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Gobbetti M - - 2007
Although the study of quorum sensing is relatively recent, it has been well established that bacteria produce, release, detect and respond to small signalling hormone-like molecules called "autoinducers". When a critical threshold concentration of the signal molecule is achieved, bacteria detect its presence and initiate a signalling cascade resulting in ...
Gálvez Antonio - - 2007
Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity, produced by different groups of bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce bacteriocins with rather broad spectra of inhibition. Several LAB bacteriocins offer potential applications in food preservation, and the use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help to reduce ...
Sunny-Roberts E O - - 2008
Environmental osmotic changes are one of the stresses live probiotics may encounter either in their natural habitats or as a result of usage in food formulations and processing. Response to osmotic stress, induced by sucrose, of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 (E800) was investigated. The fluorescence-based approach used, ...
Booijink Carien C G M - - 2007
The gastrointestinal tract is the main site where the conversion and absorption of food components takes place. The host-derived physiological processes and the residing microorganisms, especially in the small intestine, contribute to this nutrient supply. To circumvent sampling problems of the small intestine, several model systems have been developed to ...
Guinane Caitriona M - - 2007
While the potential emergence of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria with resistance to lantibiotics is a concern, the creation of derivatives of starter cultures and adjuncts that can grow in the presence of these antimicrobials may have applications in food fermentations. Here a bank of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 mutants was ...
Königs Sascha - - 2007
Rates of bacteria ingestion by interstitial ciliates were estimated and compared to bacterial biomass and production. Investigation was carried out in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream. FISH was applied to quantitatively determine bacteria within the ciliate's food vacuoles. To estimate bacteria ingestion rates using FISH, we had to ...
Le Jeune Anne-Hélène - - 2007
It is generally agreed that autotrophic organisms and especially phytoplanktonic species can be harmed by copper through its effect on photosystem. However, the impact of copper on other components of the pelagic food web, such as the microbial loop (autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, pigmented and non-pigmented flagellates and ciliates) has ...
Lee Seung Woo - - 2008
The thin sheets of calcite in oyster shell in Crassostrea gigas are termed folia and comprise much of the oyster shell. The folia are covered by a layer of discrete globules that has been proposed to consist of aggregations of an organic matrix and minerals. A continuous organic framework divides ...
Katrlík Jaroslav - - 2007
Novel and selective microbial amperometric biosensors that use Gluconobacter oxydans cells to monitor the bacterial bioconversion of glycerol (Gly) to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) are described. Two different mediators, ferricyanide and flexible polyvinylimidazole osmium functionalized polymer (Os-polymer), were employed to prepare two different microbial biosensors, both of which gave high detection performance. ...
Delgado Amélia - - 2007
Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are ribosomally synthesized anti-microbial compounds that may find applications from food preservation to healthcare. Food preservation, using in situ bacteriocin production is the most obvious and simple. Frequently, the best conditions for bacteriocin production are those prevailing during food fermentation but a better understanding of ...
Park Jacqueline - - 2007
Microecology of the gastrointestinal tract is the physiologic basis for the effect of dietary fiber, prebiotics and probiotics on the host. The ecology consists of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the intestines, the foods that are fed into the tract, and the flora living within. Within this ecology, normal flora and ...
Pineiro Maya - - 2007
Following on from the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation and Working Group outputs on probiotics and their presentation to Codex, it is hoped that these will be used as a science-based risk assessment process for managerial decision on probiotics and that the "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food" will be ...
Rasch M - - 2007
AIM: To investigate the potential of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI) as food preservative agents in a food product, where bacterial spoilage is controlled by quorum sensing (QS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of well-known QSI were tested on spoilage phenotypes and on QS-regulated genes of a bean sprout spoiling bacterial ...
Aira Manuel - - 2007
Although microorganisms are largely responsible for organic matter decomposition, earthworms may also affect the rates of decomposition directly by feeding on and digesting organic matter and microorganisms, or indirectly affect them through their interactions with the microorganisms, basically involving stimulation or depression of the microbial populations. We tested the general ...
Franz Charles M A P - - 2007
Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria of importance in food, public health and medical microbiology. Many strains produce bacteriocins, some of which have been well characterized. This review describes the structural and genetic characteristics of enterocins, the bacteriocins produced by enterococci. Some of these can be grouped with typical bacteriocins produced ...
Fleet Graham H - - 2007
The role of yeasts in food and beverage production extends beyond the well-known bread, beer and wine fermentations. Molecular analytical technologies have led to a major revision of yeast taxonomy, and have facilitated the ecological study of yeasts in many other products. The mechanisms by which yeasts grow in these ...
Wehrl Markus - - 2007
Sponges (Porifera) are filter feeders that take up microorganisms from seawater and digest them by phagocytosis. At the same time, many sponges are known to harbor massive consortia of symbiotic microorganisms, which are phylogenetically distinct from those in seawater, within the mesohyl matrix. In the present study, feeding experiments were ...
Falcone Pasquale M - - 2007
Results of a study of the kinetics of bacterial inhibition by thymol in order to develop appropriate applications for the compound in food systems are presented. A modeling-based approach was used to provide a quantitative description of the antimicrobial activity of thymol toward some foodborne pathogens and hygiene-indicating bacteria, which ...
Ezendam J
Probiotics are non-pathogenic bacteria that are used as functional food components with claimed health-promoting effects. In the European Union probiotics are regulated via the Novel Foods Regulation (258/97/EC). This regulation is only applied to strains that were not used before 1997 and concerns novel foods or food ingredients. However, probiotic ...
Hau Heidi H - - 2007
The shewanellae are aquatic microorganisms with worldwide distribution. Their hallmark features include unparalleled respiratory diversity and the capacity to thrive at low temperatures. As a genus the shewanellae are physiologically diverse, and this review provides an overview of the varied roles they serve in the environment and describes what is ...
Khan Shoaib Haroon - - 2007
With the growing interest in self-care and integrative medicine coupled with our health-embracing increasing population, recognition of the link between diet and health has never been stronger. As a result, the market for functional foods, or foods that promote health beyond providing basic nutrition, is flourishing. Within the functional foods ...
De Vuyst Luc - - 2007
In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in ...
Kang Jeong-Hun - - 2007
Bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane], which is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, is a known endocrine disruptor and is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Due to intensified usage of these products, exposure of organisms to BPA via several routes, such as the environment and food, ...
Roeselers Guus - - 2007
We investigated the genotypic diversity of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in microbial mat samples collected from three hot spring localities on the east coast of Greenland. These hot springs harbour unique Arctic microbial ecosystems that have never been studied in detail before. Specific oligonucleotide primers for cyanobacteria, purple sulfur ...
Galluzzi Luca - - 2007
Traditionally the detection of microbial pathogens in clinical, environmental or food samples has commonly needed the prelevation of cells by culture before the application ofthe detection strategy. This is done to increase cell number thereby overcoming problems associated with the sensitivity of classical detection strategies. However, culture-based methods have the ...
Parker Jeremy D K - - 2007
NIMA-related kinases (Neks) have been studied in diverse eukaryotes, including the fungus Aspergillus and the ciliate Tetrahymena. In the former, a single Nek plays an essential role in cell cycle regulation; in the latter, which has more than 30 Neks in its genome, multiple Neks regulate ciliary length. Mammalian genomes ...
Settanni L - - 2007
Regarding food safety, rapid detection of microbial species is crucial to develop effective preventive and/or adjustment measures. Classical methods for determining the presence of certain species are time-consuming and labor-intensive, hence, molecular methods, which offer speed, sensitivity and specificity, have been developed to address this problem. Multiplex PCR (MPCR) is ...
Schmidt Alexander R - - 2006
Amber provides an effective medium for conservation of soft-bodied microorganisms, but finds older than 135 million years are very rare and have not so far contained any microbial inclusions. Here we describe 220-million-year-old droplets of amber containing bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoans that are assignable to extant genera. These inclusions ...
Lavermicocca Paola - - 2006
The understanding that probiotic foods can have beneficial effects on health has recently led to an increase in consumer demand for such products, thus enhancing their commercial value. Daily intake of probiotic micro-organisms, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, contributes to maintaining and improving the balance of intestinal microbe populations, and ...
del Giudice Michele Miraglia - - 2006
The frequent development of allergic respiratory diseases in patients with histories of atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood has been known for a long time. At school age, AD has been associated with an increased risk of asthma, and was thus regarded as one of the first steps in a ...
Vadasz Peter - - 2007
An autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts model (Int. J. Food Microbiology, 23, 1994, pp. 277-294) is developed and analyzed to reveal some subtle points, which are difficult to observe accurately from its equivalent non-autonomous form. In particular we are able to provide a meaningful interpretation to the "physiological state ...
Yan Fang - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A disturbance in microbial balance of the gastrointestinal tract is often associated with diarrhea. Therefore, probiotics, as beneficial microorganisms for host health, have attracted clinical attention for their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of diarrhea. This review focuses on new research findings relevant to the effects ...
Liu M - - 2006
Proteolytic pseudomonads dominate the spoilage flora of aerobically chill-stored proteinaceous raw foods. Proteolysis during spoilage of these food systems affects both food quality and the dynamics of the bacterial community because it increases the availability of nutrients to the community as a whole. Quorum sensing, or cell-cell signaling, is associated ...
Wagner Robert Doug - - 2006
Competitive exclusion (CE) products are anaerobic cultures of bacteria that are applied to poultry hatchlings to establish a protective enteric microbiota that excludes intestinal colonization by human food-borne pathogens. For safety of the poultry flock and human consumers, the identities of bacteria in CE products need to be known. A ...
Xiang Hui - - 2006
We compared the bacterial communities in the larval midgut of field and laboratory populations of a polyphagous pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences and 16S library sequence analysis. DGGE profiles and 16S rDNA library sequence analysis indicated similar patterns ...
Vila-Costa Maria - - 2006
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) accounts for most of the organic sulfur fluxes from primary to secondary producers in marine microbial food webs. Incubations of natural communities and axenic cultures with radio-labeled DMSP showed that dominant phytoplankton groups of the ocean, the unicellular cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus and diatoms, as well as heterotrophic ...
Bottari Benedetta - - 2006
In order to identify and quantify the microorganisms present in a certain ecosystem, it has become necessary to develop molecular methods avoiding cultivation, which allows to characterize only the countable part of the microorganisms in the sample, therefore losing the information related to the microbial component which presents a vitality ...
Goldman Cinthia G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Current recommendations for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection include a proton pump inhibitor in combination with two antibiotics. We evaluated the potential activity of a probiotic food as an adjuvant to antibiotic triple therapy for eradication of H. pylori infection in children from Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: Sixty-five children ...
Kindaichi Tomonori - - 2006
Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and uncultured Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) dominated in autotrophic nitrifying biofilms were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Although two quantitative techniques gave the comparable results, the RTQ-PCR assay was easier and faster than the ...
Timmerman H M - - 2006
For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chickens. In a field trial with broilers, MSPB ...
Janssen M - - 2006
In food processing and preservation technology, models describing microbial proliferation in food products are a helpful tool to predict the microbial food safety and shelf life. In general, the available models consider microorganisms in pure culture. Thus, microbial interactions are ignored, which may lead to a discrepancy between model predictions ...
Grim J Norman - - 2006
During the past 16 years, the ciliate Balantidium jocularum has been collected from the intestines of many specimens of its fish host, Naso tonganus, all collected from the Great Barrier Reef near Lizard Island, Australia. Ciliates for this study of food consumption were isolated in 1988, 1989, 2003, and 2005. ...
Frankel Richard B - - 2006
Magnetotactic bacteria contain chains of magnetosomes that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole in each cell. In two separate, recent papers, Scheffel et al. and Komeili et al. describe the roles of the proteins MamJ and MamK in magnetosome chain formation. Here, we describe the two studies and highlight questions that ...
Brul S - - 2006
In the food processing industry, unwanted occurrence and growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms is a key concern. A prime example is the extremely heat resistant bacterial endospores, microbial survival structures, that create problems due to their ability to survive classical thermal treatments and their ability to subsequently germinate and ...
Parvez S - - 2006
Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid ...
Lopitz-Otsoa Fernando - - 2006
Kefir is a fermented milk beverage. The milk fermentation is achieved by the of kefir grains, a cluster of microorganisms held together by a polysaccharide matrix named kefiran. Kefir grains are an example of symbiosis between yeast and bacteria. They have been used over years to produce kefir, a fermented ...
Rasooly Avraham - - 2006
Biosensors are devices which combine a biochemical recognition element with a physical transducer. There are various types of biosensors, including electrochemical, acoustical, and optical sensors. Biosensors are used for medical applications and for environmental testing. Although biosensors are not commonly used for food microbial analysis, they have great potential for ...
Macpherson Andrew J - - 2006
The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they ...
Chattopadhyay M K - - 2006
Survival of bacteria at low temperatures provokes scientific interest because of several reasons. Investigations in this area promise insight into one of the mysteries of life science - namely, how the machinery of life operates at extreme environments. Knowledge obtained from these studies is likely to be useful in controlling ...
Lukwinski Angelina T - - 2006
The crucifer root maggot, Delia radicum, is an important pest of cruciferous crops; however, little is known about its digestive biochemistry or resident gut microbiota. A culturing approach was used to survey the types of micro organisms associated with eggs, midgut, and faeces of larvae feeding on rutabaga. All bacteria ...
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