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Results 301 - 350 of 604
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Gibson Glenn R - - 2006
Prebiotics and probiotics are ingredients in the diet that strengthen beneficial microbes in the gut, especially bifidobacteria. This article discusses their effects on health and their use in infant formula and foods for children and adults. They may also have benefits for the elderly population, since bifidobacteria are known to ...
Donohue Diana C - - 2006
New species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria are constantly being sought for novel probiotic products. Prior to the incorporation of novel strains into food or therapeutic products a careful evaluation of their efficacy is required and an assessment made as to whether they share the safety status of ...
Passoth Volkmar - - 2006
The ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala is frequently associated with food and feed products, either as a production organism or as a spoilage yeast. It belongs to the nonSaccharomyces wine yeasts and contributes to the wine aroma by the production of volatile compounds. The ability to grow in preserved food and ...
Noguchi Tamao - - 2006
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To ...
Clavel Thomas - - 2005
Dietary phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones, are used as food additives to prevent menopause-related disorders. In addition to other factors, their bioavailability strongly depends on the activity of intestinal bacteria but the underlying interactions remain poorly understood. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken with 39 postmenopausal women to characterize changes ...
Ha Eun-Mi - - 2005
Because the mucosal epithelia are in constant contact with large numbers of microorganisms, these surfaces must be armed with efficient microbial control systems. Here, we show that the Drosophila nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzyme, dual oxidase (dDuox), is indispensable for gut antimicrobial activities. Adult flies in which dDuox ...
Henriksson Anders - - 2005
This review examines current knowledge regarding the safety of probiotic bacteria in man. Tighter and more comprehensive standards and regulations will be developed as probiotic therapy moves from a limited number of products used in the food industry, into more defined therapeutic categories and more complex organisms. A new framework ...
Cotter Paul D - - 2005
Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food ...
Bhosale Prakash - - 2005
Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids abundant in the human food supply. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin are major xanthophyll carotenoids in human plasma. The consumption of these xanthophylls is directly associated with reduction in the risk of cancers, cardiovascular disease, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract formation. Canthaxanthin and astaxanthin also have considerable ...
Commane Daniel - - 2005
Probiotic bacteria are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health benefit to the consumer. In the past it was suggested that they served to benefit the host primarily through the prevention of intestinal infections. More recent studies have implicated probiotic bacteria in a number of other beneficial effects within ...
Xie Changan - - 2005
We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively ...
Garrido Daniel - - 2005
Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1) is a probiotic strain capable of stimulating the immune system of the host and interfering with gastrointestinal pathogens. This study evaluates how the ingestion of different amounts of La1 influences the main bacterial populations of the fecal microbiota. Eight asymptomatic volunteers participated in the study. After ...
Wetzel Willi-Eckhard - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The retention and growth of cariogenic microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination. The authors to studied three species of oral microorganisms found at different places on toothbrush filaments. METHODS: The authors tested on patients 30 toothbrushes each of three different toothbrush types made by a single manufacturer. ...
Nga Been Hen - - 2005
Lactic acid bacteria are an important group of microorganisms, several of which are used in fermented food processes. Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic, non-invasive and non-colonising gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, the genome sequence of which has been established. A great deal is known about the genetics, vectors, gene expression systems ...
Channing Alan - - 2005
The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft ...
Cebula Thomas A - - 2005
Rapid advances in molecular and optical technologies over the past 10 years have dramatically impacted the way biologic research is conducted today. Examples include microarrays, capillary sequencing, optical mapping and real-time sequencing (Pyrosequencing). These technologies are capable of rapidly delivering massive amounts of genetic information and are becoming routine mainstays ...
Gibson G R - - 2005
Acute gut disorder is a cause for significant medicinal and economic concern. Certain individual pathogens of the gut, often transmitted in food or water, have the ability to cause severe discomfort. There is a need to manage such conditions more effectively. The route of reducing the risk of intestinal infections ...
Smits Gertien J - - 2005
The fungal spoilage of ingredients of food manufacture is an economic problem, often causes product loss and may constitute a health hazard. To effectively combat fungal food spoilage, a mechanistic understanding of tolerance for, and adaptation to, the preservation method used is crucial. Both are dependent on the genetic make-up ...
Ricke S C - - 2005
Successful control of foodborne pathogens requires placement of chemical and physical hurdles in the preharvest and postharvest food production sectors. Pathogens may also encounter indigenous antimicrobials in foods including certain botanical compounds that have historically been used for flavor enhancement as well as preservation. Chemical additives have traditionally included organic ...
de Las Rivas Blanca - - 2005
This study describes a simple and rapid multiplex-PCR method to determine the ability to produce histamine, tyramine and putrescine by bacteria. The assay is an improved method based on an assay designed for lactic acid bacteria. This improved method includes a pair of primers based on sequences from histidine decarboxylases ...
Rösch Petra - - 2005
Microorganisms, such as bacteria, which might be present as contamination inside an industrial food or pharmaceutical clean room process need to be identified on short time scales in order to minimize possible health hazards as well as production downtimes causing financial deficits. Here we describe the first results of single-particle ...
Pereg David - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Probiotic dairy products are increasingly gaining popularity. Although the role of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of pediatric and antibiotic associated diarrhea is fairly well established, their role in the prevention of adult infectious diarrhea has not been well investigated. METHODS: Five hundred forty-one, young male military ...
Brink M M Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, W - - 2005
Probiotic and prebiotic products manufactured in South Africa were identified and health and content claims stated on the labels were evaluated according to available scientific evidence, the proposed South African regulations in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act No. 54 of 1972, www.doh.gov.za), and microbial assessment. The range of ...
Jenkins, Julie Kay
The demand for foods that provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition is on the rise. Prebiotics are non-viable food components that promote growth of a number of beneficial bacteria that naturally inhabit the human intestine. Some of these beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, are capable of ...
Luo, Hongliang
Most foods can be considered as ecosystems containing various microorganisms including pathogenic, spoilage, commensal microbes and fermentation starter cultures. Microbial biofilm ecosystems also form on the surfaces of processing equipment. The interactions among microbes and between microbes and various surfaces play an important role in the persistence and the prevalence ...
Champagne Claude P - - 2005
Probiotic cultures are increasingly being added to foods in order to develop products with health-promoting properties. Although the literature is abundant on the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus on health, little information is available on the challenges industry faces in adding these probiotic cultures to food products. The ...
Kumamoto Carol A - - 2005
Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, causes a wide variety of human diseases such as oral thrush and disseminated candidiasis. Many aspects of C. albicans physiology have been studied during liquid growth, but in its natural environment, the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host, the organism associates with surfaces. Growth ...
Nardi R M D - - 2005
AIMS: The aim of this work was to purify and characterize antibacterial compounds produced by Lactobacillus murinus strain L1. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antagonistic activity was observed in a deferred agar-spot assay against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but not against lactobacilli. The inhibitory activity occurred between pH 3.0 and 5.0, and ...
Corradini M G - - 2005
AIM: To develop a mathematical method to estimate non-isothermal microbial growth curves in foods from experiments performed under isothermal conditions and demonstrate the method's applicability with published growth data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Published isothermal growth curves of Pseudomonas spp. in refrigerated fish at 0-8 degrees C and Escherichia coli 1952 ...
Kogure H - - 2005
A novel microbial sensor containing a commercial baker's yeast with a high freeze tolerance was developed for visibly detecting inappropriate temperature control of food. When the yeast cells fermented glucose, the resulting gas production triggered the microbial sensor. The biosensor was a simple, small bag containing a solution of yeast ...
Stine Scott W - - 2005
The goal of this study was to assess the relative contribution of heterotrophic bacteria from various sources in the normal diet of an average person in the United States, due to concerns regarding the potential health implications of such bacteria in household tapwater. A literature search was conducted to determine ...
Puupponen-Pimiä Riitta - - 2005
Berry fruits are rich sources of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and organic acids, which have antimicrobial activities against human pathogens. Among different berries and berry phenolics, cranberry, cloudberry, raspberry, strawberry and bilberry especially possess clear antimicrobial effects against, e.g. Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Complex phenolic polymers, like ellagitannins, are strong ...
Abee Tjakko - - 2004
Genome sequences are now available for many of the microbes that cause food-borne diseases. The information contained in pathogen genome sequences, together with the development of themed and whole-genome DNA microarrays and improved proteomics techniques, might provide tools for the rapid detection and identification of such organisms, for assessing their ...
Doyran S H - - 2004
The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission develops recommendations concerning risk management related to regulatory issues, on the basis of scientific advice provided by FAO and WHO. The complex question of anti-microbial resistance that requires a multidisciplinary approach, has been considered from different point of views in the framework of Codex, especially ...
Angulo F J - - 2004
Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is associated with anti-microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans. The use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is most clearly associated with anti-microbial resistance among Salmonella and Campylobacter isolated from humans, but also appears likely ...
Devlieghere F - - 2004
In contrast with most chemical hazardous compounds, the concentration of food pathogens changes during processing, storage, and meal preparation, making it difficult to estimate the number of microorganisms or the concentration of their toxins at the moment of ingestion by the consumer. These changes are attributed to microbial proliferation, survival, ...
Barreteau H - - 2004
Preservatives used in the Agro-food industries may be of natural origin or obtained chemically. Because of the increasing interest of consumers in food products that contain only natural ingredients, studies on preservative molecules of natural origin, such as organic acids or peptides, have been reported in the past several years. ...
Grant W D - - 2004
Two major types of environment provide habitats for the most xerophilic organisms known: foods preserved by some form of dehydration or enhanced sugar levels, and hypersaline sites where water availability is limited by a high concentration of salts (usually NaCl). These environments are essentially microbial habitats, with high-sugar foods being ...
Brummel Ted - - 2004
We researched the lifespan of Drosophila under axenic conditions compared with customary procedure. The experiments revealed that the presence of bacteria during the first week of adult life can enhance lifespan, despite unchanged food intake. Later in life, the presence of bacteria can reduce lifespan. Certain long-lived mutants react in ...
Ouwehand Arthur C - - 2004
Probiotics are commonly included in dairy products. These products require cold storage and transportation, which limits their use. Here, we describe the inclusion of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in a dry food matrix, an oat-based cereal bar, and its detection in faeces after consumption of this product. One ...
Lu Lingeng - - 2004
The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecule produced by bacteria as part of quorum sensing is considered to be a universal inducer signal in bacteria because it reportedly influences gene expression in a variety of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine whether selected fresh produce and ...
Prevot Michela Bianco - - 2004
The aim of this paper (presented in Rome, Italy, at the 2nd Congress of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and New Food, September 7-9, 2003) was to provide an objective view of the regulatory trends at the European level specifically referring to probiotics, because until now they have never been directly mentioned nor ...
Miraglia del Giudice M - - 2004
The probiotics are cultures of potentially beneficial bacteria that positively affects host by enhancing the microbial balance and therefore restore the normal intestinal permeability and gut microecology, improve the intestine's immunologic barrier function and reduce the generation of proinflammatory cycochines characteristics of allergic inflammation. The authors made a survey of ...
Jamuna M - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria have received increased attention as a potential food preservative due to their strong antagonistic activity against many food-spoilage and pathogenic organisms. Three Pediococcus species, P. acidilactici NCIM 2292 , P. pentosaceous. NCIM 2296 and P. cervisiae NCIM 2171, were evaluated for bacteriocin production. Inhibitory substance were produced ...
Smith James L - - 2004
Quorum sensing is a signaling mechanism through which bacteria modulate a number of cellular functions (genes), including sporulation, biofilm formation, bacteriocin production, virulence responses, as well as others. Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication and is mediated by extracellular chemical signals generated by the bacteria when specific cell ...
Giraffa Giorgio - - 2004
The dynamics of growth, survival and biochemical activity of microorganisms in food are the result of stress reactions in response to the changing of the physical and chemical conditions into the food microenvironment, the ability to colonise the food matrix and to growth into a spatial heterogeneity, and the in ...
Shanahan Fergus - - 2004
The intestinal flora has a conditioning effect on intestinal homeostasis, delivering regulatory signals to the epithelium, the mucosal immune system and to the neuromuscular activity of the gut. Beneficial metabolic activities of the enteric flora include nutrient production, metabolism of dietary carcinogens, conversion of prodrugs to active drugs. However, increasing ...
Siezen Roland J - - 2004
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely used in food fermentations and, more recently, as probiotics in health-promoting food products. Genome sequencing and functional genomics studies of a variety of LAB are now rapidly providing insights into their diversity and evolution and revealing the molecular basis for important traits such ...
Baillon Marie-Louise A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viability of a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus in a dry dog food, determine its ability to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and populate the colon, and assess its effects on intestinal and systemic parameters. ANIMALS: 15 adult dogs. PROCEDURE: Dogs were sequentially fed a dry ...
Olasupo N A - - 2004
The application of combined preservative factors (hurdle technology) is very effective in controlling the growth of food spoilage and foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of nisin alone and in combination with some natural organic compounds (carvacrol, cinnamic acid, eugenol, diacetyl, and thymol) on the growth of gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis ...
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