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Al-Khaldi Sufian F - - 2002
Microarray analysis is an emerging technology that has the potential to become a leading trend in bacterial identification in food and feed improvement. The technology uses fluorescent-labeled probes amplified from bacterial samples that are then hybridized to thousands of DNA sequences immobilized on chemically modified glass slides. The whole gene ...
Brigidi P - - 2002
The effect of rifaximin on the intestinal bacterial population was studied in a clinical trial. Twelve patients with ulcerative colitis were administered rifaximin 1800 mg/day in 3 treatment periods of 10 days, each followed by 25 days of wash-out. Fecal samples were collected at the beginning and at the end ...
Ellis David I - - 2002
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and ...
Kolida S - - 2002
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine. Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more 'beneficial' community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of ...
O'Sullivan L - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries in the fermentation of a variety of dairy products. The preservative ability of LAB in foods is attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites including organic acids and bacteriocins. Bacteriocins generally exert their anti-microbial action by interfering with the cell wall ...
Flickinger E A - - 2002
Prebiotics may be considered as functional food ingredients. They are attracting considerable interest from pet owners, pet food manufacturers, livestock producers and feed manufacturers. The most common forms of prebiotics are nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), including inulin, oligofructose mannanoligosaccharides, gluco-oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides. These NDO are nondigestible by enzymes present in the ...
Martirani Luca - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new ...
O'Byrne Conor P - - 2002
The control of water activity has been used as a means of preserving foods for thousands of years. This preservation strategy presents food-borne microorganisms with serious problems, many of which relate to the management of water flow. Although the specific details of how each organism deals with these problems are ...
Chow JoMay - - 2002
Probiotics and prebiotics are 2 food ingredients that confer physiologic effects through the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have been defined as viable microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions. These microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known ...
Bengmark Stig - - 2002
Approximately 70% of the immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract: its glands, mucosa, and mucosa-associated lymphoid system. The system influences health conditions because it produces large amounts of important gastrointestinal secretions as rich as breast milk in health-supporting and disease-preventing factors, and because of its rich gastrointestinal flora. ...
Diep Dzung B - - 2002
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens that has caused a serious problem in hospitals worldwide, has intensified the search for novel drugs, in order to replace or to be used in complement with the existing antibiotics. In this connection much interest has been focused on a group of antimicrobial peptides, so-called ...
Leroy Frédéric - - 2002
Predictive microbiology generally focuses on the potential outgrowth of spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens in foods. Little attention has been paid to the biokinetics of beneficial foodgrade microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria. The latter is commonly used in the food fermentation industry, mainly for the in situ production of ...
Wilson P D G - - 2002
Historically, the ability of foods to support the growth of spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens has been assessed by inoculating a food with an organism of interest, and following its growth over a period of time. Information gained from such challenge tests, together with knowledge of the organoleptic stability of ...
Vereecken Karen M - - 2002
Next to the traditional application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as starter cultures for food fermentations, the use of LAB as protective cultures against microbial pathogens and spoilage organisms in other food production processes gains more and more interest. The inhibitory effect of LAB is mainly accomplished through formation of ...
Markowitz Jonathan E - - 2002
Probiotics are truly a timeless concept. Initially standard components of the human diet, potentially beneficial bacteria and yeast have been eliminated systematically through modern methods of preparing and preserving foods. Although the concept of probiotics is not new, the science of probiotics is in its infancy. Only recently have techniques ...
Miller, Craig William
The health benefits of probiotic functional foods have been widely reported. However, manufacturers face great challenge in guaranteeing delivering beneficial numbers of viable probiotic bacteria through to the end of the product shelf life. The oxygen toxicity of some probiotic species has been shown to contribute to reduced viable counts. ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 219. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Saariselkä, FI, 1 - 3 Feb. 2002. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 62 - 63
Carr Frank J - - 2002
The purpose of this review article on the lactic acid bacteria grew from an early curiosity and a desire to convey and impart the broad scope of literary information on their functions as starter cultures, in the manufacture of fermentation products such as dairy products and alcoholic beverages, as well ...
Oh Y - - 2002
AIMS: To evaluate a traditional yoghurt used as folk medicine for its ability to kill Helicobacter pylori in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Micro-organisms from the yoghurt were identified and tested in different food substrates for their effects on H. pylori in a co-culture well system. Two yeasts and several strains ...
Bourn Diane - - 2002
Given the significant increase in consumer interest in organic food products, there is a need to determine to what extent there is a scientific basis for claims made for organic produce. Studies comparing foods derived from organic and conventional growing systems were assessed for three key areas: nutritional value, sensory ...
Cleveland J - - 2001
Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used ...
Takeuchi K - - 2001
Confocal microscopy offers several advantages over other conventional microscopic techniques as a tool for studying the interaction of bacteria with food and the role of food microstructure in product quality and safety. When using confocal microscopy, samples can be observed without extensive preparation processes, which allows for the evaluation of ...
Madsen K L KL University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. - - 2001
Probiotics are living microorganisms that can affect the host in a beneficial manner. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria already established in the colon. Efficacy of probiotic compounds has been shown in a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. Lactobacillus GG alone, or ...
Oh H I - - 2001
Four different kinds of chitosans were prepared by treating crude chitin with various NaOH concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of the chitosans were tested against four species of food spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Serratia liquefaciens, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii). The initial effect of the chitosans was biocidal, and counts of ...
Mollapour M - - 2001
A factor influencing resistances of food spoilage microbes to sorbate and benzoate is whether these organisms are able to catalyse the degradation of these preservative compounds. Several fungi metabolize benzoic acid by the beta-ketoadipate pathway, involving the hydroxylation of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use benzoate as ...
Lanoil B D - - 2001
Although there is significant interest in the potential interactions of microbes with gas hydrate, no direct physical association between them has been demonstrated. We examined several intact samples of naturally occurring gas hydrate from the Gulf of Mexico for evidence of microbes. All samples were collected from anaerobic hemipelagic mud ...
French M R - - 2001
A survey was used to determine the use of low microbial diets for pediatric bone marrow transplantation patients at hospitals in Canada and the northwestern United States. Five out of 7 hospitals responding to the survey provided a low microbial diet to this population to reduce the potential risk posed ...
Schiffrin E J - - 2001
Human studies have demonstrated that selected probiotic strains can influence the composition of the intestinal microflora and modulate the host immune system. Considerable promise was also demonstrated for the application of probiotics in human disease. However, the extension of probiotic applications demands increasing scientific attention to their functionality and the ...
DeLorenzo M.E. - - 2001
Understanding microbial food web dynamics is complicated by the multitude of competitive or interdependent trophic interactions involved in material and energy flow. Metabolic inhibitors can be used to gain information on the relative importance of trophic pathways by uncoupling selected microbial components and examining the net effect on ecosystem structure ...
Ehlers R U - - 2001
Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are commercially used to control pest insects. They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes. The biology of the nematode-bacterium complex is described, a historical review of the ...
Tuohy K M - - 2001
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target selected groups of the human colonic microflora, thus having the ability to alter the composition towards a more 'beneficial' community, i.e. selectively increasing populations of bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli. In the present study the prebiotic potential of partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and fructo-oligosaccharides ...
Van Loo J - - 2001
Prebiotics is a recent novel food concept that includes food ingredients that are not digested in the human upper intestinal tract and hence arrive in the colon where they are selectively fermented by a limited number of colonic bacteria. Amongst these are bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are considered indicators of ...
Floch M H - - 2001
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Giraffa G - - 2001
Culture-independent molecular techniques are now available to study microbial ecosystems. They are opening interesting perspectives to problems related to composition and population dynamics of microbial communities in various environmental niches (e.g., soil, water) and foods. In fermented food products, estimates of true microbial diversity is often difficult chiefly on account ...
Bagge D - - 2001
Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers ...
Margesin R - - 2001
Halotolerant or halophilic microorganisms, able to live in saline environments, offer a multitude of actual or potential applications in various fields of biotechnology. The technical applications of bacteriorhodopsin comprise holography, spatial light modulators, optical computing, and optical memories. Compatible solutes are useful as stabilizers of biomolecules and whole cells, salt ...
Puupponen-Pimiä R - - 2001
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and ...
Cox E - - 2001
What would be the advantage of unicellular organisms becoming multicellular? For organisms that feed on organic food (heterotrophs), the most efficient way to produce energy is to metabolize the food by aerobic respiration, but the fastest way is to metabolize it by fermentation. In their Perspective, Cox and Bonner discuss ...
Dens E J - - 2001
Most of the models discussed up till now in predictive microbiology do not take into account the variability of microbial growth with respect to space. In structured (solid) foods, microbial growth can strongly depend on the position in the food and the assumption of homogeneity can thus not be accepted: ...
Matz C - - 2001
The influence of cell surface hydrophobicity and electrostatic charge of bacteria on grazing rates of three common species of interception-feeding nanoflagellates was examined. The hydrophobicity of bacteria isolated from freshwater plankton was assessed by using two different methods (bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon and hydrophobic interaction chromatography). The electrostatic charge of ...
Heller K J - - 2001
Probiotic bacteria are sold mainly in fermented foods, and dairy products play a predominant role as carriers of probiotics. These foods are well suited to promoting the positive health image of probiotics for several reasons: 1) fermented foods, and dairy products in particular, already have a positive health image; 2) ...
Stanton C - - 2001
"Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food ...
Kopp-Hoolihan L - - 2001
Probiotics, live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, are quickly gaining interest as functional foods in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine. Microbes have been used for years in food and alcoholic fermentations and relatively recently have undergone scientific scrutiny ...
Przyrembel H - - 2001
Legislation on a particular food or on a particular claim to be used in connection with a food require a definition of the food and unequivocal requirements for the use of the claim. The definitions of prebiotics and probiotics presently place these terms between the categories for conventional foods and ...
Molin G - - 2001
Lactic acid fermentation is the simplest and safest way of preserving food and has probably always been used by humans. Species such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus salivarius are common in the human mucosa, from the mouth to the rectum. In food, L. paracasei ...
Mollapour M - - 2001
Yeasts of the genus Zygosaccharomyces are notable agents of large-scale food spoilage. Despite the economic importance of these organisms, little is known about the stress adaptations whereby they adapt to many of the more severe conditions of food preservation. In this study it was shown that genes of Z. bailii, ...
Pernelle J J - - 2001
Using oligonucleotide probes directed at the rRNA of filamentous bacteria, this study looks at the influence of the components of transient substrate overloads on the growth of the dominant filamentous bacteria of activated sludge fed by a synthetic substrate. By dissociating the massive input of organic matter from the oxygen ...
Banfield J F - - 2001
If life ever existed, or still exists, on Mars, its record is likely to be found in minerals formed by, or in association with, microorganisms. An important concept regarding interpretation of the mineralogical record for evidence of life is that, broadly defined, life perturbs disequilibria that arise due to kinetic ...
Saarela M - - 2000
During the past two decades probiotic (health promoting) micro-organisms have been increasingly included in various types of food products, especially in fermented milks. Several aspects, including safety, functional and technological characteristics, have to be taken into consideration in the selection process of probiotic micro-organisms. Safety aspects include specifications such as ...
Meyers S P - - 2000
Major discoveries in marine microbiology over the past 4-5 decades have resulted in the recognition of bacteria as a major biomass component of marine food webs. Such discoveries include chemosynthetic activities in deep-ocean ecosystems, survival processes in oligotrophic waters, and the role of microorganisms in food webs coupled with symbiotic ...
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