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Healy Jessica E - - 2011
Hibernators exhibit a robust circannual cycle of body mass gain and loss primarily mediated by food intake, but the pathways controlling food intake in these animals have not been fully elucidated. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that increases feeding in all mammals studied so far, but has not until recently ...
Vreeburg Robert A M - - 2011
Exposure of food products to small-intestinal-like Caco-2 cells, combined with a gene expression based response analysis can be a valuable tool to classify potential bioactive effects of food homogenates. In order to study changes in gene expression upon food exposure, a robust set of stably expressed genes is required for ...
Tsukakoshi Yoshiki - - 2011
Here, the uncertainty budget for a total diet study (TDS) was clarified by separating the total measurement uncertainty into the uncertainty arising from the compositional heterogeneity of food items between cities (referred to as inter-city variance), the heterogeneity of food items within cities (intra-city variance), and the chemical analysis of ...
Bhutto A L - - 2010
Intramammary infections (IMI) during the dry period can be reduced through the use of dry cow therapy (DCT); in the future, its blanket use is likely to be questioned in the light of public concern regarding the routine use of antibiotics in food producing animals. One possible alternative is to ...
Zhang Yuanyang - - 2011
Trenbolone (TRE) is a steroid used by veterinarians on livestock to increase appetite and body weight. The use of TRE has been restricted because of its harmful side effect for consumers. To effectively control TRE residue in food and food product, a rapid and convenient immunoassay was developed by preparing ...
Dwyer D S - - 2011
This review will summarize recent findings concerning the biological regulation of starvation as it relates to anorexia nervosa (AN), a serious eating disorder that mainly affects female adolescents and young adults. AN is generally viewed as a psychosomatic disorder mediated by obsessive concerns about weight, perfectionism and an overwhelming desire ...
Wiczer Brian M - - 2010
mTOR is a principal effector of nutrient action, integrating nutritional inputs from glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, as well as growth factor and hormonal signals. The mTOR signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating cell growth and proliferation, and has been studied extensively in a variety of metabolic ...
Florant Gregory L - - 2010
Mammals that hibernate (hibernators) exhibit a circannual rhythm of food intake and body mass. In the laboratory during the winter hibernation period, many hibernators enter a series of multi-day torpor bouts, dropping their body temperature to near ambient, and cease to feed even if food is present in their cage. ...
de Castro John M - - 2010
The control of food intake has been studied using reductionism; by separately investigating environmental, physiological, and genetic variables. The general model of intake regulation attempts to reassemble the pieces into an organized whole. It postulates that intake is influenced by sets of both physiological factors which have negative feedback loops ...
Dandona Paresh - - 2010
With the global increase in the epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes with a concomitant increase in atherosclerotic disease, an investigation into the effects of various macronutrients and food products has become necessary. Such investigation will allow us to better understand the relationship between the intake of various macronutrients ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2010
It is difficult to describe hydration status and hydration extremes because fluid intakes and excretion patterns of free-living individuals are poorly documented and regulation of human water balance is complex and dynamic. This investigation provided reference values for euhydration (i.e., body mass, daily fluid intake, serum osmolality; M +/- SD); ...
Baghbanzadeh Ali - - 2010
The role played by adrenergic system in water intake, especially food intake, has long been known in mammals. In avian species, there have been many experiments exploring the effects of the adrenergic system in different sites in the central nervous system in meat- and egg-type poultry. This study was designed ...
Bermingham Ann - - 2010
Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's ...
Harthoorn Lucien F - - 2009
Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A(280), and alpha-amylase activity were measured before, during and after ...
Suo Satoshi - - 2009
Amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline, play important roles in the modulation of behaviors and metabolism of animals. InC. elegans, it has been shown that serotonin and octopamine, an invertebrate equivalent of noradrenaline, also regulate lifespan through a mechanism related to food deprivation-mediated lifespan extension. We have shown ...
Henderson Julie - - 2009
Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 ...
de Castro John M - - 2009
Intake in the morning is associated with a reduction in the total intake for the day, while intake at night is associated with greater overall daily intake. These associations are macronutrient specific, with morning carbohydrate intake associated with reduced daily carbohydrate intake, morning fat intake associated with reduced daily fat ...
Amano Masafumi - - 2009
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) was first discovered in the pituitary gland of the chum salmon for its role in the regulation of skin pallor. Currently, MCH is known to be present in the brains of organisms ranging from fish to mammals. MCH has been suggested to be conserved principally as a ...
Nolan Laurence J - - 2009
Sensory specific satiation (SSS) occurs in the absence of postingestive feedback via use of a modified sham feeding procedure (MSF) which can increase satiety and fullness ratings. In the present experiment, less suppression of food intake after MSF than after eating was predicted. Furthermore, since variety tends to increase food ...
Vivanti A P - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Studies amongst older people with acute dysphagic stroke requiring thickened fluids have assessed fluid intakes from combinations of beverage, food, enteral and parenteral sources, but not all sources simultaneously. The present study aimed to comprehensively assess total water intake from food, beverages, enteral and parenteral sources amongst dysphagic adult ...
Hermans Roel C J - - 2009
This study investigates the effects of the quality of social interaction on modeling of food intake among young women. A two (confederate's food intake: high versus low) by two (confederate's sociability: sociable versus unsociable) between-participant factorial design was employed. A total of 100 young women (18-27 years) participated. Findings indicated ...
Anschutz Doeschka J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet ...
Brondel L - - 2009
Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for ...
Sugiyama Tomoko - - 2009
The present study aimed to determine whether there is excessive mean daily intake of phosphorus in 3- to 5-year-old Japanese children and to ascertain relationships between phosphorus intake and various food and beverage groups. Subjects comprised of 90 children, with 15 boys and 15 girls in each age group from ...
Essed Natasja H - - 2009
Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus non-enhanced soup on intake and ...
Cakir I┼čin - - 2009
Sirt1 is an evolutionarily conserved NAD(+) dependent deacetylase involved in a wide range of processes including cellular differentiation, apoptosis, as well as metabolism, and aging. In this study, we investigated the role of hypothalamic Sirt1 in energy balance. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA mediated knock down of hypothalamic Sirt1 showed to ...
Wohlers Erica M EM University of Minnesota, MN 55454, USA. - - 2009
Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter ...
Martin Corby K CK Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University-System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA. - - 2009
Measuring free-living peoples' food intake represents methodological and technical challenges. The Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) involves participants capturing pictures of their food selection and plate waste and sending these pictures to the research center via a wireless network, where they are analyzed by Registered Dietitians to estimate food intake. ...
Liu Yinliang - - 2008
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created by biotechnology to serve people with much benefit while may impose risks to ecological environment and human health and therefore need careful regulation. During the past two decades, GMOs have been well developed in China and so has their corresponding regulation. This paper reviews ...
Havemann Lize - - 2008
The aim of the study was to investigate the pre- and during-race nutritional intake of cyclists competing in a 210-km 1-day ultraendurance cycle race. Forty-five endurance-trained male cyclists participated in this dietary survey and completed a 3-day dietary record. Mean reported carbohydrate (CHO) intake over the 3 days before the ...
Harthoorn Lucien F - - 2008
Human saliva contains numerous salivary components that are fundamental for a healthy oral environment and the oral processing of foods. To study a possible differential influence of orosensory stimulation and metabolic activation on salivary composition, human parotid salivary flow, pH, A(280), and alpha-amylase activity were measured before, during and after ...
Sandoval Darleen D Department of Psychiatry, Genome Research Institute, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, USA. - - 2008
Current models hold that peripheral and CNS GLP-1 signaling operate as distinct systems whereby CNS GLP-1 regulates food intake and circulating GLP-1 regulates glucose homeostasis. There is accumulating evidence that the arcuate nucleus, an area of the CNS that regulates energy homeostasis, responds to hormones and nutrients to regulate glucose ...
Tassoni Emanuela - - 2008
We report the synthesis and evaluation of aminoalkylguanidine analogues and derivatives in C57BL/KsJ db/db diabetic mice, following identification by random screening of 1a and 1b as potential antihyperglycemics and/or modulators of food intake. These compounds are related to galegine, a gamma,gamma-dimethylallylguanidine. Between the newly identified compounds, 1h N-(cyclopropylmethyl)- N'-(4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexylmethyl)guanidine showed ...
Saeki Hiroyuki - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We studied food intake in 107 patients undergoing gastric surgery, with emphasis on postoperative quality of life (QOL). The time course of food intake after surgery, sex- and age-related differences in food intake, and the relation of food intake to surgical procedure were evaluated retrospectively. METHODOLOGY: The following variables ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2008
Complement C3a and C5a are released from C3 and C5, respectively, on activation of the complement system and play an important role in immune response. C3a, C5a and their receptors have been revealed to be present in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the peripheral immune system. We ...
Luhovyy Bohdan L - - 2007
Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ...
Chapman Ian McPhee - - 2007
Undernutrition is common in the elderly, particularly those in nursing homes and other institutions. It is associated with substantial adverse effects. The age-associated physiologic reduction in appetite and food intake, which has been termed "the anorexia of aging," contributes to the development of pathologic anorexia and undernutrition. This article reviews ...
Weijzen P L G - - 2008
The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects (N=59) tested ...
Rigault Caroline - - 2008
Human adults store around 20g of l-carnitine. In the human body, l-carnitine is not metabolized but excreted through the kidney. Lost l-carnitine has to be replenished either by a biosynthetic mechanism or by the consumption of foods containing l-carnitine. Today, there is no "official" recommended daily allowance for l-carnitine but ...
Lu Yu-Yu - - 2007
Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), alkylphenols combined with ethylene oxide, are a class of nonionic surfactants. APEO have been widely used for industrial, agricultural and household applications, and are biodegraded to more persistent and estrogen-active products, namely, nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), butylphenol (BP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP(1)EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP(2)EO). This study ...
Molokanov A - - 2007
The uncertainties related to activity measurement and time pattern of intake in routine monitoring of internal exposure are considered through the example of tritiated water intakes. For this purpose, a combination of intake-to-bioassay and bioassay-to-intake calculations with Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced as a method of investigation. The time ...
Spencer David - - 2007
During the decommissioning of a large glove box facility at Dounreay, in addition to engineering and administration controls, workers wore pressurised suits to minimise their intake of radionuclides. The workers provided nose blows after each suited operation to provide an indication of the effectiveness of protective measures. The nose blows ...
Buchanan Jessica B - - 2007
A number of inflammatory cytokines are synthesized and released after activation of the immune system. In addition to other biological effects, these cytokines can potently inhibit food intake. Cytokine-mediated inhibition of food intake is of particular importance because excessive production of peripheral inflammatory cytokines is often associated with the cachexia-anorexia ...
Holberton R L - - 2007
The functional role of corticosterone (CORT) in regulating migratory hyperphagia and lipogenesis was investigated in an annual migrant, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Intraperitoneal injections of either dexamethasone (9 microg DXM/500 microL of 5% EtOH in saline, n=10) to inhibit an increase in baseline CORT or saline (5% EtOH, n=9) ...
Dowell Shannon A - - 2006
In this small pilot study, the authors examined the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) to electronically self-monitor the dietary and fluid intake of individuals receiving hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to describe intake patterns of fluid, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, protein, and calories over a 3-month period ...
Renwick Andrew G - - 2006
Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer ...
Cortès, C.
In stall-feeding conditions, food diversity has been shown to increase an animal's motivation to eat and its level of food intake. This effect has also been suggested, but not demonstrated, for free-grazing animals. In free-grazing conditions, however, animals may have to search for the preferred plant species and this may ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2006
Food intake is regulated in both the short- and long-term by a complex physiological system that involves neuroendocrine pathways that are both distinct and overlapping. The underlying causes and mechanisms of the dysregulation of food intake in obesity is poorly understood; however, it is clear that dietary components interact with ...
Nerín Maria Antonia - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: High altitude and exposure to cold are associated with significant levels of dehydration because of cold-altitude urine output, high energy expenditures, and poor access to water. The aims of the present study were to measure the fluid intake and urine output among military mountaineers during their stay at high ...
Hobbs Stuart S - - 2005
The Neuregulins (NRGs) are members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. EGF family members regulate the signaling of ErbB family receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), ErbB2/HER2/Neu, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4. We have previously demonstrated that the EGF family hormone NRG2beta is a ...
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