Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 623
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Miliotis M - - 2008
Microbial risk assessment (MRA) is a systematic tool to evaluate the likelihood of exposure to food-borne pathogens and the resulting impact of exposure on consumer health. In addition, MRA can be used to evaluate the public health impact of intervention or control measures designed to prevent or reduce pathogens at ...
Torres César I - - 2008
Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) are able to transfer electrons from reduced substrates to a solid electrode. Previously, we developed a biofilm model based on the Nernst-Monod equation to describe the anode potential losses of ARB that transfer electrons through a solid conductive matrix. In this work, we develop an experimental setup ...
Landete José María - - 2008
Histamine poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing high levels of histamine, a biogenic amine. Histamine could be expected in virtually all foods that contain proteins or free histidine and that are subject to conditions enabling microbial activity. In most histamine-containing foods the majority of the histamine is ...
Walsh Ciara - - 2008
The widespread use of antibiotics in food animal production systems has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic resistant zoonotic bacteria that can be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Infection with antibiotic resistant bacteria negatively impacts on public health, due to an increased incidence of treatment failure and severity ...
Zhu Yang - - 2008
Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) initially attracted interest because of its ability to reconstitute small pieces of meat into a 'steak'. The extremely high cost of transglutaminase of animal origin has hampered its wider application and has initiated efforts to find an enzyme of microbial origin. Since the early 1990s, many microbial ...
Wassenaar Trudy M - - 2008
The application of living bacteria as probiotics in food or food supplements requires a careful safety assessment. This review summarizes key issues concerning the safety aspects of bacteria added to particular products marketed for improvement of general health or treatment of (post)infectious symptoms. The bacteria used in such products should ...
Rouse Susan - - 2008
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are naturally associated with many foods or their raw ingredients and are popularly used in food fermentation to enhance the sensory, aromatic, and textural properties of food. These microorganisms are well recognized for their biopreservative properties, which are achieved through the production of antimicrobial compounds such ...
Arakawa K - - 2008
Custard cream is made from highly nutritive raw materials such as milk and sugar and is easily spoiled by the multiplication of specific microbial contaminants or residents. However, this spoilage microbial community has not been studied. We determined the spoilage microbiota in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. ...
Jolivet Aurélie - - 2008
It is generally accepted that the formation of otolith microstructures (L- and D-zones) and in particular the organic and mineral fractions vary on a daily basis. Raman microspectrometry provides a nondestructive technique that can be used to provide structural information on organic and mineral compounds. We applied it to thin ...
da Silva Ligia V Antonia - - 2008
The microbial safety and quality of smoked blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) steaks treated with antimicrobials and antioxidants were examined during 6-week ambient storage. Five pre-smoking soaking treatments were applied: 25% NaCl and 1% ascorbic acid for 30 min or 1h, 3% sodium lactate with or without 5% rosemary extract for ...
Rittmann Bruce E - - 2008
Microorganisms can produce renewable energy in large quantities and without damaging the environment or disrupting food supply. The microbial communities must be robust and self-stabilizing, and their essential syntrophies must be managed. Pre-genomic, genomic and post-genomic tools can provide crucial information about the structure and function of these microbial communities. ...
Charlier C - - 2009
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive opportunistic pathogen and a major concern for both animal and human health worldwide. In some contexts where Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are the normal dominant microbiota, such as in fermented food or in the vaginal ecosystem, S. aureus sometimes colonises, persists, expresses virulence factors ...
Toh Soo Min - - 2008
The present study investigated how key organizational contextual factors relate to bundles of human resource (HR) practices. In a two-phase study of a sample of 661 organizations representing a full range of industries and organizational size, the authors found that organizations use 1 of 5 HR bundles: cost minimizers, contingent ...
Ammor Mohammed Salim - - 2008
Food spoilage is a consequence of the degrading enzymatic activity of some food-associated bacteria. Several proteolytic, lipolytic, chitinolytic, and pectinolytic activities associated with the deterioration of goods are regulated by quorum sensing, suggesting a potential role of such cell-to-cell communication in food spoilage. Here we review quorum sensing signaling molecules ...
Rivera-Espinoza Yadira - - 2010
There is evidence documenting the beneficial health effects of probiotic microorganisms. Also, many studies have reported that the best matrices to deliver probiotic are dairy fermented products. However, recently several raw materials have been extensively investigated to determine if they are suitable substrates to produce novel non-dairy probiotic microorganisms, and ...
Sumeri Ingrid - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to design an in vitro model system to evaluate the probiotic potential of food. A single bioreactor system-gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS) was chosen for process simulation on account of its considerable simplicity compared to multi-vessel systems used in previous studies. The bioreactor was ...
Czarnecki-Maulden G L - - 2008
An optimal balance of intestinal microbiota is necessary for digestive and immune health. Poor performance, susceptibility to infections, and decreased growth rate can be signs of an imbalanced microbiome. Dietary strategies to establish and maintain an optimal balance of microbiota include prebiotics (food for indigenous microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract) ...
Eeckhaut Ellen - - 2008
Estrogenic plant compounds from the human diet such as the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, 1) can exert biological activity in the human body upon ingestion and bioactivation to enterodiol (END, 5) and enterolactone (ENL, 6). Bioavailability of lignans is influenced by the food matrix and gut microbial action, of which ...
Mai Huong Ly
Bacteria possess physicochemical surface properties such as hydrophobicity, Lewis acid/base and charge which are involved in physicochemical interactions between cells and interfaces. Moreover, food matrices are complex and heterogeneous media, with a microstructure depending on interactions between the components in media (van der Waals, electrostatic or structural forces, etc.). Despite ...
Lekfeldt Jonas Duus Stevens - - 2008
Flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil. Because of their high growth rates, flagellate populations respond rapidly to changes in bacterial numbers. Previous results indicate that actinobacteria are generally less suitable than proteobacteria as food for flagellates. In this study, we investigated the growth of the flagellate Cercomonas ...
Leucht Christoph - - 2008
The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is a long-lasting organizing center in the vertebrate neural tube that is both necessary and sufficient for the ordered development of midbrain and anterior hindbrain (midbrain-hindbrain domain, MH). The MHB also coincides with a pool of progenitor cells that contributes neurons to the entire MH. Here ...
Wu V C H - - 2008
The existence of injured microorganisms in food and their recovery during culturing procedures is critical. Microbial injury is characterized by the capability of a microorganism to return to normalcy during a resuscitation process in which the damaged essential components are repaired. Injury of microorganisms can be induced by sublethal heat, ...
Justé A - - 2008
In the last two decades major changes have occurred in how microbial ecologists study microbial communities. Limitations associated with traditional culture-based methods have pushed for the development of culture-independent techniques, which are primarily based on the analysis of nucleic acids. These methods are now increasingly applied in food microbiology as ...
Antwi M - - 2008
The effect of monopotassium phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) on the chemical environment and on growth of Listeria innocua and Lactococcus lactis in coculture were investigated in a liquid and in a gelled microbiological medium at 12 degrees C and an initial pH of 6.2. As expected, addition of KH(2)PO(4) to both the ...
Knapp B A - - 2008
The earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, plays an essential role in soil ecosystems as it affects organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. By ingesting a mixture of organic and mineral material, a variety of bacteria and fungi are carried to the intestinal tract of the earthworm. To get a better understanding of ...
Vaikousi Hariklia - - 2008
A time/temperature indicator (TTI) system based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain was developed for monitoring food quality throughout the chilled-food chain. In the designed system, an irreversible color change of a chemical chromatic indicator (from red to yellow) progressively occurs due to the pH ...
Depeint Flore - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Galactooligosaccharides are selectively fermented by the beneficial member of the colonic microflora contributing to the health of the host. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prebiotic potential of a novel galactooligosaccharide produced through the action of beta-galactosidases, originating from a probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum strain, against a galactooligosaccharide produced through the action ...
Lasch Peter - - 2008
Identification of microorganisms, specifically of vegetative cells and spores, by intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) is an emerging new technology. The technique provides specific biomarker profiles which can be employed for bacterial identification at the genus, species, or even at the subspecies level holding the potential to serve as a ...
Zhou Xu-Xia - - 2008
Apidaecins are heat-stable, nonhelical antibacterial peptides isolated from lymph fluid of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). These peptides are active against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria and they are the most prominent components of the honeybee humoral defense against microbial invasion. In the present study, one isoform of apidaecin, apidaecin ...
Cockell Charles S - - 2008
Microorganisms from diverse environments actively bore into rocks, contributing significantly to rock weathering. Carbonates are the most common substrate into which they bore, although there are also reports of microbial borings into volcanic glass. One of the most intriguing questions in microbial evolutionary biology is why some microorganisms bore. A ...
Flint Harry J - - 2008
The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown--a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have ...
Hibberd Patricia L - - 2008
Probiotics have been in widespread use since ancient times and are increasingly being consumed to maintain health and to prevent and treat a wide range of conditions. In the United States, probiotics are considered to be foods or biologics, depending on their intended use. This article addresses the similarities and ...
Amagase Harunobu - - 2008
In Japan, probiotics are available as both foods and drugs. Unlike in the United States, probiotics have a long history of cultural acceptance and safe use in Japan. Sales are booming, which may reflect the inception of the regulatory category "foods for specialized health use" (FOSHU), which permits labeling with ...
Saxelin Maija - - 2008
Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics ...
Perrier, Clémentine
The mucosal immune system associated to the gastrointestinal mucosa must efficiently distinguish between innocuous antigens, such as food proteins and commensal bacteria and potentially infectious agents. The work presented here deals with these two essential aspects guaranteeing intestinal homeostasis. In the first part of this work, the protective properties of ...
Tamao Noguch
Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX ...
P. Patel
The purpose of this study was to develop a chocolate mousse having probiotic and prebiotic ingredients added and verify the perspectives of the product with regard to potential for consumer health benefits and sensory acceptance. Probiotic and synbiotic chocolate mousse supplemented with <I>Lactobacillus paracasei</I> subsp. <I>paracasei</I> (P) or together with ...
Corcoran B M - - 2008
The continuing expansion of interest in probiotic bacteria has led to an increase in manufactured Functional Foods and medicines containing these bacteria. Given the intestinal origin of these microorganisms, the challenges these sensitive bacteria face in order to be in a highly viable state throughout processing, storage and gastrointestinal transit ...
Goderska Kamila - - 2008
Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 ...
Hijova E - - 2008
Globally, colorectal cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to malignant diseases. Probiotics are live microbial food supplements or functional foods containing specific nonpathogenic organisms that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Therefore they can be used as an innovative tools to alleviate intestinal inflammation, ...
Galvez Antonio - - 2008
Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides or proteins produced by strains of diverse bacterial species. The antimicrobial activity of this group of natural substances against foodborne pathogenic, as well as spoilage bacteria, has raised considerable interest for their application in food preservation. Application of bacteriocins may help reduce the use of chemical ...
Sanchez Borja - - 2008
Bifidobacteria are commensal microorganisms of the human gastrointestinal tract which are largely being used in functional foods. Some strains are considered as probiotics since they beneficially affect the composition and the metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota, as well as the health status of the host. The lack of genetic tools ...
Tinh Nguyen Thi Ngoc - - 2008
During the past two decades, the use of probiotics as an alternative to the use of antibiotics has shown to be promising in aquaculture, particularly in fish and shellfish larviculture. This article reviews the studies on probiotics in larviculture, focusing on the current knowledge of their in vivo mechanisms of ...
Garriga Turón, Margarita
High hydrostatic pressure is being increasingly investigated in food processing. It causes microbial inactivation and therefore extends the shelf life and enhances the safety of food products. Yeasts, molds, and vegetative cells of bacteria can be inactivated by pressures in the range of 200 to 700 MPa. Microorganisms are more ...
Yang Liju - - 2008
The realization of rapid, sensitive, and specific methods to detect foodborne pathogenic bacteria is central to implementing effective practice to ensure food safety and security. As a principle of transduction, the impedance technique has been applied in the field of microbiology as a means to detect and/or quantify foodborne pathogenic ...
Valdramidis V P - - 2007
AIMS: In previous studies the microbial kinetics of Escherichia coli K12 have been evaluated under static and dynamic conditions (Valdramidis et al. 2005, 2006). An acquired microbial thermotolerance following heating rates lower than 0.82 degrees C min(-1) for the studied micro-organism was observed. Quantification of this induced physiological phenomenon and ...
García-Cañas Virginia - - 2007
This work reviews the different analytical strategies based on capillary electromigration techniques developed for detecting microbial contaminants and their products in food matrices. Namely, this work presents an exhaustive and critical review, including works published till March 2007, on CE methods developed to detect and identify contaminants of microbial origin ...
Tzounis Xenofon - - 2008
We have investigated the bacterial-dependent metabolism of ( - )-epicatechin and (+)-catechin using a pH-controlled, stirred, batch-culture fermentation system reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of ( - )-epicatechin or (+)-catechin (150 mg/l or 1000 mg/l) with faecal bacteria, led to the generation of 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, ...
Kolida Sofia - - 2007
The human gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health through its ability to digest food ingredients and manufacture metabolites. This can be positive or negative for host welfare. Moreover, the microflora plays an active role in host defense whereby colonization resistance affords protection against pathogens. Prebiotics are nondigestible ...
Rouse S - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate antifungal activity produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from malted cereals and to determine if such LAB have the capacity to prevent fungal growth in a particular food model system. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of pH, temperature and carbon source on production of antifungal activity ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >