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Puupponen-Pimiä Riitta - - 2005
Berry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and organic acids, which have antimicrobial activities against human pathogens. Among different berries and berry phenolics, cranberry, cloudberry, raspberry, strawberry and bilberry especially possess clear antimicrobial effects against, e.g. Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Complex phenolic polymers, like ellagitannins, are strong ...
Abee Tjakko - - 2004
Genome sequences are now available for many of the microbes that cause food-borne diseases. The information contained in pathogen genome sequences, together with the development of themed and whole-genome DNA microarrays and improved proteomics techniques, might provide tools for the rapid detection and identification of such organisms, for assessing their ...
Doyran S H - - 2004
The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission develops recommendations concerning risk management related to regulatory issues, on the basis of scientific advice provided by FAO and WHO. The complex question of anti-microbial resistance that requires a multidisciplinary approach, has been considered from different point of views in the framework of Codex, especially ...
Angulo F J - - 2004
Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is associated with anti-microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans. The use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is most clearly associated with anti-microbial resistance among Salmonella and Campylobacter isolated from humans, but also appears likely ...
Devlieghere F - - 2004
In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the moment of ingestion by the consumer. These changes are attributed to microbial proliferation, survival, ...
Barreteau H - - 2004
Preservatives used in the Agro-food industries may be of natural origin or obtained chemically. Because of the increasing interest of consumers in food products that contain only natural ingredients, studies on preservative molecules of natural origin, such as organic acids or peptides, have been reported in the past several years. ...
Grant W D - - 2004
Two major types of environment provide habitats for the most xerophilic organisms known: foods preserved by some form of dehydration or enhanced sugar levels, and hypersaline sites where water availability is limited by a high concentration of salts (usually NaCl). These environments are essentially microbial habitats, with high-sugar foods being ...
Brummel Ted - - 2004
We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in ...
Ouwehand Arthur C - - 2004
Probiotics are commonly included in dairy products. These products require cold storage and transportation, which limits their use. Here, we describe the inclusion of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in a dry food matrix, an oat-based cereal bar, and its detection in faeces after consumption of this product. One ...
Lu Lingeng - - 2004
The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecule produced by bacteria as part of quorum sensing is considered to be a universal inducer signal in bacteria because it reportedly influences gene expression in a variety of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected fresh produce and ...
Prevot Michela Bianco - - 2004
The aim of this paper (presented in Rome, Italy, at the 2nd Congress of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and New Food, September 7-9, 2003) was to provide an objective view of the regulatory trends at the European level specifically referring to probiotics, because until now they have never been directly mentioned nor ...
Miraglia del Giudice M - - 2004
The probiotics are cultures of potentially beneficial bacteria that positively affects host by enhancing the microbial balance and therefore restore the normal intestinal permeability and gut microecology, improve the intestine's immunologic barrier function and reduce the generation of proinflammatory cycochines characteristics of allergic inflammation. The authors made a survey of ...
Jamuna M - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria have received increased attention as a potential food preservative due to their strong antagonistic activity against many food-spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Three Pediococcus species, P. acidilactici NCIM 2292 , P. pentosaceous. NCIM 2296 and P. cervisiae NCIM 2171, were evaluated for bacteriocin production. Inhibitory substance were produced ...
Smith James L - - 2004
Quorum sensing is a signaling mechanism through which bacteria modulate a number of cellular functions (genes), including sporulation, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, virulence responses, as well as others. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication and is mediated by extracellular chemical signals generated by the bacteria when specific cell ...
Giraffa Giorgio - - 2004
The dynamics of growth, survival and biochemical activity of microorganisms in food are the result of stress reactions in response to the changing of the physical and chemical conditions into the food microenvironment, the ability to colonise the food matrix and to growth into a spatial heterogeneity, and the in ...
Shanahan Fergus - - 2004
The intestinal flora has a conditioning effect on intestinal homeostasis, delivering regulatory signals to the epithelium, the mucosal immune system and to the neuromuscular activity of the gut. Beneficial metabolic activities of the enteric flora include nutrient production, metabolism of dietary carcinogens, conversion of prodrugs to active drugs. However, increasing ...
Siezen Roland J - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in food fermentations and, more recently, as probiotics in health-promoting food products. Genome sequencing and functional genomics studies of a variety of LAB are now rapidly providing insights into their diversity and evolution and revealing the molecular basis for important traits such ...
Baillon Marie-Louise A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in a dry dog food, determine its ability to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and populate the colon, and assess its effects on intestinal and systemic parameters. ANIMALS: 15 adult dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were sequentially fed a dry ...
Olasupo N A - - 2004
The application of combined preservative factors (hurdle technology) is very effective in controlling the growth of food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of nisin alone and in combination with some natural organic compounds (carvacrol, cinnamic acid, eugenol, diacetyl, and thymol) on the growth of gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis ...
de Vos Willem M - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in industrial food fermentations and are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Glycolytic conversion of sugars into lactic acid is the main metabolic highway in these Gram-positive bacteria and Lactococcus lactis has become ...
Deisingh Anil K - - 2004
This review will consider the role of biosensors towards the detection of infectious bacteria, although non-infectious ones will be considered where necessary. Recently, there has been a heightened interest in developing rapid and reliable methods of detection. This is especially true for detection of organisms involved in bioterrorism, food poisoning, ...
Gänzle M G - - 2004
Reutericyclin is an inhibitory compound produced by sourdough isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri that is structurally but not functionally related to naturally occurring tetramic acids. It is bacteriostatic or bactericidal to gram-positive bacteria based on its activity as a proton-ionophore, and a broad range of food-related spoilage organisms and pathogens is ...
Archer Douglas L - - 2004
Freezing is an ancient technology for preserving foods. Freezing halts the activities of spoilage microorganisms in and on foods and can preserve some microorganisms for long periods of time. Frozen foods have an excellent overall safety record. The few outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with frozen foods indicate that some, ...
Alan D. Christian
We determined the trophic positions of 2 species of freshwater mussels, Elliptio dilatata and Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, from 2 small streams in central Ohio by measuring stable C and N isotope ratios and digestive fluid enzyme activities. We also examined stable C and N isotopes, microbial biomass, microbial community structure, nutrient ...
Herrera Anavella Gaitan - - 2004
Contamination of foods by the environment has direct public health and keeping quality significance. The food factory environment (with raw materials and processing) governs the numbers and types of microorganisms in finished products. Use of the appropriate sampling procedures permits us to discover the magnitude and type of contamination. Microbiological ...
Corcoran B M - - 2004
AIMS: Probiotic milk-based formulations were spray-dried with various combinations of prebiotic substances in an effort to generate synbiotic powder products. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the effect of growth phase and inclusion of a prebiotic substance in the feed media on probiotic viability during spray-drying, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was spray-dried ...
Lin M - - 2004
To evaluate the feasibility of visible and short-wavelength near-infrared (SW-NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm) to quantify the microbial loads in chicken meat and to develop a rapid methodology for monitoring the onset of spoilage. Twenty-four prepackaged fresh chicken breast muscle samples were prepared and stored at 21 degrees C ...
Ross Alexander I V - - 2003
Novel nonthermal processes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), ionizing radiation and ultrasonication, are able to inactivate microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures. Many of these processes require very high treatment intensities, however, to achieve adequate microbial destruction in low-acid foods. Combining nonthermal processes with conventional ...
Golden Susan S - - 2003
For more than three billion years, the organisms on this planet have known, like Little Orphan Annie, that "The sun'll come out tomorrow", and many have honed their biochemistry to exploit this knowledge. The cyanobacteria have had ample time to fashion a suitable timepiece, as they are among the oldest ...
Lin David C - - 2003
Probiotic products have been widely used in Japan and Europe for years. Probiotics are now emerging as an important category of food supplement in the United States. Questions about the biologic nature, available products, claimed health benefits, and safety and regulation of probiotics are important for both consumers and nutrition ...
Magkos Faidon - - 2003
Apparently, one of the primary reasons for purchasing organic food is the perception that it is more nutritious than conventional food. Given the increasing interest towards organic food products, it is imperative to review the existing literature concerning the nutritional value of the produce, and to determine to what extent ...
Dufour M - - 2003
Despite numerous papers being published on the use of hurdle technology to control food-borne pathogens or spoilage organisms, there is no commonly accepted methodology to quantify the level of synergistic activity. This paper describes a method to quantify in vitro the synergistic activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria. Initially, a ...
Ravn Flodgaard Lars - - 2003
Quorum-dependent regulation is mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in several Gram-negative bacteria. The production of AHLs has typically been studied using pure bacteria cultures grown in nutrient-rich media at optimal temperature. AHLs are produced in several chill-stored foods by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of ...
Jay J M - - 2003
The purpose of this review is to call attention to the new approaches now in use that classify bacteria primarily on the basis of phylogenetic criteria. The primary laboratory methods for ascertaining phylogenetic relationships entail the use of 16S rRNA and DNA sequence comparisons. These methods have been applied to ...
Mellefont L A - - 2003
The effects of osmotic environment and inoculum history on lag times were examined. Abrupt osmotic shifts of cultures were found to induce lag phases in a variety of foodborne bacteria. Relative lag times (RLT; the ratio of lag time to generation time) were used to differentiate the effects of the ...
Vanderhoof Jon A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This review will concentrate on the potential use of probiotics in treating or preventing allergic disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract. In small infants, most reactions to foods are manifested in the gastro-intestinal tract. As children get older, cutaneous and even systemic or respiratory manifestations of food intolerances may be ...
Smejkal Christopher - - 2003
Functional foods such as probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals are of extreme interest to researchers. There is growing evidence that these food ingredients may improve and in some cases treat certain conditions that are implicated in women's health. The use of probiotics (live, beneficial bacteria) in improving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tract ...
Wells Jerry M - - 2003
Despite continued efforts to prevent and control food-borne illness it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The problem is made worse by the continuous threat from emerging pathogens that can evolve to adapt to the different environments resulting from ongoing changes in farming or food ...
Cashman Kevin - - 2003
A prebiotic substance has been defined as a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Therefore, compared to probiotics, which introduce exogenous bacteria into the colonic microflora, a prebiotic aims at ...
Ross Thomas - - 2003
Risk estimates for food-borne infection will usually depend heavily on numbers of microorganisms present on the food at the time of consumption. As these data are seldom available directly, attention has turned to predictive microbiology as a means of inferring exposure at consumption. Codex guidelines recommend that microbiological risk assessment ...
Burchell Mark J - - 2003
Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein ...
Christensen Allan B - - 2003
N-Acyl-L-homoserine-lactone-producing Serratia species are frequently encountered in spoiling foods of vegetable and protein origin. The role of quorum sensing in the food spoiling properties of these bacteria is currently being investigated. A set of luxR luxI homologous genes encoding a putative quorum sensor was identified in the N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL)-producing ...
Cooke Edward A - - 2003
Electric fly killers (EFKs) are commonly used to control flying insects that enter food establishments. For establishment of the incidence of pathogen-bearing insects in food establishments, insect samples obtained from EFK trays could be used. The principal difficulty with this approach is that the survival time of microorganisms on or ...
Rodríguez J M - - 2003
Over the last two decades, bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been the subject of considerable research and industrial interest due to their potential as food biopreservatives. The development of heterologous expression systems for such antimicrobial compounds may offer a number of advantages over native systems, such as ...
Virkajärvi, Ilkka
VTT Symposium 226. The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health Cluster. PROEUHEALTH. Abstracts and posters. Taormina, IT, 3 - 5 March 2003. Kuokka, Annemari, Saarela, Maria & Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina (eds.), 66
Sahu Saura C - - 2003
Hepatocyte culture is a well-established, well-characterized, and widely used in vitro tool for pharamacological and toxicological studies. The hepatocytes of a wide range of species, including humans, can be maintained in culture with a high metabolizing capacity for several days under closely controlled and easily manipulated conditions. Numerous studies have ...
Cavanagh Heather M A - - 2003
Increasing interest in the health benefits of various culinary berries has led to investigation of their antibacterial activity. Commercial raspberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, and blackberry cordials (100% fruit) as well as fresh berries were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. Three ...
Mercenier A - - 2003
Since the early observations of Elie Metchnikoff, a wealth of experiments have described the use of selected microorganisms, mainly belonging to the lactic acid bacteria family, for the prevention or treatment of a variety of pathological situations. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the proposed actions remain vastly unknown, partly as a ...
Kanauchi Osamu - - 2003
Because the intestinal microflora play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the microflora towards a potentially more remedial community. This review summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by ...
Sudakin Daniel L - - 2003
The term 'biopesticide' encompasses a broad array of microbial pesticides, biochemicals derived from micro-organisms and other natural sources, and processes involving the genetic incorporation of DNA into agricultural commodities that confer protection against pest damage (plant-incorporated protectants). Some microbial pesticides, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, have a long history of safe ...
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