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Oken Kiva L KL Quantitative Ecology and Resource Management, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
The potential of predation to structure marine food webs is widely acknowledged. However, available tools to detect the regulation of prey population dynamics by predation are limited, partly because available population data often aggregate a population's age structure into a single biomass or abundance metric. Additionally, many food webs are ...
Mayer Victoria L VL Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 1205 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, - - 2014
An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has ...
Silvi Stefania S School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy - - 2014
Abstract A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled ...
Datta Mridul M a Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Medical Center Blvd., Wells Fargo Building , Winston-Salem , NC - - 2014
Abstract Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry in the U.S., and their use is increasing exponentially. Additionally, many foods and beverages are increasingly being fortified with single or multiple vitamins and minerals. Consequently, nutrient intakes are exceeding the safe limits established by the Institute of Medicine. In this paper, ...
Robinson Eric E Psychological Sciences, Eleanor Rathbone Building, University of Liverpool Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the ...
Ford Christopher N CN Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North - - 2014
U.S. dietary studies from 2003 to 2010 show decreases in children's caloric intake. We examined purchases of consumer packaged foods/beverages in the U.S. between 2000 and 2011 among households with children aged 2-5 years. To describe changes in consumer packaged goods (CPG) purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for ...
Ariyasu Hiroyuki H Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, - - 2014
Ghrelin has a potent orexigenic effect and induces adiposity when administered exogenously. Since plasma ghrelin levels rise before meals, ghrelin was thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of appetite. In contrast, mice deficient in the production of ghrelin or the corresponding receptor, GHS-R, do not eat less, ...
Cvijić Sandra S Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, University of Belgrade - Faculty of Pharmacy, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to mechanistically interpret the oral absorption pattern of trospium in fasted and fed states by means of gastrointestinal simulation technology. Drug absorption model was built on the basis of experimental data. According to the generated model, low permeability across the intestinal epithelium, delayed gastric ...
DE Knegt L V LV National Food Institute, Division of Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics,Technical University of - - 2014
SUMMARY Microbial subtyping approaches are commonly used for source attribution of human salmonellosis. Such methods require data on Salmonella in animals and humans, outbreaks, infection abroad and amounts of food available for consumption. A source attribution model was applied to 24 European countries, requiring special data management to produce a ...
Graham Alexis L AL Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ, - - 2014
Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m(2)) enrolled in ...
Sims David W DW Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom;Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, Southampton SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom;Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom; - - 2014
Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies ...
Robinson E E Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2014
It has been suggested that providing consumers with smaller dishware may prove an effective way of helping people eat less and preventing weight gain, but experimental evidence supporting this has been mixed. The objective of the present work was to examine the current evidence base for whether experimentally manipulated differences ...
Unger Erin E From the Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (E.U., D.M.L.-J.); Department of Epidemiology, Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor (A.V.D.-R.); Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (D.M.L.-J., S.E.B., H.N., N.B.A.); Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley (M.S.M.); The Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (J.A.N); and Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC - - 2014
The concept of cardiovascular health (CVH) was introduced as a global measure of one's burden of cardiovsacular risk factors. Previous studies established the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and individual cardiovascular risk factors. However, the relationship between neighborhood environment and overall CVH remains unknown. We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study ...
Albar Salwa A SA Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, Room G.07, Food Science Building, University of Leeds,LeedsLS2 - - 2014
The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most ...
Gourdet Camille K CK Research Specialist, (cgourdet@uic.edu), Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1747 W. Roosevelt Road, M/C 275, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Competitive foods remain prevalent in schools even though the majority of states' laws have addressed this for several years. Whereas updated federal standards take effect during school year 2014-2015, aspects of competitive food regulation will remain relegated to the states and districts and concerns exist about compliance with the federal ...
McConnell Jennifer A JA Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8520, - - 2014
Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food ...
Natale Ruby A RA *Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; †Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; ‡Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, - - 2014
To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a ...
Anthimopoulos Marios M - - 2014
Computer vision-based food recognition could be used to estimate a meal's carbohydrate content for diabetic patients. This study proposes a methodology for automatic food recognition, based on the bag-of-features (BoF) model. An extensive technical investigation was conducted for the identification and optimization of the best performing components involved in the ...
Garbutt Jennie S JS Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Ashworth Laboratories, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK - - 2014
Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for ...
Luong Anh D AD Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Research Group EnVOC, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
We combined data from an outdoor mesocosm experiment with carbon budget modelling and an ecological network analysis to assess the effects of continuous nutrient additions on the structural and functional dynamics of a marine planktonic ecosystem. The food web receiving no nutrient additions was fuelled by detritus, as zooplankton consumed ...
Berkowitz Seth A SA Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MADepartment of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
To determine whether dietary patterns associated with food insecurity are associated with poor longitudinal glycemic control.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a prospective, population-based, longitudinal cohort study, we ascertained food security (Food Security Survey Module), dietary pattern (Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in Puerto Rican adults ...
Naik Kshipra K Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology & Science Pilani K K Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, 403726, - - 2014
To study the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) activity of AgCl-TiO2 nanoparticles (ATNPs) and its mechanism. Anti-QS activity of ATNPs was evaluated using the bacterial model Chromobacterium violaceum. Silver present in ATNPs significantly reduced violacein production in a concentration dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. Anti-QS activity was confirmed by the ...
Higginson Andrew D AD School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The primary function of lipid storage by animals is as an energy source for surviving periods without food. However, muscle and organ protein can be metabolised for energy, and empirical studies have shown that the onset of protein metabolism begins before the exhaustion of lipid reserves. Since protein tissues are ...
van den Akker Karolien K Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in ...
Ainsworth Cameron H CH University of South Florida. College of Marine Science, 140 7th St., Petersburg, FL, USA, - - 2014
Anthropogenic stress has been shown to reduce coral coverage in ecosystems all over the world. A phase shift towards an algae-dominated system may accompany coral loss. In this case, the composition of the reef-associated fish assemblage will change and human communities relying on reef fisheries for income and food security ...
Hu Yanbing Y College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, No.5 of Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. - - 2014
A fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model was constructed, and the biotic concentrations of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area were estimated accordingly, using the water and sediment concentrations described in the accompanying paper (Part I). This paper presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a ...
Gunnell Sarah S Health Promotion and Human Development, College of Professional Studies, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, 1901 North Avenue, Stevens Point, WI, 54481, USA, - - 2014
Resettled refugees experience high levels of food insecurity because of low English proficiency, limited job skills, and lack of understanding of the United States food system. This study evaluated integrating Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) into English as Second Language (ESL) classes taught at a worksite- training program for ...
Hu Yanbing Y College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. - - 2014
A fugacity-based model was developed to simulate the bioaccumulation of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area. The predicted biological tissue residues of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) were 0.04-17.09, 0.14-53.54, and 0.27-108.77 ng-Sn g(-1), respectively, and the predicted values in six mollusca agreed ...
Lesaint Florian F Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7222, Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotique, F-75005, Paris, France; CNRS, UMR 7222, Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotique, F-75005, Paris, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments ...
Georgsson Jennie - - 2014
GPR103, a G-protein coupled receptor, has been reported to have orexigenic properties through activation by the endogenous neuropeptide ligands, QRFP26 and QRFP43. Recognizing that central administration of QRFP26 and QRFP43 increases high fat food intake in rats, we decided to investigate if antagonists of GPR103 could play a role in ...
Finley John Westcott - - 2014
The Earth's population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, posing significant challenges in meeting human needs while minimally impacting the environment. To support this population we will need secure and safe sources of food, energy, and water. The nexus of food, energy and water is one of the ...
Ames Susan L SL School of Community and Global Health, Claremont Graduate University, 675 West foothill Blvd. Suite 310, Claremont, CA 91711-3475, USA.. Electronic address: - - 2014
Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks ...
Tsai Chen-Chih CC Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, - - 2014
Fluid-feeding Lepidoptera use an elongated proboscis, conventionally modeled as a drinking straw, to feed from pools and films of liquid. Using the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), we show that the inherent structural features of the lepidopteran proboscis contradict the basic assumptions of the drinking-straw model. By experimentally characterizing permeability ...
Gregori Dario D Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Via Loredan, 18, 35121, Padova, Italy, - - 2014
To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and ...
Mulder Bob C BC Strategic Communication, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Low public acceptance hinders the successful introduction of biotechnological innovations, such as genetically modified foods or vaccinations against infectious diseases. Earlier studies indicated that a lack of knowledge is not a key barrier to acceptance. This was confirmed in the current study, which examined an integrated theoretical model tested among ...
Helfer Peter P Department of Psychology and Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the ...
Marino Andrea A Centro Nacional Patagónico-CONICET, B. Brown 2915, U 9120 ACF, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina, - - 2014
Ungulates living in predator-free reserves offer the opportunity to study the influence of food limitation on population dynamics without the potentially confounding effects of top-down regulation or livestock competition. We assessed the influence of relative forage availability and population density on guanaco recruitment in two predator-free reserves in eastern Patagonia, ...
Engeset Dagrun D 1Department of Community Medicine,UiT The Arctic University of Norway,N-9037 - - 2014
To identify dietary patterns with whole grains as a main focus to see if there is a similar whole grain pattern in the three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Another objective is to see if items suggested for a Nordic Food Index will form a typical Nordic pattern when ...
Lescord Gretchen L GL University of New Brunswick/Canadian Rivers Institute, 100 Tucker Park Rd, Saint John, NB E2L 4A6, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
In temperate regions of Canada, mercury (Hg) concentrations in biota and the magnitude of Hg biomagnification through food webs vary between neighboring lakes and are related to water chemistry variables and physical lake features. However, few studies have examined factors affecting the variable Hg concentrations in landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus ...
Ahrens Birgit B Department of Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin,, - - 2014
Scope: Considering the increasing numbers of patients suffering from food allergy (FA) as well as the great variety of novel foods and food compositions, an unmet need exists for the development of preclinical approaches to characterize the allergenic potential of proteins. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ...
Artiaga G G Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2015
In this work, silver migration from commercial food containers was evaluated according to European Regulation 10/2011. Several experimental parameters affected silver release: food simulant, temperature, exposition time and sampled bag area. Results demonstrated a significant silver nanoparticle (AgNP) migration into aqueous and acidic simulants. The amount of silver migrated increased ...
Davis George C GC 1Department of Human Nutrition,Foods,and Exercise and Agricultural and Applied Economics,Virginia Tech University,214 Hutcheson Hall,Blacksburg,VA - - 2014
An important debate in the literature is whether or not higher energy-dense foods are cheaper than less energy-dense foods. The present communication develops and applies an easy statistical test to determine if the relationship between food price and energy density is an artifact of how the data units are constructed ...
Vangay P P Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, - - 2014
Increasing evidence suggests that persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants has been the underlying cause of a number of human listeriosis outbreaks. This study extracts criteria used by food safety experts in determining bacterial persistence in the environment, using retail delicatessen operations as a model. Using the Delphi ...
Wechsler Joshua B JB Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, 225 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2014
Eosinophilic esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation, and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases. Studies in animal models and from patients have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of ...
Yoon Changwook C Department of Mathematical Sciences, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701, Korea, - - 2014
Chemotaxis models are based on spatial or temporal gradient measurements by individual organisms. The key contribution of Keller and Segel (J Theor Biol 30:225-234, 1971a; J Theor Biol 30:235-248, 1971b) is showing that erratic measurements of individuals may result in an accurate chemotaxis phenomenon as a group. In this paper ...
Fransen Heidi P HP Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The - - 2014
Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis are used frequently to derive dietary patterns. Decisions on how many patterns to extract are primarily based on subjective criteria, whereas different solutions vary in their food-group composition and perhaps association with disease outcome. Literature on reliability of dietary patterns is scarce, and ...
Corona Teresa - - 2014
The inorganic elements potentially migrating from cork to a food simulant (a hydroalcoholic solution containing 12% and 20% (v/v) ethanol) have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection. The experimental instrumental conditions were evaluated in depth, taking into account spectroscopic and ...
Korczak Renee R Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota - - 2014
Satiety, the feeling of fullness from a meal, is of interest in obesity treatment and prevention. Foods that are sources of dietary fiber can promote satiety, but previous studies report conflicting results since not all fibers are equally satiating. Complex fiber mixtures such as those found in oat and barley ...
Hone-Blanchet Antoine A Laboratory of Canada Research Chair in Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre Interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale, Centre de Recherche l'Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Québec, Medical School, Laval University, - - 2014
Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising ...
Pei Z Z 1] Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany [2] Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, - - 2014
Background/Objectives:Mother's body mass index (BMI) is a strong predictor of child BMI. Whether mother's BMI correlates with child's food intake is unclear. We investigated associations between mother's BMI/overweight and child's food intake using data from two German birth cohorts.Subjects/Methods:Food intakes from 3230 participants were derived from parent-completed food frequency questionnaires. ...
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