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Results 401 - 450 of 1670
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Haque Mainul - - 2013
The current paper accounts for the influence of intra-specific competition among predators in a prey dependent tri-trophic food chain model of interacting populations. We offer a detailed mathematical analysis of the proposed food chain model to illustrate some of the significant results that has arisen from the interplay of deterministic ...
Jeanson Sophie - - 2013
Lactococci inoculated into cheese grow as colonies producing lactic acid. The pH-microgradients were investigated around colonies, for the first time in a complex food such as cheese. The results demonstrated that pH-microgradients did not occur regardless of the acidification kinetics and the size of the colony, using a non-destructive technique.
Planqué Robert - - 2013
Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when ...
Mughini-Gras L - - 2013
SUMMARY The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. ...
Johnson Donna B - - 2013
The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated ...
Huelsemann F - - 2013
Dietary analysis using δ(15) N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15) N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary ...
Ben-Davies Maureen E - - 2013
To identify factors associated with the presence and severity of food insecurity among a sample of Honduran caregivers of young children. Cross-sectional study in which the dependent variable, household food insecurity, was measured using a fourteen-item questionnaire developed and validated in a population of similar cultural context. A predictive modelling ...
Biemans H - - 2013
The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6billion in 2000 towards 2billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate ...
Su Kuo-Chih - - 2013
This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of ...
Gosselin Jennifer L - - 2013
Determining when resource competition increases survivorship can reveal processes underlying population dynamics and reinforce the importance of heterogeneity among individuals in conservation. We ran an experiment mimicking the effects of competition in a growing season on survivorship during a selection event (e.g., overwinter starvation, drought). Using a model fish species ...
Sánchez Peréz J A JA Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain; CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería, - - 2013
This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent ...
Halder Amal K - - 2013
Structured observation is frequently used to measure handwashing at critical events, such as after fecal contact and before eating, but it is time-consuming. We aimed to assess the impact of reducing the duration of structured observation on the number and type of critical events observed. The study recruited 100 randomly ...
Wang Julie - - 2013
To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on traditional Chinese medicine. FAHF-2 has proven to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These ...
Nanney Marilyn S - - 2013
The distribution of food and nutrition policies and practices from 28 US states representing 6,732 secondary schools was evaluated using data from the 2008 School Health Profiles principal survey. School policies and practices evaluated were: availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense (LNED) snacks/drinks; use of healthy eating strategies; banning food marketing; availability ...
Kremers Stef - - 2013
Abstract Background: Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels-parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article ...
Lee Jae Yeon - - 2013
Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen ...
Martins Ana Paula Bortoletto AP Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São PauloSP, - - 2013
OBJECTIVE To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. METHODS Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in the ...
Arcan Chrisa C Division of Epidemiology and Community of Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA. - - 2013
Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of ...
McGaw Iain J - - 2013
Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the ...
Horn Charles C - - 2013
Nausea and vomiting are biological systems for defense against food poisoning that are also provoked by numerous drugs (e.g., chemotherapy, anesthesia) and chronic diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetic gastroparesis). The sensory pathways that stimulate nausea and vomiting include vestibular, area postrema, and forebrain inputs, but the gut vagal afferent component of ...
Ellickson-Larew Stephanie - - 2013
The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of ...
Gu Baojing - - 2013
The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr ...
Klecka Jan - - 2013
Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed ...
Moore Kari - - 2013
Little is known about the neighbourhood characteristics of workplaces, the extent to which they are independently and synergistically correlated with residential environments, and their impact on health. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between home and workplace neighbourhood environments with body mass index (BMI) in 1503 working participants of the Multi-Ethnic ...
Berntssen M H G - - 2013
European Union legislation on the upper limits of toxaphene in feed and food include the congeners CHB-26, CHB-62 and CHB-50 and is set at 50 µg kg(-1) feed for the sum of these three congeners. However, due to their elevated presence in fish, the congeners CHB-40 and CHB-41, CHB-44, and CHB-42 ...
Santillana Farakos S M - - 2013
Salmonella can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Reduced microbial inactivation during heating is believed to be due to the interaction of cells and water, and is thought to be related to water activity (aw). Little is known about the role of water mobility in influencing the ...
Hollands Simon - - 2013
To investigate the association between fast-food restaurant density and adult body mass index (BMI) in Canada. Individual-level BMI and confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey master file. Locations of the fast-food and full-service chain restaurants and other non-chain restaurants were obtained from the 2008 Infogroup ...
Péan Samuel - - 2013
The use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned for several decades. PCBs have a long biological half-life and high liposolubility which leads to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food chains over a wide range of trophic levels. Exposure can lead to changes in animal physiology and behavior and has ...
Suciu Nicoleta A - - 2013
Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure ...
Robinson Eric - - 2013
Attentive eating means eating devoid of distraction and increasing awareness and memory for food being consumed. Encouraging individuals to eat more attentively could help reduce calorie intake, as a strong evidence base suggests that memory and awareness of food being consumed substantially influence energy intake. The development and feasibility testing ...
Säterberg Torbjörn - - 2013
Intensified exploitation of natural populations and habitats has led to increased mortality rates and decreased abundances of many species. There is a growing concern that this might cause critical abundance thresholds of species to be crossed, with extinction cascades and state shifts in ecosystems as a consequence. When increased mortality ...
Plante Sabrina - - 2013
Most animals need to actively search for food to meet energetic requirements and live in heterogeneous environments where food resources have complex spatio-temporal patterns of availability. Consequently, foraging animals need to find a balance between effort and resource allocation while accounting for intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are often overlooked ...
Wu Linhai - - 2013
This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food ...
Kalinkat Gregor - - 2013
The stability of ecological communities depends strongly on quantitative characteristics of population interactions (type-II vs. type-III functional responses) and the distribution of body masses across species. Until now, these two aspects have almost exclusively been treated separately leaving a substantial gap in our general understanding of food webs. We analysed ...
Jayaratne Naomi - - 2013
Vitamin D intake from foods or supplements is a safe and attractive means to improve vitamin D status of populations. The aim of this study was to help identify population subgroups that would benefit most from efforts to increase intake. To do so, we investigated which personal characteristics are associated ...
Strait David S - - 2013
Recent biomechanical analyses examining the feeding adaptations of early hominins have yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that hard foods exerted a selection pressure that influenced the evolution of australopith morphology. However, this hypothesis appears inconsistent with recent reconstructions of early hominin diet based on dental microwear and stable isotopes. ...
Niiranen Susa - - 2013
Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and ...
Hou Y - - 2013
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China's food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. ...
Albu Adriana A Discipline of Hygiene-Environmental Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, - - 2013
Food is a major contributor to healthy children and youth. The study of this factor must be complex, considering the dietary habits of the population. 65 pupils from rural area were surveyed weekly about eating chicken, fish, fruits, bread and cereal by-products. A special attention was given to daily consumption ...
Anderson Emma L EL MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United - - 2013
Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary ...
Singh C P - - 2013
A comparative study was conducted for the food items and feeding pattern of Channa punctatus in pond environment and in reservoir of Tarai region in Uttarakhand state. Observation was made for body length, gut length, food and feeding frequency and qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut content. Both, body length ...
Wood Brian M - - 2013
We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not ...
Pearce J - - 2013
Mandatory food-based and nutrient-based standards for the food provided in English schools were introduced in 2008 (primary) and 2009 (secondary) and have had a positive impact on pupils' food choice and nutrient intake at school. There are no recommendations for portion sizes in England, although anecdotal evidence suggests that portions ...
Lowe Michael R - - 2013
The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients ...
Kamran-Disfani Ahmad R - - 2013
It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of ...
Burgoine Thomas - - 2013
Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment ('foodscape'). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete ...
Scarborough P - - 2013
Background/Objective:The World Health Assembly recommends that children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods should be reduced. Nutrient profile models have been developed that define 'unhealthy' to support regulation of broadcast advertising of foods to children. The level of agreement between these models is not clear. The objective of this study ...
Costa Hermann Ferreira - - 2013
Food allergy is a severe human disease with imminent risk of life. Cissampelos sympodialis (Menispermaceae) is a native Brazilian plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory allergies. In this study the experimental model of food allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA) was used to determine whether the ...
Bae Min-Jung - - 2013
Peanut allergy is IgE-mediated type-I hypersensitivity, and T helper 2 cytokines are central to those pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of the administration of chitin and chitosan on peanut-induced hypersensitivities in mouse food allergy models. Chitin and chitosan protected mice against peanut-induced anaphylaxis reactions, and the peanut-specific IgE production decreased ...
Faber Mieke - - 2013
Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food ...
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