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Results 351 - 400 of 606
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Baillon Marie-Louise A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in a dry dog food, determine its ability to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and populate the colon, and assess its effects on intestinal and systemic parameters. ANIMALS: 15 adult dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were sequentially fed a dry ...
Olasupo N A - - 2004
The application of combined preservative factors (hurdle technology) is very effective in controlling the growth of food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of nisin alone and in combination with some natural organic compounds (carvacrol, cinnamic acid, eugenol, diacetyl, and thymol) on the growth of gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis ...
de Vos Willem M - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in industrial food fermentations and are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Glycolytic conversion of sugars into lactic acid is the main metabolic highway in these Gram-positive bacteria and Lactococcus lactis has become ...
Deisingh Anil K - - 2004
This review will consider the role of biosensors towards the detection of infectious bacteria, although non-infectious ones will be considered where necessary. Recently, there has been a heightened interest in developing rapid and reliable methods of detection. This is especially true for detection of organisms involved in bioterrorism, food poisoning, ...
Gänzle M G - - 2004
Reutericyclin is an inhibitory compound produced by sourdough isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri that is structurally but not functionally related to naturally occurring tetramic acids. It is bacteriostatic or bactericidal to gram-positive bacteria based on its activity as a proton-ionophore, and a broad range of food-related spoilage organisms and pathogens is ...
Archer Douglas L - - 2004
Freezing is an ancient technology for preserving foods. Freezing halts the activities of spoilage microorganisms in and on foods and can preserve some microorganisms for long periods of time. Frozen foods have an excellent overall safety record. The few outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with frozen foods indicate that some, ...
Alan D. Christian
We determined the trophic positions of 2 species of freshwater mussels, Elliptio dilatata and Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, from 2 small streams in central Ohio by measuring stable C and N isotope ratios and digestive fluid enzyme activities. We also examined stable C and N isotopes, microbial biomass, microbial community structure, nutrient ...
Herrera Anavella Gaitan - - 2004
Contamination of foods by the environment has direct public health and keeping quality significance. The food factory environment (with raw materials and processing) governs the numbers and types of microorganisms in finished products. Use of the appropriate sampling procedures permits us to discover the magnitude and type of contamination. Microbiological ...
Corcoran B M - - 2004
AIMS: Probiotic milk-based formulations were spray-dried with various combinations of prebiotic substances in an effort to generate synbiotic powder products. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the effect of growth phase and inclusion of a prebiotic substance in the feed media on probiotic viability during spray-drying, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was spray-dried ...
Lin M - - 2004
To evaluate the feasibility of visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm) to quantify the microbial loads in chicken meat and to develop a rapid methodology for monitoring the onset of spoilage. Twenty-four prepackaged fresh chicken breast muscle samples were prepared and stored at 21 degrees C ...
Ross Alexander I V - - 2003
Novel nonthermal processes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), ionizing radiation and ultrasonication, are able to inactivate microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures. Many of these processes require very high treatment intensities, however, to achieve adequate microbial destruction in low-acid foods. Combining nonthermal processes with conventional ...
Golden Susan S - - 2003
For more than three billion years, the organisms on this planet have known, like Little Orphan Annie, that "The sun'll come out tomorrow", and many have honed their biochemistry to exploit this knowledge. The cyanobacteria have had ample time to fashion a suitable timepiece, as they are among the oldest ...
Lin David C - - 2003
Probiotic products have been widely used in Japan and Europe for years. Probiotics are now emerging as an important category of food supplement in the United States. Questions about the biologic nature, available products, claimed health benefits, and safety and regulation of probiotics are important for both consumers and nutrition ...
Magkos Faidon - - 2003
Apparently, one of the primary reasons for purchasing organic food is the perception that it is more nutritious than conventional food. Given the increasing interest towards organic food products, it is imperative to review the existing literature concerning the nutritional value of the produce, and to determine to what extent ...
Dufour M - - 2003
Despite numerous papers being published on the use of hurdle technology to control food-borne pathogens or spoilage organisms, there is no commonly accepted methodology to quantify the level of synergistic activity. This paper describes a method to quantify in vitro the synergistic activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria. Initially, a ...
Ravn Flodgaard Lars - - 2003
Quorum-dependent regulation is mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in several Gram-negative bacteria. The production of AHLs has typically been studied using pure bacteria cultures grown in nutrient-rich media at optimal temperature. AHLs are produced in several chill-stored foods by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of ...
Jay J M - - 2003
The purpose of this review is to call attention to the new approaches now in use that classify bacteria primarily on the basis of phylogenetic criteria. The primary laboratory methods for ascertaining phylogenetic relationships entail the use of 16S rRNA and DNA sequence comparisons. These methods have been applied to ...
Mellefont L A - - 2003
The effects of osmotic environment and inoculum history on lag times were examined. Abrupt osmotic shifts of cultures were found to induce lag phases in a variety of foodborne bacteria. Relative lag times (RLT; the ratio of lag time to generation time) were used to differentiate the effects of the ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This review will concentrate on the potential use of probiotics in treating or preventing allergic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract. In small infants, most reactions to foods are manifested in the gastro-intestinal tract. As children get older, cutaneous and even systemic or respiratory manifestations of food intolerances may be ...
Smejkal Christopher - - 2003
Functional foods such as probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals are of extreme interest to researchers. There is growing evidence that these food ingredients may improve and in some cases treat certain conditions that are implicated in women's health. The use of probiotics (live, beneficial bacteria) in improving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tract ...
Wells Jerry M - - 2003
Despite continued efforts to prevent and control food-borne illness it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The problem is made worse by the continuous threat from emerging pathogens that can evolve to adapt to the different environments resulting from ongoing changes in farming or food ...
Cashman Kevin - - 2003
A prebiotic substance has been defined as a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Therefore, compared to probiotics, which introduce exogenous bacteria into the colonic microflora, a prebiotic aims at ...
Ross Thomas - - 2003
Risk estimates for food-borne infection will usually depend heavily on numbers of microorganisms present on the food at the time of consumption. As these data are seldom available directly, attention has turned to predictive microbiology as a means of inferring exposure at consumption. Codex guidelines recommend that microbiological risk assessment ...
Burchell Mark J - - 2003
Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein ...
Christensen Allan B - - 2003
N-Acyl-L-homoserine-lactone-producing Serratia species are frequently encountered in spoiling foods of vegetable and protein origin. The role of quorum sensing in the food spoiling properties of these bacteria is currently being investigated. A set of luxR luxI homologous genes encoding a putative quorum sensor was identified in the N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL)-producing ...
Cooke Edward A - - 2003
Electric fly killers (EFKs) are commonly used to control flying insects that enter food establishments. For establishment of the incidence of pathogen-bearing insects in food establishments, insect samples obtained from EFK trays could be used. The principal difficulty with this approach is that the survival time of microorganisms on or ...
Rodríguez J M - - 2003
Over the last two decades, bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been the subject of considerable research and industrial interest due to their potential as food biopreservatives. The development of heterologous expression systems for such antimicrobial compounds may offer a number of advantages over native systems, such as ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 226. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Taormina, IT, 3 - 5 March 2003. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 66
Sahu Saura C - - 2003
Hepatocyte culture is a well-established, well-characterized, and widely used in vitro tool for pharamacological and toxicological studies. The hepatocytes of a wide range of species, including humans, can be maintained in culture with a high metabolizing capacity for several days under closely controlled and easily manipulated conditions. Numerous studies have ...
Cavanagh Heather M A - - 2003
Increasing interest in the health benefits of various culinary berries has led to investigation of their antibacterial activity. Commercial raspberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, and blackberry cordials (100% fruit) as well as fresh berries were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. Three ...
Mercenier A - - 2003
Since the early observations of Elie Metchnikoff, a wealth of experiments have described the use of selected microorganisms, mainly belonging to the lactic acid bacteria family, for the prevention or treatment of a variety of pathological situations. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the proposed actions remain vastly unknown, partly as a ...
Kanauchi Osamu - - 2003
Because the intestinal microflora play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the microflora towards a potentially more remedial community. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by ...
Sudakin Daniel L - - 2003
The term 'biopesticide' encompasses a broad array of microbial pesticides, biochemicals derived from micro-organisms and other natural sources, and processes involving the genetic incorporation of DNA into agricultural commodities that confer protection against pest damage (plant-incorporated protectants). Some microbial pesticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, have a long history of safe ...
Charalampopoulos D - - 2002
The food industry is directing new product development towards the area of functional foods and functional food ingredients due to consumers' demand for healthier foods. In this respect, probiotic dairy foods containing human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species and prebiotic food formulations containing ingredients that cannot be digested by the human ...
Brul Stanley - - 2002
In this mini-review, various aspects of homeostasis of microbial cells and its perturbation by antimicrobial agents will be discussed. First, outlining the position that the physiological studies on microbial behaviour using the modern molecular tools should have in food science sets the scene for the studies. Subsequently, the advent of ...
Ross R Paul - - 2002
Preservation of food and beverages resulting from fermentation has been an effective form of extending the shelf-life of foods for millennia. Traditionally, foods were preserved through naturally occurring fermentations, however, modern large scale production generally now exploits the use of defined strain starter systems to ensure consistency and quality in ...
Eaton Tracy J - - 2002
Enterococci are increasingly important causes of nosocomial disease. Also, they are associated with food and have a history of use as dairy starter and probiotic cultures. An enterococcal surface protein Esp(fs) is involved the virulence and biofilm-forming capacity of Enterococcus faecalis and recently we demonstrated the presence of a homologue ...
Renault Pierre - - 2002
Lactic acid bacteria have a long history of use in fermented food products. Progress in gene technology allows their modification by introducing new genes or by modifying their metabolic functions. These modifications may lead to improvements in food technology (bacteria better fitted to technological processes, leading to improved organoleptic properties ...
Zimmer Martin - - 2002
The nutritional morphology, physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is significant in two respects. (1) Most oniscid isopods are truly terrestrial in terms of being totally independent of the aquatic environment. Thus, they have evolved adaptations to terrestrial food sources. (2) In many terrestrial ecosystems, isopods play an ...
Strand Sabina P - - 2002
Three types of well-characterized chitosans of different composition were applied to flocculate 8 different bacterial species. The aim of this study was to relate chitosan structure and flocculation characteristic to general bacterial characteristics such as the cell surface charge and hydrophobicity. Large differences in the flocculation efficiency of chitosan were ...
Rastall Robert A - - 2002
Recent research in the area of prebiotic oligosaccharides and synbiotic combinations with probiotics is leading towards a more targeted development of functional food ingredients. Improved molecular techniques for analysis of the gut microflora, new manufacturing biotechnologies, and increased understanding of the metabolism of oligosaccharides by probiotics are facilitating development. Such ...
Gram Lone - - 2002
Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modern day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted based on knowledge of the ...
McMeekin T A - - 2002
This contribution considers predictive microbiology in the context of the Food Micro 2002 theme, "Microbial adaptation to changing environments". To provide a reference point, the state of food microbiology knowledge in the mid-1970s is selected and from that time, the impact of social and demographic changes on microbial food safety ...
Madden J A J - - 2002
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multi-factorial gastrointestinal condition affecting 8-22 % of the population with a higher prevalence in women and accounting for 20-50 % of referrals to gastroenterology clinics. It is characterised by abdominal pain, excessive flatus, variable bowel habit and abdominal bloating for which there is no ...
Kailasapathy Kaila - - 2002
In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic health-based products. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Further, the survival of these bacteria in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier against adverse ...
Morelli L - - 2002
The primary claim of probiotics is their beneficial influence on the intestinal ecosystem, which, in turn, may provide protection against gastro-intestinal infections. The positive actions on human health include antagonistic activity against pathogens, anti-allergic effects and other effects on the immune system. In recent years, the concept of probiotics evolved ...
Fuatai Lafitai - - 2002
There are arguments for and against organic agriculture. The paper looks at the impact of changes and development, the need for sustainable development, organic farming as a viable alternative, organic certification and concluding thoughts on why organic farming makes sense. To go organic does not necessarily mean that organic products ...
Lee P C - - 2002
Carotenoids are important natural pigments produced by many microorganisms and plants. Traditionally, carotenoids have been used in the feed, food and nutraceutical industries. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications. The availability of ...
Floch Martin H. - - 2002
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Feord Jean - - 2002
The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, processing aids, feed additives and dietary supplements. On ...
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