information on the relative importance of trophic pathways by uncoupling selected microbial components and examining the net effect on ecosystem structure ...
Ehlers R U - - 2001
Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insects. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes. The biology of the nematode-bacterium complex is described, a historical review of the ...
Tuohy K M - - 2001
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target selected groups of the human colonic microflora, thus having the ability to alter the composition towards a more 'beneficial' community, i.e. selectively increasing populations of bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli. In the present study the prebiotic potential of partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and fructo-oligosaccharides ...
Van Loo J - - 2001
Prebiotics is a recent novel food concept that includes food ingredients that are not digested in the human upper intestinal tract and hence arrive in the colon where they are selectively fermented by a limited number of colonic bacteria. Amongst these are bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are considered indicators of ...
Floch M H - - 2001
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Giraffa G - - 2001
Culture-independent molecular techniques are now available to study microbial ecosystems. They are opening interesting perspectives to problems related to composition and population dynamics of microbial communities in various environmental niches (e.g., soil, water) and foods. In fermented food products, estimates of true microbial diversity is often difficult chiefly on account ...
Bagge D - - 2001
Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers ...
Margesin R - - 2001
Halotolerant or halophilic microorganisms, able to live in saline environments, offer a multitude of actual or potential applications in various fields of biotechnology. The technical applications of bacteriorhodopsin comprise holography, spatial light modulators, optical computing, and optical memories. Compatible solutes are useful as stabilizers of biomolecules and whole cells, salt ...
Puupponen-Pimiä R - - 2001
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and ...
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