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Results 451 - 500 of 926
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Bezerra Ilana N - - 2012
Eating outside of the home environment on a frequent basis has been associated with weight gain. Food choices when eating out are usually high in energy content, which contributes to excessive energy intake; however, the available data on out-of-home eating and obesity are far from conclusive. This systematic review assesses ...
Könczöl K - - 2012
Objective:To determine whether the anorexigenic peptide, nesfatin-1 affects energy expenditure, and to follow the time course of its effects.Design:Food intake duration, core body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate of rats were measured by telemetry for 48 h after a single intracerebroventricular injection of 25 or 100 pmol nesfatin-1 applied in the ...
Phillips Melissa M - - 2012
Choline is a quaternary amine that is synthesized in the body or consumed through the diet. Choline is critical for cell membrane structure and function and in synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Although the human body produces this micronutrient, dietary supplementation of choline is necessary for good health. The major ...
Heckmann Lotta - - 2012
Ecology Letters (2012) ABSTRACT: Body-size structure of food webs and adaptive foraging of consumers are two of the dominant concepts of our understanding how natural ecosystems maintain their stability and diversity. The interplay of these two processes, however, is a critically important yet unresolved issue. To fill this gap in ...
Higginson Andrew D AD School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom. - - 2012
The storage of lipids to buffer energy shortage may incur such costs as increased vulnerability to predation, and animals may be more muscular in order to reduce such costs. If muscle and lipid mass interact to determine survival, then both the muscularity and the adiposity of animals will be affected ...
Omori Naoki - - 2012
We report a hit to lead study on a novel benzoxazole NPY Y5 antagonist. Starting from HTS hit 1, structure-activity relationships were developed. Compound 12 showed reduction of food intake and a tendency to suppress body weight gain over the 21-day experimental period.
Genschow Oliver - - 2012
Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled ...
- - 2012
This report summarises the incidence of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia and details outbreaks associated with food in 2010. OzFoodNet sites reported 30,035 notifications of 9 diseases or conditions that are commonly transmitted by food. The most frequently notified infections were Campylobacter (16,968 notifications) and Salmonella (11,992 notifications). ...
Khan Imtinan A - - 2012
Abstract The present research was carried out to study the trophic relationship between aphids and their primary parasitoids in Pothwar, Pakistan during 2009-2010 in the districts of Rawalpindi, Attock, Chakwal, and Jhelum. Ten species of aphids were recorded from 17 host plants. The aphids were parasitized by 11 species of ...
De Lira-Garcia Cynthia - - 2012
Objective: To evaluate the preference of healthy and unhealthy foods among pre-school children attending daycare and its association with that of their parents, body mass index and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: We asked children and parents to depict their food preferences through 54 pictures of different food items. The association between ...
Klompmaker Adiël A - - 2012
Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of ...
Saba Courage Kosi Setsoafia - - 2012
Food safety is a crucial factor in the growth of developing countries worldwide. In this study, we present a meta-analysis of microbiological food safety publications from Ghana. The search words "Ghana food safety", "Ghana food research", and "Ghana food bacteria" were used to search for microbiological food safety publications with ...
Sillankorva Sanna M - - 2012
The interest for natural antimicrobial compounds has increased due to alterations in consumer positions towards the use of chemical preservatives in foodstuff and food processing surfaces. Bacteriophages fit in the class of natural antimicrobial and their effectiveness in controlling bacterial pathogens in agro-food industry has led to the development of ...
Brovko Lubov Y - - 2012
This chapter presents recent advances in bacteriophage research and their application in the area of food safety. Section 1 describes general facts on phage biology that are relevant to their application for control and detection of bacterial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Section 2 summarizes the recently acquired data ...
Leonard Sarah - - 2012
Americans are in the midst of a food-consciousness revival: on television, in the mouth of the First Lady, in endless articles celebrating urban agriculture can be found a sudden enthusiasm for the politically and, perhaps, spiritually curated dinner table. In this special section, writers explore the perilous state of food ...
Crole Martina R - - 2012
The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction ...
Toepel Ulrike - - 2012
Hemodynamic imaging results have associated both gender and body weight to variation in brain responses to food-related information. However, the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of gender-related and weight-wise modulations in food discrimination still remain to be elucidated. We analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs) while normal-weighted men (n = 12) and women ...
Valtonen Terhi M - - 2012
Environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to affect offspring performance. We set out to investigate the effect of parental larval diet on offspring development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies for the parental generation were raised on either ...
O'Brien Lorna J - - 2012
Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the ...
Kirkpatrick Sharon I - - 2012
Characterizing relationships between diet, body weight, and health is complicated by reporting errors in dietary intake data that are associated with body weight. The objectives of this study were to assess changes in reporting across days (reactivity) on food checklists and associations between reactivity and body mass index (BMI) using ...
Chaix Basile - - 2012
Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored ...
Hassan Ammar Ali - - 2012
To gain knowledge on toxic elements in semi-domesticated reindeer and their distribution in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow. The correlations between concentrations in meat and liver, as well as the use of the latter as an indicator for toxic elements in meat, were also investigated. Cross-sectional study on population ...
Simpson Alistair - - 2012
To investigate the effect of Antarctic residence on energy dynamics and aerobic fitness over the course of a year in over-wintering personnel. A prospective longitudinal observational study. A convenience sample of personnel over-wintering at Rothera Research Station in Antarctica was studied. Body weight, body fat, food intake, activity and aerobic ...
Gray Sarah M - - 2012
The leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, contain a microscopic aquatic food web that is considered a model system in ecological research. The species identity of the intermediate and top trophic level of this food web, as well the detritivore midge, are highly similar across the native geographic ...
Field Des - - 2012
Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against ...
Murall Carmen Lía - - 2012
The dynamics of in-host infections are central to predicting the progression of natural infections and the effectiveness of drugs or vaccines, however, they are not well understood. Here, we apply food web theory to in-host disease networks of the human body that are structured similarly to food web models that ...
Bohórquez Elaine B - - 2012
The naturally fluorescent compound quinine has long been used to treat malaria infections. Although some evidence suggests that quinine acts in the parasite food vacuole, the mechanism of action of quinine has not yet been resolved. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) gene encodes a food vacuolar membrane transporter and ...
Joly Marine - - 2012
Recent results in birds, marsupials, rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that phylogeny and ecological factors such as body size, diet and postural habit of a species influence limb usage and the direction and strength of limb laterality. To examine to which extent these findings can be generalised to small-bodied rooting ...
Pölkki Mari - - 2012
Recently environmental conditions during early parental development have been found to have transgenerational effects on immunity and other condition-dependent traits. However, potential transgenerational effects of heavy metal pollution have not previously been studied. Here we show that direct exposure to heavy metal (copper) upregulates the immune system of the blow ...
Hemati S A - - 2012
Nutritional indices of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on different host plants including chickpea (cultivars Arman, Hashem, Azad, and Binivich), common bean (cultivar Khomein), white kidney bean (cultivar Dehghan), red kidney bean (cultivar Goli), cowpea (cultivar Mashhad), tomato (cultivar Meshkin) and potato (cultivars Agria and Satina) were studied under laboratory ...
Sime-Ngando Télesphore - - 2012
Parasitism is one of the earlier and common ecological interactions in the nature, occurring in almost all environments. Microbial parasites typically are characterized by their small size, short generation time, and high rates of reproduction, with simple life cycle occurring generally within a single host. They are diverse and ubiquitous ...
Nelson Jessica W JW Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA. - - 2012
Bisphenol A (BPA) and polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds known to be ubiquitous in people's bodies. Population disparities in exposure to these chemicals have not been fully characterized. We analyzed data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable linear regression we examined the ...
Naisbit Russell E - - 2011
Body mass is a fundamental characteristic that affects metabolism, life history, and population abundance and frequently sets bounds on who eats whom in food webs. Based on a collection of topological food webs, Ulrich Brose and colleagues presented a general relationship between the body mass of predators and their prey ...
Wang Hong - - 2011
Losses caused by foodborne diseases are enormous in terms of human life, illness, medical costs, and food product recalls. Rapid detection of multiple bacterial pathogens in foods is extremely important to ensure food safety. The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex immunoassay by integrating magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) ...
Santana Af K - - 2011
The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify ...
Dotto G L - - 2011
The biosorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and FD&C red no. 40 onto Spirulina platensis was studied. A full factorial design was used to analyze the effects of pH (2-4), stirring rate (50-400rpm) and contact time (20-100min) on biosorption capacity. In the best conditions, biosorption kinetics was analyzed and ...
Repoux M - - 2011
Mouth coating, defined as the residual food that sticks to the oral surface after food ingestion, plays an important role in both the delivery of food components and mouth feel and after-feel perceptions. The aim of this work was to adapt a rapid and simple instrumental method to the quantification ...
Dotto G L - - 2011
The biosorption of food dyes FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles was studied at different conditions of pH and temperature. Four isotherm models were used to evaluate the biosorption equilibrium and the thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Infra red analysis (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray ...
Toda Yasuka - - 2011
Taste receptors have been defined at the molecular level in the past decade, and cell-based assays have been developed using cultured cells heterologously expressing these receptors. The most popular approach to detecting the cellular response to a tastant is to measure changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration using Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes. ...
Chen Wei - - 2011
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a brightener is often added to wheat flour, and excessive use of this food additive is receiving increasing concern. Herein, a simple and fast method for fluorescence detection of BPO is proposed based on consecutive chemical reactions. In this approach, BPO first oxidizes Fe(2+) into Fe(3+) ...
Cao Jijuan - - 2011
Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a ...
Angelidis Apostolos S - - 2011
The transmission pathways of Helicobacter pylori in humans have not been fully elucidated. Research in the last decade has proposed that foodborne transmission, among others, may be a plausible route of human infection. Owing to the organism's fastidious growth characteristics and its ability to convert to viable, yet unculturable states ...
Mols Maarten - - 2011
Bacillus cereus is a food-borne human pathogen and food spoilage organism. Spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus can be found almost everywhere and therefore often end up in food processing equipment and food products. To remove spores and vegetative cells from food or equipment, harsh treatments such as high ...
Stuhl Charles - - 2011
While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Tephritidae), can survive on fruit juices as they seep from injured fruit. An ...
Lecea Ander M - - 2011
Stable isotope measurements are an important tool for ecosystem trophic linkage studies. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but in many cases organisms must be preserved and analysed later. In some cases dyes must be used to help distinguish organisms from detritus. Since preservatives and dyes are ...
Rockenbach G - - 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in dietary intake, anthropometric parameters and markers of oxidative stress in 40 women who underwent surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy for breast cancer. Pretreatment and post-treatment measurements included data collected through a food frequency questionnaire, weight and height to calculate the ...
Kanarek Robin B - - 2011
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. Symptoms of ADHD include hyperactivity, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, and inattention. While the biological pathways leading to ADHD are not clearly delineated, a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for the disorder are recognized. ...
Ruiz-de-Castañeda Rafael - - 2011
Salmonella and Yersinia are important enteropathogens in poultry and can affect birds of all ages, including embryos. These food-borne zoonotic enteropathogens are of great economic and medical concern worldwide and are intensely studied in poultry. Information regarding the prevalence of these bacteria in wild birds is scarce and biased toward ...
Oplatowska Michalina - - 2011
Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, ...
Kotangale J P - - 2011
The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their ...
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