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Mombelli B - - 2000
Probiotics are defined as living organisms, beneficial to health when ingested. Different species of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria or yeasts have been proposed for human use. These microorganisms differ from each other and it is, therefore, unlikely that they will act in the same way. Probiotics could be ...
Kuipers O P - - 2000
Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in microbial physiology and genomic research of these organisms ...
Verschuere L - - 2000
There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be ...
Veal D A - - 2000
Large numbers of microbiological samples are analysed annually using traditional culture-based techniques. These techniques take hours to days to yield a result, are tedious and are not suitable for non-culturable microorganisms. Further, culture-based techniques do not provide real-time information on the physiological status of the organism in situ which is ...
Buchanan R L - - 2000
Characterizations of the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are dependent on the availability of information on the population's exposure to the biological agents. However, by itself, exposure data are insufficient to assess the public health impact of pathogenic microorganisms. This requires the availability of effective dose-response models. Successful development of ...
Lammerding A M - - 2000
The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and/or microbial toxins. This paper ...
Tedeschi L O - - 2000
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) prediction of fiber digestion and microbial mass production from ruminally degraded carbohydrate has been adjusted to accommodate a ruminal N deficiency. The steps for the adjustment are as follows: 1) the ruminal available peptide and ammonia pools are used to determine the ...
Wouters J A - - 2000
There is a considerable interest in the cold adaptation of food-related bacteria, including starter cultures for industrial food fermentations, food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. Mechanisms that permit low-temperature growth involve cellular modifications for maintaining membrane fluidity, the uptake or synthesis of compatible solutes, the maintenance of the structural integrity ...
Roberfroid M B - - 2000
A probiotic is a viable microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affects the host through its effects in the intestinal tract. Probiotics are widely used to prepare fermented dairy products such as yogurt or freeze-dried cultures. In the future, they may also be found in fermented vegetables and meats. Several health-related ...
Konings W N - - 2000
Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are widely used in the manufacturing of fermented food and are among the best-studied microorganisms. Detailed knowledge of a number of physiological traits has opened new potential applications for these organisms in the food industry, while other traits might be beneficial for human health. Important new ...
Griffiths M W - - 2000
Considerable emphasis is being placed on quantitative risk assessment modelling as a basis for regulation of trade in food products. However, for models to be accurate, information about the behaviour of potential pathogens in foods needs to be available. The question is how to obtain this knowledge in a simple ...
Shah N P - - 2000
A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability ...
Ruijssenaars H J - - 2000
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria, which are common in fermented foods, are claimed to have various beneficial physiological effects on humans. Although the biodegradability of EPSs is important in relation to the bioactive properties, knowledge on this topic is limited. Therefore, the biodegradability of eight EPSs, six of ...
Magot M - - 2000
Although the importance of bacterial activities in oil reservoirs was recognized a long time ago, our knowledge of the nature and diversity of bacteria growing in these ecosystems is still poor, and their metabolic activities in situ largely ignored. This paper reviews our current knowledge about these bacteria and emphasises ...
Kailasapathy K - - 2000
The present paper provides an overview on the use of probiotic organisms as live supplements, with particular emphasis on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. The therapeutic potential of these bacteria in fermented dairy products is dependent on their survival during manufacture and storage. Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used in food ...
Rhoades J - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine whether chitosan (poly-beta-1,4-glucosamine) and hydrolysates of chitosan can be used as novel preservatives in foods. Chitosan was hydrolyzed by using oxidative-reductive degradation, crude papaya latex, and lysozyme. Mild hydrolysis of chitosan resulted in improved microbial inactivation in saline and greater inhibition of ...
Gould G W - - 2000
Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of ...
Bengmark S - - 2000
The colonic mucosa is unable to nourish itself from the blood. Instead, its nutritive demand must be met from the lumen, where different nutrients, short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, polyamines, growth factors, vitamins, and antioxidants are produced by a nonpathogenic (commensal, so-called "protective" probiotic) flora. The substrates for the production ...
Dooley J S - - 2000
Microbes share our food whether we want them to or not. We need to control microbial proliferation in foods in order to avoid spoilage, to enhance flavour and, most importantly, to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. A broad spectrum of interventions are available to control microbial growth, but the ...
Ames J M - - 1999
The Maillard reaction produces coloured, macromolecular materials (melanoidins) in a variety of foods, on heating. Significant quantities may enter the human gut on a daily basis, but there is little information on their metabolism in the human colon. As the large bowel contains a diverse population of bacteria involved in ...
von Wright A - - 1999
Human intestinal microflora is a complex ecosystem with hundreds of bacterial species. Its metabolic functions and interactions with the host probably affect the human health and well being, but these effects are extremely difficult to study. However, for about 100 years, the idea of modifying the composition of colonic flora ...
Luchsinger R H - - 1999
Most bacteria in the ocean can be motile. Chemotaxis allows bacteria to detect nutrient gradients, and hence motility is believed to serve as a method of approaching sources of food. This picture is well established in a stagnant environment. In the ocean a shear microenvironment is associated with turbulence. This ...
van Kranenburg R - - 1999
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are used in the food industry for their unique properties as viscosifiers, stabilisers, emulsifiers or gelling agents. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of the genetics and biochemistry of microbial EPS synthesis by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria has been made. Biosynthesis pathways have been ...
Kuipers O P - - 1999
Functional genomics is currently the most effective approach for increasing the knowledge at the molecular level of metabolic and adaptive processes in whole cells. High-throughput technologies, such as DNA microarrays, and improved two-dimensional electrophoresis methods combined with tandem mass-spectroscopy, supported by bioinformatics, are useful tools for food biotechnology, which depends ...
Schmidt-Dannert C - - 1999
Lipases, mainly of microbial origin, represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry. Modern methods of genetic engineering combined with an increasing knowledge of structure and function will allow further adaptation to industrial needs and exploration of novel applications. Production of such tailored lipases ...
Hugenholtz J - - 1999
Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis are the microorganisms of choice for performing metabolic engineering in relation to food fermentation. These bacteria are used extensively in food fermentations, they have a simple and therefore controllable metabolism and the molecular genetics of these food bacteria is well-developed. There have been ...
Martens D E - - 1999
Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus curvatus and Enterobacter cloacae were chosen as a model system to quantitatively study microbial interactions involved in food spoilage and food preservation. In this paper models were developed to predict the individual behaviour of L. curvatus and E. cloacae in pure suspension cultures as a function ...
Brul S - - 1999
Preservative agents are required to ensure that manufactured foods remain safe and unspoiled. In this review, we will discuss the mode of action of both chemical and biological (nature-derived) preservatives and the stress response mechanisms induced by these compounds in microorganisms of concern to the food industry. We will discuss ...
Roller S - - 1999
A thorough understanding of the physiological responses of microorganisms to stresses imposed during food preservation is essential if novel combination systems based on mild food processing procedures are to be developed effectively. The influences of intrinsic characteristics as well as external factors such as water activity, temperature, preservatives, composition of ...
Kilsby D C - - 1999
Food microbiology has become a mature science in the twentieth century and has made great advances. While recognising these achievements, it is also necessary to consider how the science may need to change. This paper addresses this by reference to three areas. These are possible changes in foodborne diseases of ...
Hammond K A - - 1999
Individuals within a species, living across a wide range of habitats, often display a great deal of phenotypic plasticity for organ mass and function. We investigated the extent to which changes in organ mass are variable, corresponding to environmental demand, across an altitudinal gradient. Are there changes in the mass ...
Korpi A - - 1999
The authors investigated the ability/potencies of 3 microbial volatile organic compounds and a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds to cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation (i.e., sensory irritation), with an animal bioassay. The authors estimated potencies by determining the concentration capable of decreasing the respiratory frequency of ...
Biebl H - - 1999
1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) production by fermentation of glycerol was described in 1881 but little attention was paid to this microbial route for over a century. Glycerol conversion to 1,3-PD can be carried out by Clostridia as well as Enterobacteriaceae. The main intermediate of the oxidative pathway is pyruvate, the further utilization ...
Kirjavainen P V - - 1999
In humans, microbial colonization of the intestine begins just after birth. However, development of the normal flora is a gradual process, which is initially determined by factors such as composition of the maternal gut microflora, environment and possibly also by genetic aspects. A number of variables, such as the degree ...
Blum S - - 1999
The intestinal mucosal surface is colonised by the comensal microflora that attains very high numbers of bacterial cells in the distal intestine, more specifically in the colon. At the same time these extensive areas are the interface with the external environment, through which most pathogens initiate infectious processes in mammals. ...
Brul S - - 1999
Fungal spoilage forms an increasing economic problem in the food industry. Chemical antifungals are becoming less attractive as food preservatives and hygiene agents due to the development of resistance and due to stricter legal regulations concerning the permitted concentrations. Finally, consumers tend to demand more "naturally preserved" or preservative-free products. ...
Noble P A - - 1999
Microbiological impedance devices are used routinely by food and manufacturing industries, and public health agencies to measure microbial growth and metabolism. In this paper a hypothetical model explaining the effects of microbial growth and metabolism on capacitance at electrode-medium interfaces, that can be supported by fundamental theories and principles of ...
Ross R P - - 1999
While much of the applied research carried out to date with bacteriocins has concerned nisin, lactococci produce other bacteriocins with economic potential. An example is the two component bacteriocin lacticin 3147, which is active over a wide pH range and has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria. Since ...
Kozlovsky Y - - 1999
Various bacterial strains (e.g., strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia, and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semisolid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. A central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of a lubricant on top of the agar which ...
Giuliano L - - 1999
During the EOCUMM '94 cruise, 15 stations located in the Eolian Islands area (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) were sampled to analyse the distributions of the total bacterioplankton densities and the heterotrophic viable bacteria counts on Marine Agar 2216. According to the TS (temperature-salinity) diagrams, obtained by processing the CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) vertical ...
Franz C M - - 1999
Enterococci are gram-positive bacteria and fit within the general definition of lactic acid bacteria. Modern classification techniques resulted in the transfer of some members of the genus Streptococcus, notably some of the Lancefield's group D streptococci, to the new genus Enterococcus. Enterococci can be used as indicators of faecal contamination. ...
Staley J T - - 1999
This review introduces the subjects of bacterial biodiversity and biogeography. Studies of biogeography are important for understanding biodiversity, the occurrence of threatened species, and the ecological role of free-living and symbiotic prokaryotes. A set of postulates is proposed for biogeography as a guide to determining whether prokaryotes are "cosmopolitan" (found ...
Ennahar S - - 1999
In the last decade, a variety of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, or bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been identified and characterized. As a result of these studies, insight has been gained into various fundamental aspects of biology and biochemistry such as bacteriocin processing and secretion, mechanisms of cell ...
Reid D S - - 1999
The primary concern in food safety issues focuses on microorganisms and microbial toxins. Effective food preservation requires that the growth and proliferation of hazardous microorganisms be well controlled, and that the presence of significant quantities of microbial toxins in foods be prevented. The traditional effective preservation methodologies, such as canning, ...
Bull L - - 1999
In this article versions of the abstract NKC model are used to examine the conditions under which two significant evolutionary phenomena - multicellularity and eusociality - are likely to occur and why. First, comparisons in evolutionary performance are made between simulations of unicellular organisms and very simple multicellular-like organisms, under ...
Australasian Biotechnology, Volume 8 Number 4, July/August 1998, pp. 235-240 Measuring Health Efficacy Of Probiotic And Prebiotic Foods Martin J. Playne and Ross G. Crittenden Code Number:AU98032 Sizes of Files: Text: 24K Graphics: Photographs (jpg) - 127K This paper is based on presentations made to the 6th ASEAN Food Conference, ...
Gibson G R - - 1998
The human colonic flora has both beneficial and pathogenic potentials with respect to host health. There is now much interest in manipulation of the microbiota composition in order to improve the potentially beneficial aspects. The prebiotic approach dictates that non-viable food components are specifically fermented in the colon by indigenous ...
Bower C K - - 1998
The ability of microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces is a problem of high visibility and has been the focus of numerous investigations because these organisms can cause disease and food spoilage. During the last several years, considerable attention has been focused on the development of food-grade antimicrobial barriers to ...
Cavazzoni V - - 1998
1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and ...
Jaeger K E - - 1998
Lipases are secreted into the culture medium by many bacteria and fungi. They catalyse not only the hydrolysis but also the synthesis of long-chain acylglycerols. Important uses in biotechnology include their addition to detergents, the manufacture of food ingredients, pitch control in the pulp and paper industry, and biocatalysis of ...
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