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Ceuppens Siele - - 2013
Bacillus cereus comprises a highly versatile group of bacteria, which are of particular interest because of their capacity to cause disease. Emetic food poisoning is caused by the toxin cereulide produced during growth of emetic B. cereus in food, while diarrhoeal food poisoning is the result of enterotoxin production by ...
Hill Laura E - - 2013
 Nanoencapsulation of active compounds using poly-(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug delivery and may have important applications in the food industry. Control of growth of foodborne bacteria with the goals of reducing the number of foodborne illness outbreaks, assuring consumers a safer food supply remains ...
Hrcek Jan - - 2013
The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in ...
Navarro J - - 2013
During the past decade, parasites have been considered important components of their ecosystems since they can modify food-web structures and functioning. One constraint to the inclusion of parasites in food-web models is the scarcity of available information on their feeding habits and host-parasite relationships. The stable isotope approach is suggested ...
Lee Carol Eunmi - - 2013
Saline to freshwater invasions have become increasingly common in recent years. A key hypothesis is that rates of freshwater invasions have been amplified in recent years by increased food concentration, yet this hypothesis has remained unexplored. We examined whether elevated food concentration could enhance freshwater tolerance, and whether this effect ...
Sciancalepore Anna Giovanna - - 2013
The development of fast, reliable and culture-independent molecular tools to detect bacteria producing biogenic amines deserves the attention of research and ultimately of the food industry in order to protect consumers' health. Here we present the application of a simple, low-cost, fast and sensitive method to perform microdroplet-based multiplex PCR, ...
Gomes Bruna Carrer - - 2013
Abstract The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, ...
Sirsat Sujata A - - 2013
To the authors' knowledge, the role of restaurant menus as a vehicle for pathogens has not been explored. Menus, however, can pose as a vector for bacterial contamination and transfer. Sampling menus from two restaurants in the Houston, Texas, area showed the presence of up to 100 CFU/cm2 aerobic bacteria. ...
Bodhidatta Ladaporn - - 2013
To better understand the epidemiology of bacterial food borne pathogens in children, in relation to pathogens in meats from a market in rural Thailand, we collected 73 cultures samples from raw chicken, pork and fish at a local market where diarrheal disease surveillance was conducted. Standard methods were employed to ...
Korehei R - - 2013
AIMS: Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. METHODS AND RESULTS: The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led ...
Martino Maria Elena - - 2013
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in the food industry. Pediococcus spp. belong to the LAB group and include several species that are essential for the quality of fermented food. Pediococcus pentosaceus is the species that is most frequently isolated from fermented food and beverages but its uncontrolled growth ...
Silva Nuno - - 2013
The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus ...
Chitapornpan S - - 2013
Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could ...
Ito Fuminori - - 2013
I studied the myrmicine ant Myrmecina sp. A in West Java, Indonesia, which had the obligately myrmecophilous oribatid mite Aribates javensis in its nests. The oribatid mites cannot survive without ant attendance. The ants rarely eat living mites, but they feed on the mites in case of food shortage and ...
Vale Pedro F PF CEFE-CNRS-UMR 5175, Montpellier, France. - - 2013
The environmental conditions experienced by hosts are known to affect their mean parasite transmission potential. How different conditions may affect the variance of transmission potential has received less attention, but is an important question for disease management, especially if specific ecological contexts are more likely to foster a few extremely ...
Djurković-Djaković O - - 2013
Foodborne zoonoses have been estimated to annually affect 10% of the global population, among which zoonotic parasites constitute an important class of aetiological agents. The major meatborne parasites include the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp., and the helminths Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp., all of which may be transmitted ...
de Jong A - - 2013
Antimicrobial resistance is a concern both for animal and human health. Veterinary programmes monitoring resistance of animal and zoonotic pathogens are therefore essential. Various European countries have implemented national surveillance programmes, particularly for zoonotic and commensal bacteria, and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is compiling the data. However, harmonisation ...
Vangay Pajau - - 2013
Large amounts of molecular subtyping information are generated by the private sector, academia, and government agencies. However, use of subtype data is limited by a lack of effective data storage and sharing mechanisms that allow comparison of subtype data from multiple sources. Currently available subtype databases are generally limited in ...
Gast Richard K - - 2013
More human illnesses caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis throughout the world have been linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs than to any other food vehicle. Deposition of this pathogen in the edible contents of eggs occurs when systemic infections of laying hens involve colonization of reproductive ...
Lee Myoungsook - - 2013
The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine ...
Berman Steven M - - 2013
Leptin affects eating behavior partly by altering the response of the brain to food-related stimuli. The effects of leptin on brain structure have been observed in the cerebellum, where leptin receptors are most densely expressed, but the function of leptin in the cerebellum remains unclear. We performed a nonrandomized, prospective ...
Mebrhatu Mehari Tesfazgi - - 2013
Abstract Salmonella spp. are accountable for a large fraction of the global infectious disease burden, with most of their infections being food- or water-borne. The phenotypic features and adaptive potential of Salmonella spp. appear to be driven to a large extent by mobile or laterally acquired genetic elements. A better ...
Aimey Vicki - - 2013
During January-March 2009, an outbreak of Salmonella was diagnosed in four commercial egg-laying farms in Barbados. During the outbreak, 511 layers died while 3257 layers were voluntarily culled from one affected farm. Salmonella ser Enteritidis was identified in avian tissues (ovaries, liver, and uterus), and egg samples submitted to the ...
Hardin-Fanning F - - 2013
Rural Appalachian food deserts have disproportionately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. The Mediterranean diet, consisting of plant-based dishes prepared with unsaturated fatty acids, contributes to decreased risk of CVD. Several factors can affect dietary choices in rural food deserts. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify predisposing, reinforcing ...
O' Shea Eileen F - - 2013
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a wide variety of antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) which contribute to the safety and preservation of fermented foods. This review discusses strategies that have been or could be employed to further enhance the commercial application of bacteriocins and/or bacteriocin-producing LAB for food use.
Kang Hyun-Wol - - 2013
Of the Salmonella enterica serovars, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium are responsible for most of the Salmonella outbreaks implicated in the consumption of contaminated foods in the Republic of Korea. Because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in foods and food processing environments, bacteriophages have recently surfaced as an ...
Stojković Dejan S - - 2013
This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the Veronica montana L. water extract and its main phenolic compound, protocatechuic acid. The antibacterial activity was determined by microdilution assay against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the tested bacterial species. ...
Cox Linda - - 2013
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective in reducing the clinical symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma and venom-induced anaphylaxis. Subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with unmodified allergen extracts are the most widely prescribed AIT regimens. The efficacy of these 2 routes appears comparable, but the safety profile with SLIT is ...
Prieto-Godino Lucia L - - 2013
Drosophila avoid food contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and fungi using an olfactory pathway that is exquisitely tuned to a single microbial odour.
Herzner Gudrun - - 2013
Food resources contaminated with spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms pose severe problems to all higher organisms. Here, we describe a food-hygienic strategy of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa. The wasp larvae develop on and inside the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, a host that can harbor various putrefactive microbes, as well ...
Duda-Chodak Aleksandra A Department of Fermentation Technology and Technical Microbiology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, - - 2013
Background. Due to its chemical composition, Spirulina is widely used as a dietary supplement that exerts positive effects on the human body. It also has the ability to inhibit the growth of cert ain microorganisms, both pathogens that pose a health hazard, as well as those that cause food spoilage ...
Ammar El-Desouky - - 2013
THE ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID (ACP), DIAPHORINA CITRI (HEMIPTERA: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure ...
Coudrain Valérie - - 2013
Habitat fragmentation strongly affects species distribution and abundance. However, mechanisms underlying fragmentation effects often remain unresolved. Potential mechanisms are (1) reduced dispersal of a species or (2) altered species interactions in fragmented landscapes. We studied if abundance of the spider-hunting and cavity-nesting wasp Trypoxylon figulus Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is affected ...
Wasserman Ryan J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Classically, estuarine planktonic research has focussed largely on the physico-chemical drivers of community assemblages leaving a paucity of information on important biological interactions. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Within the context of trophic cascades, various treatments using in situ mesocosms were established in a closed estuary to highlight the importance of predation ...
Zoumpopoulou Georgia - - 2013
In the present study we investigated the incidence of bacteriocins produced by 236 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) food isolates against pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic oral bacteria. This set of LAB contained several strains (≥17%) producing bacteriocins active against food-related bacteria. Interestingly only Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was able to inhibit ...
Beuchat Larry R - - 2013
Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (a(w)) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-a(w) foods and in dry food processing and preparation ...
Rouhi M - - 2013
Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the ...
Bienhold Christina - - 2013
Large organic food falls to the deep sea - such as whale carcasses and wood logs - are known to serve as stepping stones for the dispersal of highly adapted chemosynthetic organisms inhabiting hot vents and cold seeps. Here we investigated the biogeochemical and microbiological processes leading to the development ...
Yeager Valerie A - - 2013
While various safety control measures exist within the U.S. food system, foodborne illness remains a costly and persistent problem. The purpose of the study described here was to examine the relationship between violations of critical restaurant inspection items ("critical items") and food safety as measured by the bacterial load of ...
Shinoda Sumio - - 2013
An ecological study of pathogenic vibrios in aquatic environments of Okayama was carried out. The number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus detected in the sea area was comparatively smaler than that found in the survey of about two decades ago. Various reasons for the decrease in the case of food poisoning by ...
Taha R R - - 2013
Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. In total, 773 clinical ...
Zhang Hui - - 2013
Shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by Shigella species, including Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella boydii. Infection with S. flexneri can result in epidemics, and Shigella-contaminated food is often the source of infection, such as ready-to-eat spiced chicken and duck. Therefore, we investigated ...
Fenton Mark - - 2013
New antibacterial agents are urgently needed for the elimination of biofilm-forming bacteria that are highly resistant to traditional antimicrobial agents. Proliferation of such bacteria can lead to significant economic losses in the agri-food sector. This study demonstrates the potential of the bacteriophage-derived peptidase, CHAP(K), as a biocidal agent for the ...
Valderrama Wladir B - - 2013
Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, ...
Shi Weibing - - 2013
Metagenome analysis of the gut symbionts of three different insects was conducted as a means of comparing taxonomic and metabolic diversity of gut microbiomes to diet and life history of the insect hosts. A second goal was the discovery of novel biocatalysts for biorefinery applications. Grasshopper and cutworm gut symbionts ...
Cartwright Emily J - - 2013
Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterial foodborne pathogen, can cause meningitis, bacteremia, and complications during pregnancy. This report summarizes listeriosis outbreaks reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 1998-2008. The study period includes the advent of PulseNet (a national molecular subtyping network ...
Syne Stacey-Marie - - 2013
A bacteriological assessment of the environment and food products at different stages of processing was conducted during the manufacture of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken franks, chicken bologna and bacon at a large meat processing plant in Trinidad, West Indies. Samples of air, surfaces (swabs), raw materials, and in-process and finished food ...
Harrison Lisa M - - 2013
Functional innate and acquired immune responses are required to protect the host from pathogenic bacterial infections. Modulation of host immune functions may have beneficial or deleterious effects on disease outcome. Different types of dietary fatty acids have been shown to have variable effects on bacterial clearance and disease outcome through ...
Nazzaro Filomena - - 2013
Most infectious diseases are caused by bacteria, which proliferate within quorum sensing (QS)-mediated biofilms. Efforts to block QS in bacteria and disrupt biofilms have enabled the identification of bioactive molecules that are also produced by plants. This mini review primarily focuses on natural QS inhibitors, which display potential for treating ...
Rolain Jean-Marc - - 2013
The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome ...
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