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Results 451 - 500 of 628
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Floch M H - - 2001
Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that benefit the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance. When they are fed in yogurts, they can fall into the category of functional foods. Functional foods include these probiotics, prebiotics, and, to a certain extent, dietary fiber. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients or ...
Giraffa G - - 2001
Culture-independent molecular techniques are now available to study microbial ecosystems. They are opening interesting perspectives to problems related to composition and population dynamics of microbial communities in various environmental niches (e.g., soil, water) and foods. In fermented food products, estimates of true microbial diversity is often difficult chiefly on account ...
Bagge D - - 2001
Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers ...
Margesin R - - 2001
Halotolerant or halophilic microorganisms, able to live in saline environments, offer a multitude of actual or potential applications in various fields of biotechnology. The technical applications of bacteriorhodopsin comprise holography, spatial light modulators, optical computing, and optical memories. Compatible solutes are useful as stabilizers of biomolecules and whole cells, salt ...
Puupponen-Pimiä R - - 2001
AIMS: To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and ...
Cox E - - 2001
What would be the advantage of unicellular organisms becoming multicellular? For organisms that feed on organic food (heterotrophs), the most efficient way to produce energy is to metabolize the food by aerobic respiration, but the fastest way is to metabolize it by fermentation. In their Perspective, Cox and Bonner discuss ...
Dens E J - - 2001
Most of the models discussed up till now in predictive microbiology do not take into account the variability of microbial growth with respect to space. In structured (solid) foods, microbial growth can strongly depend on the position in the food and the assumption of homogeneity can thus not be accepted: ...
Matz C - - 2001
The influence of cell surface hydrophobicity and electrostatic charge of bacteria on grazing rates of three common species of interception-feeding nanoflagellates was examined. The hydrophobicity of bacteria isolated from freshwater plankton was assessed by using two different methods (bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon and hydrophobic interaction chromatography). The electrostatic charge of ...
Heller K J - - 2001
Probiotic bacteria are sold mainly in fermented foods, and dairy products play a predominant role as carriers of probiotics. These foods are well suited to promoting the positive health image of probiotics for several reasons: 1) fermented foods, and dairy products in particular, already have a positive health image; 2) ...
Stanton C - - 2001
"Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food ...
Kopp-Hoolihan L - - 2001
Probiotics, live microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, are quickly gaining interest as functional foods in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine. Microbes have been used for years in food and alcoholic fermentations and relatively recently have undergone scientific scrutiny ...
Przyrembel H - - 2001
Legislation on a particular food or on a particular claim to be used in connection with a food require a definition of the food and unequivocal requirements for the use of the claim. The definitions of prebiotics and probiotics presently place these terms between the categories for conventional foods and ...
Molin G - - 2001
Lactic acid fermentation is the simplest and safest way of preserving food and has probably always been used by humans. Species such as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus salivarius are common in the human mucosa, from the mouth to the rectum. In food, L. paracasei ...
Mollapour M - - 2001
Yeasts of the genus Zygosaccharomyces are notable agents of large-scale food spoilage. Despite the economic importance of these organisms, little is known about the stress adaptations whereby they adapt to many of the more severe conditions of food preservation. In this study it was shown that genes of Z. bailii, ...
Pernelle J J - - 2001
Using oligonucleotide probes directed at the rRNA of filamentous bacteria, this study looks at the influence of the components of transient substrate overloads on the growth of the dominant filamentous bacteria of activated sludge fed by a synthetic substrate. By dissociating the massive input of organic matter from the oxygen ...
Banfield J F - - 2001
If life ever existed, or still exists, on Mars, its record is likely to be found in minerals formed by, or in association with, microorganisms. An important concept regarding interpretation of the mineralogical record for evidence of life is that, broadly defined, life perturbs disequilibria that arise due to kinetic ...
Saarela M - - 2000
During the past two decades probiotic (health promoting) micro-organisms have been increasingly included in various types of food products, especially in fermented milks. Several aspects, including safety, functional and technological characteristics, have to be taken into consideration in the selection process of probiotic micro-organisms. Safety aspects include specifications such as ...
Meyers S P - - 2000
Major discoveries in marine microbiology over the past 4-5 decades have resulted in the recognition of bacteria as a major biomass component of marine food webs. Such discoveries include chemosynthetic activities in deep-ocean ecosystems, survival processes in oligotrophic waters, and the role of microorganisms in food webs coupled with symbiotic ...
Mombelli B - - 2000
Probiotics are defined as living organisms, beneficial to health when ingested. Different species of microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria or yeasts have been proposed for human use. These microorganisms differ from each other and it is, therefore, unlikely that they will act in the same way. Probiotics could be ...
Kuipers O P - - 2000
Novel concepts and methodologies are emerging that hold great promise for the directed improvement of food-related bacteria, specifically lactic acid bacteria. Also, the battle against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria can now be fought more effectively. Here we describe recent advances in microbial physiology and genomic research of these organisms ...
Verschuere L - - 2000
There is an urgent need in aquaculture to develop microbial control strategies, since disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to aquaculture production and trade and since the development of antibiotic resistance has become a matter of growing concern. One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control could be ...
Veal D A - - 2000
Large numbers of microbiological samples are analysed annually using traditional culture-based techniques. These techniques take hours to days to yield a result, are tedious and are not suitable for non-culturable microorganisms. Further, culture-based techniques do not provide real-time information on the physiological status of the organism in situ which is ...
Buchanan R L - - 2000
Characterizations of the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are dependent on the availability of information on the population's exposure to the biological agents. However, by itself, exposure data are insufficient to assess the public health impact of pathogenic microorganisms. This requires the availability of effective dose-response models. Successful development of ...
Lammerding A M - - 2000
The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and/or microbial toxins. This paper ...
Tedeschi L O - - 2000
The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) prediction of fiber digestion and microbial mass production from ruminally degraded carbohydrate has been adjusted to accommodate a ruminal N deficiency. The steps for the adjustment are as follows: 1) the ruminal available peptide and ammonia pools are used to determine the ...
Wouters J A - - 2000
There is a considerable interest in the cold adaptation of food-related bacteria, including starter cultures for industrial food fermentations, food spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens. Mechanisms that permit low-temperature growth involve cellular modifications for maintaining membrane fluidity, the uptake or synthesis of compatible solutes, the maintenance of the structural integrity ...
Roberfroid M B - - 2000
A probiotic is a viable microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affects the host through its effects in the intestinal tract. Probiotics are widely used to prepare fermented dairy products such as yogurt or freeze-dried cultures. In the future, they may also be found in fermented vegetables and meats. Several health-related ...
Konings W N - - 2000
Lactic acid bacteria (LABs) are widely used in the manufacturing of fermented food and are among the best-studied microorganisms. Detailed knowledge of a number of physiological traits has opened new potential applications for these organisms in the food industry, while other traits might be beneficial for human health. Important new ...
Griffiths M W - - 2000
Considerable emphasis is being placed on quantitative risk assessment modelling as a basis for regulation of trade in food products. However, for models to be accurate, information about the behaviour of potential pathogens in foods needs to be available. The question is how to obtain this knowledge in a simple ...
Shah N P - - 2000
A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and Lactobacillus casei. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. In order to assess viability ...
de Biseau J C JC Laboratoire de Biologie Animale et Cellulaire-CP 160/12, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels, - - 2000
The optimal foraging theory predicts that colonies of social insects must be able to adjust the intensity of their foraging behaviour as a function of the quality of the food discovered. Here, the mechanisms allowing the regulation of recruitment as a function of food concentration in the ant Myrmica sabuleti ...
Ruijssenaars H J - - 2000
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria, which are common in fermented foods, are claimed to have various beneficial physiological effects on humans. Although the biodegradability of EPSs is important in relation to the bioactive properties, knowledge on this topic is limited. Therefore, the biodegradability of eight EPSs, six of ...
Magot M - - 2000
Although the importance of bacterial activities in oil reservoirs was recognized a long time ago, our knowledge of the nature and diversity of bacteria growing in these ecosystems is still poor, and their metabolic activities in situ largely ignored. This paper reviews our current knowledge about these bacteria and emphasises ...
Kailasapathy K - - 2000
The present paper provides an overview on the use of probiotic organisms as live supplements, with particular emphasis on Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. The therapeutic potential of these bacteria in fermented dairy products is dependent on their survival during manufacture and storage. Probiotic bacteria are increasingly used in food ...
Rhoades J - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine whether chitosan (poly-beta-1,4-glucosamine) and hydrolysates of chitosan can be used as novel preservatives in foods. Chitosan was hydrolyzed by using oxidative-reductive degradation, crude papaya latex, and lysozyme. Mild hydrolysis of chitosan resulted in improved microbial inactivation in saline and greater inhibition of ...
Gould G W - - 2000
Foods deteriorate in quality due to a wide range of reactions including some that are physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of spoilage and food poisoning caused by micro-organisms are preventable to a large degree by a number of preservation techniques, most of ...
Bengmark S - - 2000
The colonic mucosa is unable to nourish itself from the blood. Instead, its nutritive demand must be met from the lumen, where different nutrients, short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, polyamines, growth factors, vitamins, and antioxidants are produced by a nonpathogenic (commensal, so-called "protective" probiotic) flora. The substrates for the production ...
Dooley J S - - 2000
Microbes share our food whether we want them to or not. We need to control microbial proliferation in foods in order to avoid spoilage, to enhance flavour and, most importantly, to reduce the risk of food-borne illness. A broad spectrum of interventions are available to control microbial growth, but the ...
Ames J M - - 1999
The Maillard reaction produces coloured, macromolecular materials (melanoidins) in a variety of foods, on heating. Significant quantities may enter the human gut on a daily basis, but there is little information on their metabolism in the human colon. As the large bowel contains a diverse population of bacteria involved in ...
von Wright A - - 1999
Human intestinal microflora is a complex ecosystem with hundreds of bacterial species. Its metabolic functions and interactions with the host probably affect the human health and well being, but these effects are extremely difficult to study. However, for about 100 years, the idea of modifying the composition of colonic flora ...
Luchsinger R H - - 1999
Most bacteria in the ocean can be motile. Chemotaxis allows bacteria to detect nutrient gradients, and hence motility is believed to serve as a method of approaching sources of food. This picture is well established in a stagnant environment. In the ocean a shear microenvironment is associated with turbulence. This ...
van Kranenburg R - - 1999
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are used in the food industry for their unique properties as viscosifiers, stabilisers, emulsifiers or gelling agents. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of the genetics and biochemistry of microbial EPS synthesis by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria has been made. Biosynthesis pathways have been ...
Kuipers O P - - 1999
Functional genomics is currently the most effective approach for increasing the knowledge at the molecular level of metabolic and adaptive processes in whole cells. High-throughput technologies, such as DNA microarrays, and improved two-dimensional electrophoresis methods combined with tandem mass-spectroscopy, supported by bioinformatics, are useful tools for food biotechnology, which depends ...
Schmidt-Dannert C - - 1999
Lipases, mainly of microbial origin, represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry. Modern methods of genetic engineering combined with an increasing knowledge of structure and function will allow further adaptation to industrial needs and exploration of novel applications. Production of such tailored lipases ...
Hugenholtz J - - 1999
Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis are the microorganisms of choice for performing metabolic engineering in relation to food fermentation. These bacteria are used extensively in food fermentations, they have a simple and therefore controllable metabolism and the molecular genetics of these food bacteria is well-developed. There have been ...
Martens D E - - 1999
Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus curvatus and Enterobacter cloacae were chosen as a model system to quantitatively study microbial interactions involved in food spoilage and food preservation. In this paper models were developed to predict the individual behaviour of L. curvatus and E. cloacae in pure suspension cultures as a function ...
Brul S - - 1999
Preservative agents are required to ensure that manufactured foods remain safe and unspoiled. In this review, we will discuss the mode of action of both chemical and biological (nature-derived) preservatives and the stress response mechanisms induced by these compounds in microorganisms of concern to the food industry. We will discuss ...
Roller S - - 1999
A thorough understanding of the physiological responses of microorganisms to stresses imposed during food preservation is essential if novel combination systems based on mild food processing procedures are to be developed effectively. The influences of intrinsic characteristics as well as external factors such as water activity, temperature, preservatives, composition of ...
Kilsby D C - - 1999
Food microbiology has become a mature science in the twentieth century and has made great advances. While recognising these achievements, it is also necessary to consider how the science may need to change. This paper addresses this by reference to three areas. These are possible changes in foodborne diseases of ...
Hammond K A - - 1999
Individuals within a species, living across a wide range of habitats, often display a great deal of phenotypic plasticity for organ mass and function. We investigated the extent to which changes in organ mass are variable, corresponding to environmental demand, across an altitudinal gradient. Are there changes in the mass ...
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