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Emer Sherri A SA Department of Biological Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Blvd., Melbourne, FL, 32901, - - 2014
Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) ...
Patel Shivani A SA Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2014
Household food insecurity is a population health concern disproportionately affecting families with children in the United States. Unwanted childbearing may place unanticipated strain on families to meet basic needs, heightening the risk for household food insecurity. We investigated the association between mother's and father's report of unwanted childbearing and exposure ...
Steinglass Joanna J Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; Psychology Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New - - 2014
Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Individuals with AN (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, ...
Peace Angela A School of Mathematical and Statistical Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1804, USA, - - 2014
Modeling under the framework of ecological stoichiometric allows the investigation of the effects of food quality on food web population dynamics. Recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that grazer dynamics are affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P)/carbon (C) ratio) as well as excess food nutrient content (high ...
Ruf Thomas T Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstraße 1, A-1160, Vienna, Austria; Centre for Behavioural and Physiological Ecology, Zoology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, 2351, - - 2014
Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e. the maintenance of high body temperatures. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e. hypometabolic states associated with low body temperature (torpor), have been distinguished: daily torpor, which ...
Lefebvre David E DE Regulatory Toxicology Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Canada , Ottawa , Canada - - 2014
Abstract Engineered metal/mineral, lipid and biochemical macromolecule nanomaterials (NMs) have potential applications in food. Methodologies for the assessment of NM digestion and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract are nascent and require refinement. A working group was tasked by the International Life Sciences Institute NanoRelease Food Additive project to review existing ...
Kölzsch A A Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands; Project Group Movement Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The - - 2014
1.Herbivorous birds are hypothesized to migrate in spring along a seasonal gradient of plant profitability towards their breeding grounds (green wave hypothesis). For Arctic-breeding species in particular, following highly profitable food is important, so that they can replenish resources along the way and arrive in optimal body condition to start ...
Sunsay Ceyhun - - 2014
The prediction-error model of dopamine (DA) signaling has largely been confirmed with various appetitive Pavlovian conditioning procedures and has been supported in tests of Pavlovian extinction. Studies have repeatedly shown, however, that extinction does not erase the original memory of conditioning as the prediction-error model presumes, putting the model at ...
Stea Tonje H - - 2014
While healthy lifestyle habits are generally assumed to be important for high academic achievement, there has been little research on this topic among adolescents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the associations between several lifestyle habits and academic achievement in adolescent girls and boys. The study included ...
Palfreyman Zoe Z Loughborough University Centre for Research into Eating Disorders, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK; De Montfort University, Leicester, - - 2014
Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM; Palfreyman, Haycraft & Meyer, 2012) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during ...
Bott Johannes J a Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV) , Freising , - - 2014
Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration ...
Fierens T T Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium; Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates - one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were ...
Ahmadi Naseam N 1Faculty of Land and Food Systems,University of British Columbia,2205 East Mall,Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada V6T - - 2014
To examine associations between students' socio-economic status (SES) and school-day dietary intake, and the roles of parents and peers in shaping these associations. A cross-sectional survey measured school-day intake of vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, packaged snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Logistic regression models examined associations between SES (parental education ...
Joyce Theodore T Department of Economics and Finance 10-225, Baruch College, City University of New York, 55 Lexington Ave, New York, NY, 10010, USA, - - 2014
In December of 2007, the Federal Register published an Interim Rule establishing revised food packages for participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) that was implemented by states in 2009. We analyze changes in breastfeeding among WIC participants from the period before to period ...
Laureati Monica M Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred-sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For ...
Turner-McGrievy Gabrielle M GM Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, South Carolina, - - 2014
Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery ...
Hui Amy Leung AL Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
To understand barriers and coping strategies of women with gestational diabetes (GDM) to follow dietary advice. Qualitative study. Thirty women with GDM from the Winnipeg area participated. Each participant completed a Food Choice Map (FCM) semi-structured interview and a demographic questionnaire. Underlying beliefs of women with GDM and factors that ...
DE Knegt L V LV National Food Institute, Division of Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics,Technical University of - - 2014
SUMMARY A Bayesian modelling approach comparing the occurrence of Salmonella serovars in animals and humans was used to attribute salmonellosis cases to broilers, turkeys, pigs, laying hens, travel and outbreaks in 24 European Union countries. Salmonella data for animals and humans, covering the period from 2007 to 2009, were mainly ...
Bhattacharya Raja R Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
An organism's ability to thrive in changing environmental conditions requires the capacity for making flexible behavioral responses. Here we show that, in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, foraging responses to changes in food availability require nlp-12, a homolog of the mammalian neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK). nlp-12 expression is limited to a single ...
Innamorati Marco M Università Europea di Roma, via degli Aldobrandeschi 190, 00163, Rome, Italy, - - 2014
To assess the dimensionality and psychometric properties of an Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of obese/overweight patients attending low-energy diet therapy. Participants were 300 overweight and obese patients who were admitted to a private medical center in Rome, Italy. Controls were 300 (231 ...
Oken Kiva L KL Quantitative Ecology and Resource Management, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, - - 2014
The potential of predation to structure marine food webs is widely acknowledged. However, available tools to detect the regulation of prey population dynamics by predation are limited, partly because available population data often aggregate a population's age structure into a single biomass or abundance metric. Additionally, many food webs are ...
Couch Sarah C - - 2014
The objective of this cohort study was to explore relationships among the home food environment (HFE), child/parent characteristics, diet quality, and measured weight status among 699 child-parent pairs from King County, WA, and San Diego County, CA. HFE variables included parenting style/feeding practices, food rules, frequency of eating out, home ...
Mayer Victoria L VL Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 1205 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, - - 2014
An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has ...
Silvi Stefania S School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino , Camerino , Italy - - 2014
Abstract A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled ...
Datta Mridul M a Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Medical Center Blvd., Wells Fargo Building , Winston-Salem , NC - - 2014
Abstract Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry in the U.S., and their use is increasing exponentially. Additionally, many foods and beverages are increasingly being fortified with single or multiple vitamins and minerals. Consequently, nutrient intakes are exceeding the safe limits established by the Institute of Medicine. In this paper, ...
Robinson Eric E Psychological Sciences, Eleanor Rathbone Building, University of Liverpool Liverpool, L69 7ZA, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the ...
Ford Christopher N CN Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North - - 2014
U.S. dietary studies from 2003 to 2010 show decreases in children's caloric intake. We examined purchases of consumer packaged foods/beverages in the U.S. between 2000 and 2011 among households with children aged 2-5 years. To describe changes in consumer packaged goods (CPG) purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for ...
Sugiura Katsuaki K Department of Global Agricultural Sciences, Graduate school of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Using a stochastic simulation model, we estimated the effectiveness of the three BSE interventions (SRM removal, post-mortem testing and cohort culling) in Japan, in terms of the amount of bovine ID50 that would be prevented from entering the human food supply and the number of life years that would be ...
Ariyasu Hiroyuki H Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, - - 2014
Ghrelin has a potent orexigenic effect and induces adiposity when administered exogenously. Since plasma ghrelin levels rise before meals, ghrelin was thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of appetite. In contrast, mice deficient in the production of ghrelin or the corresponding receptor, GHS-R, do not eat less, ...
Cvijić Sandra S Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, University of Belgrade - Faculty of Pharmacy, Vojvode Stepe 450, Belgrade, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to mechanistically interpret the oral absorption pattern of trospium in fasted and fed states by means of gastrointestinal simulation technology. Drug absorption model was built on the basis of experimental data. According to the generated model, low permeability across the intestinal epithelium, delayed gastric ...
DE Knegt L V LV National Food Institute, Division of Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics,Technical University of - - 2014
SUMMARY Microbial subtyping approaches are commonly used for source attribution of human salmonellosis. Such methods require data on Salmonella in animals and humans, outbreaks, infection abroad and amounts of food available for consumption. A source attribution model was applied to 24 European countries, requiring special data management to produce a ...
Graham Alexis L AL Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ, - - 2014
Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m(2)) enrolled in ...
Sims David W DW Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom;Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, Southampton SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom;Centre for Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom; - - 2014
Efficient searching is crucial for timely location of food and other resources. Recent studies show that diverse living animals use a theoretically optimal scale-free random search for sparse resources known as a Lévy walk, but little is known of the origins and evolution of foraging behavior and the search strategies ...
Robinson E E Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, - - 2014
It has been suggested that providing consumers with smaller dishware may prove an effective way of helping people eat less and preventing weight gain, but experimental evidence supporting this has been mixed. The objective of the present work was to examine the current evidence base for whether experimentally manipulated differences ...
Unger Erin E From the Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (E.U., D.M.L.-J.); Department of Epidemiology, Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor (A.V.D.-R.); Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (D.M.L.-J., S.E.B., H.N., N.B.A.); Division of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley (M.S.M.); The Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (J.A.N); and Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC - - 2014
The concept of cardiovascular health (CVH) was introduced as a global measure of one's burden of cardiovsacular risk factors. Previous studies established the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and individual cardiovascular risk factors. However, the relationship between neighborhood environment and overall CVH remains unknown. We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study ...
Albar Salwa A SA Nutritional Epidemiology Group, School of Food Science and Nutrition, Room G.07, Food Science Building, University of Leeds,LeedsLS2 - - 2014
The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most ...
Gourdet Camille K CK Research Specialist, (cgourdet@uic.edu), Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1747 W. Roosevelt Road, M/C 275, Chicago, IL - - 2014
Competitive foods remain prevalent in schools even though the majority of states' laws have addressed this for several years. Whereas updated federal standards take effect during school year 2014-2015, aspects of competitive food regulation will remain relegated to the states and districts and concerns exist about compliance with the federal ...
McConnell Jennifer A JA Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8520, - - 2014
Temperature is a primary factor in controlling the growth of microorganisms in food. The current U. S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code guidelines state that food can be kept out of temperature control for up to 4 h without qualifiers, or up to 6 h, if the food ...
Natale Ruby A RA *Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; †Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL; ‡Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, - - 2014
To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a ...
Anthimopoulos Marios M - - 2014
Computer vision-based food recognition could be used to estimate a meal's carbohydrate content for diabetic patients. This study proposes a methodology for automatic food recognition, based on the bag-of-features (BoF) model. An extensive technical investigation was conducted for the identification and optimization of the best performing components involved in the ...
Garbutt Jennie S JS Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Ashworth Laboratories, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK - - 2014
Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for ...
Luong Anh D AD Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Research Group EnVOC, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
We combined data from an outdoor mesocosm experiment with carbon budget modelling and an ecological network analysis to assess the effects of continuous nutrient additions on the structural and functional dynamics of a marine planktonic ecosystem. The food web receiving no nutrient additions was fuelled by detritus, as zooplankton consumed ...
Berkowitz Seth A SA Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MADepartment of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA - - 2014
To determine whether dietary patterns associated with food insecurity are associated with poor longitudinal glycemic control.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a prospective, population-based, longitudinal cohort study, we ascertained food security (Food Security Survey Module), dietary pattern (Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in Puerto Rican adults ...
Naik Kshipra K Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology & Science Pilani K K Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, 403726, - - 2014
To study the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) activity of AgCl-TiO2 nanoparticles (ATNPs) and its mechanism. Anti-QS activity of ATNPs was evaluated using the bacterial model Chromobacterium violaceum. Silver present in ATNPs significantly reduced violacein production in a concentration dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. Anti-QS activity was confirmed by the ...
Higginson Andrew D AD School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
The primary function of lipid storage by animals is as an energy source for surviving periods without food. However, muscle and organ protein can be metabolised for energy, and empirical studies have shown that the onset of protein metabolism begins before the exhaustion of lipid reserves. Since protein tissues are ...
van den Akker Karolien K Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in ...
Ainsworth Cameron H CH University of South Florida. College of Marine Science, 140 7th St., Petersburg, FL, USA, - - 2014
Anthropogenic stress has been shown to reduce coral coverage in ecosystems all over the world. A phase shift towards an algae-dominated system may accompany coral loss. In this case, the composition of the reef-associated fish assemblage will change and human communities relying on reef fisheries for income and food security ...
Hu Yanbing Y College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, No.5 of Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. - - 2014
A fugacity-based food web bioaccumulation model was constructed, and the biotic concentrations of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area were estimated accordingly, using the water and sediment concentrations described in the accompanying paper (Part I). This paper presents an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a ...
Gunnell Sarah S Health Promotion and Human Development, College of Professional Studies, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, 1901 North Avenue, Stevens Point, WI, 54481, USA, - - 2014
Resettled refugees experience high levels of food insecurity because of low English proficiency, limited job skills, and lack of understanding of the United States food system. This study evaluated integrating Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) into English as Second Language (ESL) classes taught at a worksite- training program for ...
Hu Yanbing Y College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, No. 5, Yushan Road, Qingdao 266003, China. - - 2014
A fugacity-based model was developed to simulate the bioaccumulation of butyltins in the food web of the Jincheng Bay mariculture area. The predicted biological tissue residues of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) were 0.04-17.09, 0.14-53.54, and 0.27-108.77 ng-Sn g(-1), respectively, and the predicted values in six mollusca agreed ...
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