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Ezendam J
Probiotics are non-pathogenic bacteria that are used as functional food components with claimed health-promoting effects. In the European Union probiotics are regulated via the Novel Foods Regulation (258/97/EC). This regulation is only applied to strains that were not used before 1997 and concerns novel foods or food ingredients. However, probiotic ...
Hau Heidi H - - 2007
The shewanellae are aquatic microorganisms with worldwide distribution. Their hallmark features include unparalleled respiratory diversity and the capacity to thrive at low temperatures. As a genus the shewanellae are physiologically diverse, and this review provides an overview of the varied roles they serve in the environment and describes what is ...
Khan Shoaib Haroon - - 2007
With the growing interest in self-care and integrative medicine coupled with our health-embracing increasing population, recognition of the link between diet and health has never been stronger. As a result, the market for functional foods, or foods that promote health beyond providing basic nutrition, is flourishing. Within the functional foods ...
De Vuyst Luc - - 2007
In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in ...
Kang Jeong-Hun - - 2007
Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane], which is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, is a known endocrine disruptor and is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Due to intensified usage of these products, exposure of organisms to BPA via several routes, such as the environment and food, ...
Roeselers Guus - - 2007
We investigated the genotypic diversity of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in microbial mat samples collected from three hot spring localities on the east coast of Greenland. These hot springs harbour unique Arctic microbial ecosystems that have never been studied in detail before. Specific oligonucleotide primers for cyanobacteria, purple sulfur ...
Galluzzi Luca - - 2007
Traditionally the detection of microbial pathogens in clinical, environmental or food samples has commonly needed the prelevation of cells by culture before the application ofthe detection strategy. This is done to increase cell number thereby overcoming problems associated with the sensitivity of classical detection strategies. However, culture-based methods have the ...
Parker Jeremy D K - - 2007
NIMA-related kinases (Neks) have been studied in diverse eukaryotes, including the fungus Aspergillus and the ciliate Tetrahymena. In the former, a single Nek plays an essential role in cell cycle regulation; in the latter, which has more than 30 Neks in its genome, multiple Neks regulate ciliary length. Mammalian genomes ...
Settanni L - - 2007
Regarding food safety, rapid detection of microbial species is crucial to develop effective preventive and/or adjustment measures. Classical methods for determining the presence of certain species are time-consuming and labor-intensive, hence, molecular methods, which offer speed, sensitivity and specificity, have been developed to address this problem. Multiplex PCR (MPCR) is ...
Schmidt Alexander R - - 2006
Amber provides an effective medium for conservation of soft-bodied microorganisms, but finds older than 135 million years are very rare and have not so far contained any microbial inclusions. Here we describe 220-million-year-old droplets of amber containing bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoans that are assignable to extant genera. These inclusions ...
Lavermicocca Paola - - 2006
The understanding that probiotic foods can have beneficial effects on health has recently led to an increase in consumer demand for such products, thus enhancing their commercial value. Daily intake of probiotic micro-organisms, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, contributes to maintaining and improving the balance of intestinal microbe populations, and ...
del Giudice Michele Miraglia - - 2006
The frequent development of allergic respiratory diseases in patients with histories of atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood has been known for a long time. At school age, AD has been associated with an increased risk of asthma, and was thus regarded as one of the first steps in a ...
Vadasz Peter - - 2007
An autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts model (Int. J. Food Microbiology, 23, 1994, pp. 277-294) is developed and analyzed to reveal some subtle points, which are difficult to observe accurately from its equivalent non-autonomous form. In particular we are able to provide a meaningful interpretation to the "physiological state ...
Yan Fang - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A disturbance in microbial balance of the gastrointestinal tract is often associated with diarrhea. Therefore, probiotics, as beneficial microorganisms for host health, have attracted clinical attention for their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of diarrhea. This review focuses on new research findings relevant to the effects ...
Liu M - - 2006
Proteolytic pseudomonads dominate the spoilage flora of aerobically chill-stored proteinaceous raw foods. Proteolysis during spoilage of these food systems affects both food quality and the dynamics of the bacterial community because it increases the availability of nutrients to the community as a whole. Quorum sensing, or cell-cell signaling, is associated ...
Wagner Robert Doug - - 2006
Competitive exclusion (CE) products are anaerobic cultures of bacteria that are applied to poultry hatchlings to establish a protective enteric microbiota that excludes intestinal colonization by human food-borne pathogens. For safety of the poultry flock and human consumers, the identities of bacteria in CE products need to be known. A ...
Xiang Hui - - 2006
We compared the bacterial communities in the larval midgut of field and laboratory populations of a polyphagous pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences and 16S library sequence analysis. DGGE profiles and 16S rDNA library sequence analysis indicated similar patterns ...
Vila-Costa Maria - - 2006
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) accounts for most of the organic sulfur fluxes from primary to secondary producers in marine microbial food webs. Incubations of natural communities and axenic cultures with radio-labeled DMSP showed that dominant phytoplankton groups of the ocean, the unicellular cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus and diatoms, as well as heterotrophic ...
Bottari Benedetta - - 2006
In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the countable part of the microorganisms in the sample, therefore losing the information related to the microbial component which presents a vitality ...
Goldman Cinthia G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Current recommendations for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection include a proton pump inhibitor in combination with two antibiotics. We evaluated the potential activity of a probiotic food as an adjuvant to antibiotic triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection in children from Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Sixty-five children ...
Kindaichi Tomonori - - 2006
Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and uncultured Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) dominated in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Although two quantitative techniques gave the comparable results, the RTQ-PCR assay was easier and faster than the ...
Timmerman H M - - 2006
For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chickens. In a field trial with broilers, MSPB ...
Janssen M - - 2006
In food processing and preservation technology, models describing microbial proliferation in food products are a helpful tool to predict the microbial food safety and shelf life. In general, the available models consider microorganisms in pure culture. Thus, microbial interactions are ignored, which may lead to a discrepancy between model predictions ...
Grim J Norman - - 2006
During the past 16 years, the ciliate Balantidium jocularum has been collected from the intestines of many specimens of its fish host, Naso tonganus, all collected from the Great Barrier Reef near Lizard Island, Australia. Ciliates for this study of food consumption were isolated in 1988, 1989, 2003, and 2005. ...
Frankel Richard B - - 2006
Magnetotactic bacteria contain chains of magnetosomes that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. In two separate, recent papers, Scheffel et al. and Komeili et al. describe the roles of the proteins MamJ and MamK in magnetosome chain formation. Here, we describe the two studies and highlight questions that ...
Brul S - - 2006
In the food processing industry, unwanted occurrence and growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is a key concern. A prime example is the extremely heat resistant bacterial endospores, microbial survival structures, that create problems due to their ability to survive classical thermal treatments and their ability to subsequently germinate and ...
Parvez S - - 2006
Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid ...
Lopitz-Otsoa Fernando - - 2006
Kefir is a fermented milk beverage. The milk fermentation is achieved by the of kefir grains, a cluster of microorganisms held together by a polysaccharide matrix named kefiran. Kefir grains are an example of symbiosis between yeast and bacteria. They have been used over years to produce kefir, a fermented ...
Rasooly Avraham - - 2006
Biosensors are devices which combine a biochemical recognition element with a physical transducer. There are various types of biosensors, including electrochemical, acoustical, and optical sensors. Biosensors are used for medical applications and for environmental testing. Although biosensors are not commonly used for food microbial analysis, they have great potential for ...
Macpherson Andrew J - - 2006
The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they ...
Chattopadhyay M K - - 2006
Survival of bacteria at low temperatures provokes scientific interest because of several reasons. Investigations in this area promise insight into one of the mysteries of life science - namely, how the machinery of life operates at extreme environments. Knowledge obtained from these studies is likely to be useful in controlling ...
Lukwinski Angelina T - - 2006
The crucifer root maggot, Delia radicum, is an important pest of cruciferous crops; however, little is known about its digestive biochemistry or resident gut microbiota. A culturing approach was used to survey the types of micro organisms associated with eggs, midgut, and faeces of larvae feeding on rutabaga. All bacteria ...
Lei Yu - - 2006
A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to ...
Swennen Katrien - - 2006
The search for functional foods or functional food ingredients, i.e. foods or food ingredients that can enhance health, is beyond any doubt one of the leading trends in today's food industry. In this context, probiotics, i.e. living microbial food supplements, and prebiotics, i.e. non-digestible food ingredients, receive much attention. Both ...
Gibson Glenn R - - 2006
Prebiotics and probiotics are ingredients in the diet that strengthen beneficial microbes in the gut, especially bifidobacteria. This article discusses their effects on health and their use in infant formula and foods for children and adults. They may also have benefits for the elderly population, since bifidobacteria are known to ...
Donohue Diana C - - 2006
New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly being sought for novel probiotic products. Prior to the incorporation of novel strains into food or therapeutic products a careful evaluation of their efficacy is required and an assessment made as to whether they share the safety status of ...
Passoth Volkmar - - 2006
The ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala is frequently associated with food and feed products, either as a production organism or as a spoilage yeast. It belongs to the nonSaccharomyces wine yeasts and contributes to the wine aroma by the production of volatile compounds. The ability to grow in preserved food and ...
Noguchi Tamao - - 2006
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To ...
Clavel Thomas - - 2005
Dietary phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones, are used as food additives to prevent menopause-related disorders. In addition to other factors, their bioavailability strongly depends on the activity of intestinal bacteria but the underlying interactions remain poorly understood. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken with 39 postmenopausal women to characterize changes ...
Ha Eun-Mi - - 2005
Because the mucosal epithelia are in constant contact with large numbers of microorganisms, these surfaces must be armed with efficient microbial control systems. Here, we show that the Drosophila nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzyme, dual oxidase (dDuox), is indispensable for gut antimicrobial activities. Adult flies in which dDuox ...
Henriksson Anders - - 2005
This review examines current knowledge regarding the safety of probiotic bacteria in man. Tighter and more comprehensive standards and regulations will be developed as probiotic therapy moves from a limited number of products used in the food industry, into more defined therapeutic categories and more complex organisms. A new framework ...
Cotter Paul D - - 2005
Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food ...
Bhosale Prakash - - 2005
Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable ...
Commane Daniel - - 2005
Probiotic bacteria are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health benefit to the consumer. In the past it was suggested that they served to benefit the host primarily through the prevention of intestinal infections. More recent studies have implicated probiotic bacteria in a number of other beneficial effects within ...
Xie Changan - - 2005
We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively ...
Garrido Daniel - - 2005
Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1) is a probiotic strain capable of stimulating the immune system of the host and interfering with gastrointestinal pathogens. This study evaluates how the ingestion of different amounts of La1 influences the main bacterial populations of the fecal microbiota. Eight asymptomatic volunteers participated in the study. After ...
Wetzel Willi-Eckhard - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The retention and growth of cariogenic microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination. The authors to studied three species of oral microorganisms found at different places on toothbrush filaments. METHODS: The authors tested on patients 30 toothbrushes each of three different toothbrush types made by a single manufacturer. ...
Nga Been Hen - - 2005
Lactic acid bacteria are an important group of microorganisms, several of which are used in fermented food processes. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-invasive and non-colonising gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, the genome sequence of which has been established. A great deal is known about the genetics, vectors, gene expression systems ...
Channing Alan - - 2005
The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft ...
Cebula Thomas A - - 2005
Rapid advances in molecular and optical technologies over the past 10 years have dramatically impacted the way biologic research is conducted today. Examples include microarrays, capillary sequencing, optical mapping and real-time sequencing (Pyrosequencing). These technologies are capable of rapidly delivering massive amounts of genetic information and are becoming routine mainstays ...
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