Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 622
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Kindaichi Tomonori - - 2006
Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and uncultured Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) dominated in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Although two quantitative techniques gave the comparable results, the RTQ-PCR assay was easier and faster than the ...
Timmerman H M - - 2006
For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chickens. In a field trial with broilers, MSPB ...
Janssen M - - 2006
In food processing and preservation technology, models describing microbial proliferation in food products are a helpful tool to predict the microbial food safety and shelf life. In general, the available models consider microorganisms in pure culture. Thus, microbial interactions are ignored, which may lead to a discrepancy between model predictions ...
Grim J Norman - - 2006
During the past 16 years, the ciliate Balantidium jocularum has been collected from the intestines of many specimens of its fish host, Naso tonganus, all collected from the Great Barrier Reef near Lizard Island, Australia. Ciliates for this study of food consumption were isolated in 1988, 1989, 2003, and 2005. ...
Frankel Richard B - - 2006
Magnetotactic bacteria contain chains of magnetosomes that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. In two separate, recent papers, Scheffel et al. and Komeili et al. describe the roles of the proteins MamJ and MamK in magnetosome chain formation. Here, we describe the two studies and highlight questions that ...
Brul S - - 2006
In the food processing industry, unwanted occurrence and growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is a key concern. A prime example is the extremely heat resistant bacterial endospores, microbial survival structures, that create problems due to their ability to survive classical thermal treatments and their ability to subsequently germinate and ...
Parvez S - - 2006
Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid ...
Lopitz-Otsoa Fernando - - 2006
Kefir is a fermented milk beverage. The milk fermentation is achieved by the of kefir grains, a cluster of microorganisms held together by a polysaccharide matrix named kefiran. Kefir grains are an example of symbiosis between yeast and bacteria. They have been used over years to produce kefir, a fermented ...
Rasooly Avraham - - 2006
Biosensors are devices which combine a biochemical recognition element with a physical transducer. There are various types of biosensors, including electrochemical, acoustical, and optical sensors. Biosensors are used for medical applications and for environmental testing. Although biosensors are not commonly used for food microbial analysis, they have great potential for ...
Macpherson Andrew J - - 2006
The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they ...
Chattopadhyay M K - - 2006
Survival of bacteria at low temperatures provokes scientific interest because of several reasons. Investigations in this area promise insight into one of the mysteries of life science - namely, how the machinery of life operates at extreme environments. Knowledge obtained from these studies is likely to be useful in controlling ...
Lukwinski Angelina T - - 2006
The crucifer root maggot, Delia radicum, is an important pest of cruciferous crops; however, little is known about its digestive biochemistry or resident gut microbiota. A culturing approach was used to survey the types of micro organisms associated with eggs, midgut, and faeces of larvae feeding on rutabaga. All bacteria ...
Lei Yu - - 2006
A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to ...
Swennen Katrien - - 2006
The search for functional foods or functional food ingredients, i.e. foods or food ingredients that can enhance health, is beyond any doubt one of the leading trends in today's food industry. In this context, probiotics, i.e. living microbial food supplements, and prebiotics, i.e. non-digestible food ingredients, receive much attention. Both ...
Gibson Glenn R - - 2006
Prebiotics and probiotics are ingredients in the diet that strengthen beneficial microbes in the gut, especially bifidobacteria. This article discusses their effects on health and their use in infant formula and foods for children and adults. They may also have benefits for the elderly population, since bifidobacteria are known to ...
Donohue Diana C - - 2006
New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly being sought for novel probiotic products. Prior to the incorporation of novel strains into food or therapeutic products a careful evaluation of their efficacy is required and an assessment made as to whether they share the safety status of ...
Passoth Volkmar - - 2006
The ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala is frequently associated with food and feed products, either as a production organism or as a spoilage yeast. It belongs to the nonSaccharomyces wine yeasts and contributes to the wine aroma by the production of volatile compounds. The ability to grow in preserved food and ...
Noguchi Tamao - - 2006
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To ...
Clavel Thomas - - 2005
Dietary phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones, are used as food additives to prevent menopause-related disorders. In addition to other factors, their bioavailability strongly depends on the activity of intestinal bacteria but the underlying interactions remain poorly understood. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken with 39 postmenopausal women to characterize changes ...
Ha Eun-Mi - - 2005
Because the mucosal epithelia are in constant contact with large numbers of microorganisms, these surfaces must be armed with efficient microbial control systems. Here, we show that the Drosophila nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzyme, dual oxidase (dDuox), is indispensable for gut antimicrobial activities. Adult flies in which dDuox ...
Henriksson Anders - - 2005
This review examines current knowledge regarding the safety of probiotic bacteria in man. Tighter and more comprehensive standards and regulations will be developed as probiotic therapy moves from a limited number of products used in the food industry, into more defined therapeutic categories and more complex organisms. A new framework ...
Cotter Paul D - - 2005
Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food ...
Bhosale Prakash - - 2005
Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable ...
Commane Daniel - - 2005
Probiotic bacteria are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health benefit to the consumer. In the past it was suggested that they served to benefit the host primarily through the prevention of intestinal infections. More recent studies have implicated probiotic bacteria in a number of other beneficial effects within ...
Xie Changan - - 2005
We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively ...
Garrido Daniel - - 2005
Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1) is a probiotic strain capable of stimulating the immune system of the host and interfering with gastrointestinal pathogens. This study evaluates how the ingestion of different amounts of La1 influences the main bacterial populations of the fecal microbiota. Eight asymptomatic volunteers participated in the study. After ...
Wetzel Willi-Eckhard - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The retention and growth of cariogenic microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination. The authors to studied three species of oral microorganisms found at different places on toothbrush filaments. METHODS: The authors tested on patients 30 toothbrushes each of three different toothbrush types made by a single manufacturer. ...
Nga Been Hen - - 2005
Lactic acid bacteria are an important group of microorganisms, several of which are used in fermented food processes. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-invasive and non-colonising gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, the genome sequence of which has been established. A great deal is known about the genetics, vectors, gene expression systems ...
Channing Alan - - 2005
The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft ...
Cebula Thomas A - - 2005
Rapid advances in molecular and optical technologies over the past 10 years have dramatically impacted the way biologic research is conducted today. Examples include microarrays, capillary sequencing, optical mapping and real-time sequencing (Pyrosequencing). These technologies are capable of rapidly delivering massive amounts of genetic information and are becoming routine mainstays ...
Gibson G R - - 2005
Acute gut disorder is a cause for significant medicinal and economic concern. Certain individual pathogens of the gut, often transmitted in food or water, have the ability to cause severe discomfort. There is a need to manage such conditions more effectively. The route of reducing the risk of intestinal infections ...
Smits Gertien J - - 2005
The fungal spoilage of ingredients of food manufacture is an economic problem, often causes product loss and may constitute a health hazard. To effectively combat fungal food spoilage, a mechanistic understanding of tolerance for, and adaptation to, the preservation method used is crucial. Both are dependent on the genetic make-up ...
Ricke S C - - 2005
Successful control of foodborne pathogens requires placement of chemical and physical hurdles in the preharvest and postharvest food production sectors. Pathogens may also encounter indigenous antimicrobials in foods including certain botanical compounds that have historically been used for flavor enhancement as well as preservation. Chemical additives have traditionally included organic ...
de Las Rivas Blanca - - 2005
This study describes a simple and rapid multiplex-PCR method to determine the ability to produce histamine, tyramine and putrescine by bacteria. The assay is an improved method based on an assay designed for lactic acid bacteria. This improved method includes a pair of primers based on sequences from histidine decarboxylases ...
Rösch Petra - - 2005
Microorganisms, such as bacteria, which might be present as contamination inside an industrial food or pharmaceutical clean room process need to be identified on short time scales in order to minimize possible health hazards as well as production downtimes causing financial deficits. Here we describe the first results of single-particle ...
Pereg David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Probiotic dairy products are increasingly gaining popularity. Although the role of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of pediatric and antibiotic associated diarrhea is fairly well established, their role in the prevention of adult infectious diarrhea has not been well investigated. METHODS: Five hundred forty-one, young male military ...
Brink M M Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, W - - 2005
Probiotic and prebiotic products manufactured in South Africa were identified and health and content claims stated on the labels were evaluated according to available scientific evidence, the proposed South African regulations in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act No. 54 of 1972, www.doh.gov.za), and microbial assessment. The range of ...
Jenkins, Julie Kay
The demand for foods that provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition is on the rise. Prebiotics are non-viable food components that promote growth of a number of beneficial bacteria that naturally inhabit the human intestine. Some of these beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, are capable of ...
Luo, Hongliang
Most foods can be considered as ecosystems containing various microorganisms including pathogenic, spoilage, commensal microbes and fermentation starter cultures. Microbial biofilm ecosystems also form on the surfaces of processing equipment. The interactions among microbes and between microbes and various surfaces play an important role in the persistence and the prevalence ...
Champagne Claude P - - 2005
Probiotic cultures are increasingly being added to foods in order to develop products with health-promoting properties. Although the literature is abundant on the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus on health, little information is available on the challenges industry faces in adding these probiotic cultures to food products. The ...
Kumamoto Carol A - - 2005
Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, causes a wide variety of human diseases such as oral thrush and disseminated candidiasis. Many aspects of C. albicans physiology have been studied during liquid growth, but in its natural environment, the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host, the organism associates with surfaces. Growth ...
Nardi R M D - - 2005
AIMS: The aim of this work was to purify and characterize antibacterial compounds produced by Lactobacillus murinus strain L1. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antagonistic activity was observed in a deferred agar-spot assay against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but not against lactobacilli. The inhibitory activity occurred between pH 3.0 and 5.0, and ...
Corradini M G - - 2005
AIM: To develop a mathematical method to estimate non-isothermal microbial growth curves in foods from experiments performed under isothermal conditions and demonstrate the method's applicability with published growth data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Published isothermal growth curves of Pseudomonas spp. in refrigerated fish at 0-8 degrees C and Escherichia coli 1952 ...
Kogure H - - 2005
A novel microbial sensor containing a commercial baker's yeast with a high freeze tolerance was developed for visibly detecting inappropriate temperature control of food. When the yeast cells fermented glucose, the resulting gas production triggered the microbial sensor. The biosensor was a simple, small bag containing a solution of yeast ...
Stine Scott W - - 2005
The goal of this study was to assess the relative contribution of heterotrophic bacteria from various sources in the normal diet of an average person in the United States, due to concerns regarding the potential health implications of such bacteria in household tapwater. A literature search was conducted to determine ...
Puupponen-Pimiä Riitta - - 2005
Berry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and organic acids, which have antimicrobial activities against human pathogens. Among different berries and berry phenolics, cranberry, cloudberry, raspberry, strawberry and bilberry especially possess clear antimicrobial effects against, e.g. Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Complex phenolic polymers, like ellagitannins, are strong ...
Abee Tjakko - - 2004
Genome sequences are now available for many of the microbes that cause food-borne diseases. The information contained in pathogen genome sequences, together with the development of themed and whole-genome DNA microarrays and improved proteomics techniques, might provide tools for the rapid detection and identification of such organisms, for assessing their ...
Doyran S H - - 2004
The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission develops recommendations concerning risk management related to regulatory issues, on the basis of scientific advice provided by FAO and WHO. The complex question of anti-microbial resistance that requires a multidisciplinary approach, has been considered from different point of views in the framework of Codex, especially ...
Angulo F J - - 2004
Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is associated with anti-microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans. The use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is most clearly associated with anti-microbial resistance among Salmonella and Campylobacter isolated from humans, but also appears likely ...
Devlieghere F - - 2004
In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the moment of ingestion by the consumer. These changes are attributed to microbial proliferation, survival, ...
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