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van Tets I G - - 2001
Uricotely (uric acid >50% of urinary nitrogen) in birds was once considered ubiquitous. However, Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) have been shown to be an exception to this rule; under conditions of low ambient temperature (T(a)) and on a nitrogen-free diet, they increased their water intake and often became ammonotelic (ammonia ...
McDaniel J H - - 2001
This case study, in a Veterans Affairs Alzheimer's unit, was conducted to evaluate noise and lighting conditions at mealtimes and to assess the food intake of ambulatory dementia residents. The case study compared the noise, lighting, and nutritional intake of 16 Alzheimer's residents eating the same cycle menu in the ...
Ens J G. - - 2001
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in ruminant foods has potential health benefits. CLA content in dairy and meat products is known. However, CLA intake has not been documented from records of food intake in free-living Canadian subjects. Intake of the cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (c9,t11 CLA) isomer was estimated for 22 ...
San Juan Miguelsanz M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Urea kinetic modelling is a method for verifying that the amount of dialysis prescribed equals the amount of dialysis delivered. DOQI guidelines help to assess the causes of a low Kt/V: fistula integrity, treatment duration, methods of obtaining BUN samples, dialysis machine and patient specific variables. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate ...
Padillo F J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Anorexia is a frequent finding in patients with biliary obstruction (BO). This study investigates the role of biochemical and hormonal factors in the pathogenesis of reduced food intake in BO and the effects of internal biliary drainage. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-two patients with BO were prospectively investigated. Transaminases, amylase, cholecystokinin, ...
Lennie T A - - 2001
Assessments of hunger and/or appetite are common methods of screening for development of illness-related anorexia. There are limited data to determine whether these methods predict actual food intake in persons with HIV disease. Therefore, the authors examined the relationship between self-reported food intake and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite ...
Emmans G - - 2001
Selection in commercial populations on aspects of output, such as for growth rate in poultry. against fatness and for growth rate in pigs, and for milk yield in cows, has had very barge effects on such outputs over the past 50 years. Partly because of the cost of recording intake, ...
Yearsley J - - 2001
The purpose of the present paper is to review recent theoretical developments in food intake modelling applied to animal science and ecology. The models are divided into those that have been developed for intensive agricultural systems, and those which consider more extensive systems and natural systems. For the most part ...
Chen A S - - 2000
We evaluated the role of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC-4R) in the control of metabolic rate and food intake in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of the non-selective MC-R agonist melanotan II (MT-II; a cyclic heptapeptide) increases metabolic rate in wildtype mice, while MC-4R knockout mice are insensitive to the effects of MT-II ...
Hart R W - - 1999
Carcinogenicity and aging are characterized by a set of complex endpoints, which appear as a series of molecular events. Many of these events can be modified by caloric intake. Since most of these processes determine an organism's ability to cope with various environmental stressors, it is not surprising that a ...
Bradshaw S D - - 1999
A method is described, based on the simultaneous turnover of both stable (18O) and radioactive isotopes (3H and 22Na), whereby the daily nectar and pollen intake of free-ranging marsupial honey possums (Tarsipes rostratus) may be estimated. The field metabolic rate is measured using doubly labelled water and nectar intake is ...
Larsen J C - - 1999
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans was originally developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and defined as "an estimate of the amount of a food additive, expressed on a body weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk." ...
Chambolle M - - 1999
Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of food constituents refers to "daily ingestion over a lifetime." There is a need to determine mean and extreme daily intakes of defined constituents, in order to compare them with their ADI. The significance of overstepping the ADI during long periods must be discussed in relation ...
Faith M S - - 1999
Human obesity is associated with greater-than-average energy intake, although relatively few studies have tested the heritability of food intake. The present study examined the genetic architecture of measured caloric intake during laboratory test meals in 36 monozygotic and 18 dizygotic twin pairs. A series of analyses tested the hypotheses that ...
Gaspar P M - - 1999
This study describes the adequacy of water intake among nursing home residents and identifies variables associated with the adequacy of water intake. Ninety-nine nursing home residents were observed for two 24-hour periods to record food and fluid ingested, ingestion behaviors, and function. Mean water intake (based on food and fluid) ...
Jäntti, Jussi
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA Vol.96, 909 - 914
Hörl W H - - 1999
Oral intake of freshly voided morning urine has been recommended for many diseases such as viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms reported during the first days of oral intake of urine include nausea, vomiting, headache, palpitations, diarrhea or fever. Several substances in the urine are believed to be important for oral ...
de Castro J M - - 1998
Males and females differ in the amounts of food and fluids they ingest. Previous studies suggest that this may be due to differences in genetic influences on intake. Gender differences in the heritability of food and fluid intake were investigated with 110 identical and 102 fraternal same-sex and 53 fraternal ...
Hope P J - - 1997
The marsupial Sminthopsis crassicaudata increases food intake following a fast. However, the role of metabolic fuel availability, in particular glucose, in the regulation of food intake in this animal is unknown. In this study, we have demonstrated that neither insulin-induced hypoglycaemia nor metabolic blockade of glucose utilisation with 2-deoxy-D-glucose effects ...
McCarthy D O - - 1997
Anorexia and weight loss are major problems in the care of cancer patients. Data from laboratory studies using an animal model of tumor-induced anorexia suggest that energy intake may be regulated in the tumor-bearing host as it is in healthy animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine ...
Vaziri P - - 1997
We examined the hypothesis that histidine is a regulator of short-term food and water intake in rats and that this control is through histidine's action as a precursor for histamine. The primary objectives were to measure food and water intake after histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate (His-HCl) given by intragastric (IG) and ...
Bozinovic F - - 1997
The leaf-eared mouse, Phyllotis darwini, is a nocturnal rodent inhabiting the semiarid and Mediterranean habitats of northern and central Chile. Previous observations suggested that in the field, individuals may change food intake according to seasonal changes in ambient temperature. We therefore anticipated that P. darwini should increase food intake in ...
Kurzer M S - - 1997
Associations between food intake and mood greatly interest both lay and scientific audiences, although scientific support for many observed associations is sparse. Of particular interest are issues surrounding food intake, food cravings, and mood in women throughout the menstrual cycle. Further research is necessary to support or disprove current hypotheses ...
Keung W M - - 1997
Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish ...
Rocha M J - - 1997
Baroreceptor input plays a critical role in body fluid balance and the endocrine response to NaCl consumption [25]. Experiments were performed to characterize the alterations in salt intake that are seen after baroreceptor denervation. Using chronically baroreceptor denervated (SAD) or control (CON) male Sprague-Dawley rats, we determined: 1) concentration-dependent consumption ...
Boeles S - - 1997
We studied the effect of the 5-HT1B/ID receptor agonist sumatriptan (6 mg s.c.) on plasma growth hormone and prolactin and food intake in 15 healthy female subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Sumatriptan significantly elevated plasma growth hormone but did not alter plasma prolactin. Sumatriptan also significantly lowered total ...
De Luca Júnior L A - - 1996
The periventricular tissue of the anterior ventral portion of the third ventricle (AV3V) is an important area for the control of hydromineral balance and of cardiovascular function. The present work discusses the importance of the integrity of the AV3V for multiple responses to central cholinergic activation (water intake, hypertension, natriuresis, ...
Renwick A G - - 1996
Direct measurement of the intake of food additives is a complex, time-consuming and expensive process. Prioritization of intake surveys is important to focus initial attention on those additives of most concern. Intakes at or below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) are not of concern, by definition, and therefore a high ...
Arneberg P - - 1996
Models have predicted that directly transmitted macroparasites may influence the abundance of forage plants in herbivore grazing systems by reducing the food intake of their host. Evidence of parasite-induced alterations in host food intake is, however, limited mainly to sheep, cattle and laboratory rodents. We estimated the effect of naturally ...
Opara E I - - 1996
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for maintaining the nutritional status of patients who are unable to eat sufficiently to meet their metabolic needs. However, TPN suppresses appetite and ultimately diminishes food intake. Theories concerning the role(s) of peripheral metabolites as signals, acting via the liver and the hypothalamus, for ...
Festinger D S - - 1996
We examined whether offering an accelerated (same-day) versus a standard (1- to 7-day delay) intake appointment increased initial attendance at an outpatient cocaine treatment program. Significantly more of the subjects who were offered an accelerated intake (59%) attended than those who were given a standard intake (33%), chi 2 (2, ...
Clarke H - - 1996
"Should the Australian immigration intake be forward-planned and, if so, should the resulting intake be numerically stable through time? There are sound reasons for anticipating the effects of current intakes on future intakes and for basing current intakes on Australia's long-term national objectives. These policy requirements imply a case for ...
Morley J E - - 1995
Recent studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide may play an important role in the regulation of food intake. The studies reported here extend these findings by demonstrating that NG-nitro-arginine-methylester, N-Arg(ME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, decreased intake of a highly palatable substance (i.e., milk), though at a higher dose than ...
Tuomisto L - - 1994
Treatment with psychotropic or antiallergic drugs which block histamine H1-receptors is known to be connected with weight gain. Also in experimental animals food intake is changed after manipulation of the histaminergic system, food intake may be decreased by various treatments with increase histaminergic activity and increased if histaminergic activity is ...
Denbow D M - - 1994
This review focuses on food intake regulation in avian species with the emphasis on sites of action outside of the central nervous system using data obtained mainly with studies involving poultry. Avian species do appear to regulate food intake, and there is good evidence that both the gastrointestinal tract and ...
Kuenzel W J - - 1994
The neural regulation of food intake seems to be quite similar in birds and mammals. The ventromedial hypothalamic syndrome produced by lesions within the mediobasal hypothalamus of both birds and mammals is composed of several independent physiological and behavioral changes. Other neural sites known to be important in mammals for ...
Fischer von Mollard G - - 1994
Regulated exocytosis is responsible for neuronal communication, hormone secretion, food digestion, control of glucose uptake and many other basic processes. Despite the structural and functional diversity of the cells undergoing regulated exocytosis, all regulated exocytosis involves specialized vesicles that are stored in the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane ...
De-Luca Júnior L A - - 1994
1. Noradrenaline (NOR) is a neurotransmitter present in the central nervous system which is related to the control of ingestive behavior of food and fluids. We describe here the relationship between NOR and intake of water and NaCl solution, fluids that are essential for a normal body fluid-electrolytic balance. 2. ...
Butterworth D E - - 1994
A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 +/- 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six ...
Aronoff N J - - 1994
Some obese individuals consume food during awakenings from nighttime sleep. Three studies were conducted on a 28-year-old morbidly obese male with chronic sleeping complaints and insignificant weight loss, despite self-reported daily caloric restriction: I. For 3 mo, the subject recorded food intake for 24-h periods. Mean daytime intake was 1286 ...
Peppard R J - - 1993
To assess whether a simple nonrestrictive method of determining nutrient intake could be applied to premature infants, we compared actual measured formula intake during a 7-day period with intake calculated from deuterium dilution in 13 hospitalized, growing, premature newborn infants. An oral dose of deuterium oxide (D2O) was administered, and ...
Norton P - - 1993
Physiologic control of eating involves neural and chemical regulators that may have therapeutic applications in weight control. Information on the nature and quantity of ingested and stored nutrients is relayed to the brain via sensory nerve fibers. This information is integrated at specific centers in the brain, then impulses in ...
Matthews D E - - 1992
The response of glutamine and glutamate kinetics were studied in five healthy young adult men on diets containing deficient (0.1), adequate (0.8), or surfeit (2.2 g.kg-1.d-1) amounts of protein. Glutamate, glutamine, and phenylalanine kinetics were measured in the postabsorptive state at the end of each diet period. Urinary urea and ...
Alford D M - - 1991
Nurses have a crucial role in ensuring adequate food and fluid intake in the elderly. Nurses can improve the nutritional intake of their elderly patients by obtaining proper nutritional assessments, addressing risk factors for malnutrition and fluid deficit, providing enough staff and volunteers to help feed impaired patients, honoring each ...
Tsuda T - - 1991
1. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of both chemicals via gill intake of goldfish reached plateaux after 21 days of exposure. The average BCF values of Bu3SnCl and Ph3SnCl (N = 2) were 1976 and 1384, respectively, after 21-28 days of exposure. 2. The BCF values by oral intake of goldfish ...
Morley J E - - 1991
Nitric oxide (NO) may be an intercellular modulator within the central nervous system. L-arginine, which results in NO synthesis, increased food intake in mice while the inhibitor of NO synthesis, L-NG-nitro arginine (L-NO Arg) inhibited food intake in food deprived mice. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, partially reversed the inhibitory effect ...
Chambert G - - 1990
Rats were subjected to day-to-day changes in food caloric density superimposed on a sustained (average) change above or below the basal value. This was done by giving them a different diet every day, so that caloric density gradually increased from a basal value. By repeating this procedure the caloric density ...
Johnson R F - - 1990
Ad lib water intake of rats displays two prominent features: Water intake is temporally and quantitatively associated with food intake, and water intake is nocturnal. Physiological mechanisms linking water and food intake suggest that the rhythmicity in water intake may be at least partially driven by a rhythmicity in food ...
Foltin R W - - 1990
Food intake of seven adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) was monitored during daily 22-h experimental sessions. Food was available under a two-component operant schedule. Following completion of the first "procurement component" response requirement, access to food, i.e. a meal, became available under the second "consumption component," during which each ...
Ramirez I - - 1990
The word palatability and related words have not been used in a consistent way. Palatability may be a property of a food, of the organism eating the food, or both. Investigators have failed to distinguish different possible meanings of the statement: "palatable foods increase intake". This may indicate: (1) a ...
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