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Results 401 - 450 of 1706
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Doyennette M - - 2013
A mechanistic model predicting flavour release during oral processing of masticated foods was developed. The description of main physiological steps (product mastication and swallowing) and physical mechanisms (mass transfer, product breakdown and dissolution) occurring while eating allowed satisfactory simulation of in vivo release profiles of ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone, measured ...
Baek Jonggyu - - 2013
Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2013
Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among ...
Dekker Louise H - - 2013
Insight into the stability of dietary behavior over time is important, because only a single measurement of diet is often available to study the association between eating behavior and the occurrence of chronic diseases many years after baseline data collection. Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. ...
Aceves Seema S - - 2013
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing prevalence in children and adults. The triggering antigen in EoE is often a food that initiates a cascade of Th2 associated interleukins such as IL-5, -13, and chemokines such as eotaxin-3 as well as esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Amino acid based ...
Radwan Asma - - 2013
Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents ...
Richmond Tracy K - - 2013
Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 ...
Yeakel Justin D JD Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California, 95064. - - 2014
Foraging is constrained by the energy within resources and the mechanics of acquisition and assimilation. Thick molar enamel, a character trait differentiating hominins from African apes, is predicted to mitigate the mechanical costs of chewing obdurate foods. The classic expression of hyperthick enamel together with relatively massive molars, termed megadontia, ...
Chung Younshik - - 2013
More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In ...
Prasad B S R V - - 2013
Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in ...
Walter Adriani - - 2013
Individual differences in behavioral flexibility are a significant issue in human psychopathology as well as in its animal models. We aimed to investigate individual variations of operant-choice behavior in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, using a new operant panel with two hand-poking holes. Methods. Experimental ...
Hebestreit A - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2-9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and ...
de Medeiros Maria Angélica Tavares - - 2013
Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A ...
Minaker Leia M - - 2013
Pathways by which food environments affect residents' diet-related outcomes are still unclear. Understanding pathways may help decision makers identify food environment strategies to promote healthy diets. To examine the hypothesis that residents' perceptions mediate the relationship between objective food environment and residents' diet quality and weight status. In the Waterloo ...
Cook Judith A - - 2013
This editorial discusses the problem of obesity in people with serious mental illnesses, as well as the role of those in the field of psychiatric/psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) in addressing this issue. The term "obesogenic environment" has been coined to refer to environments that both promote weight gain and act as ...
Waters A Blake - - 2013
In 2010 the Salt Lake Valley Health Department conducted a pilot of an announced inspection program utilizing a randomized assignment of restaurants to an intervention group with announced inspections and a control group that remained on the usual schedule of unannounced inspections. After adjusting for food type, visible kitchen, outside ...
Gholami Ali - - 2013
To assess the prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among rural households in north-east of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4647 rural households (18,061 persons) were studied in Neyshabur, a city in north-east of Iran. The Iranian version of the Six-Item Short questionnaire of Household Food ...
Wasserberg Gideon - - 2013
For organisms lacking parental care and where larval dispersal is limited, oviposition site selection decisions are critical fitness-enhancing choices. However, studies usually do not consider the interdependence of the two. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food level on the oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the ...
Armstrong Jonathan B - - 2013
Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily ...
Bonnet Céline C Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse 1 Capitole, Toulouse, - - 2013
Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be ...
Pacherres Cesar O - - 2013
Large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) cause frequent and severe changes in the physico-chemical environment of Andaman Sea coral reefs and are a potentially important source of disturbance for corals. To explore the coral response to LAIW, prey capture disposition and photosynthesis were investigated in relation to changes in seawater temperature, ...
Ruokolainen Lasse - - 2013
The physiological performance and behaviour of organisms is contingent on environmental conditions. When these conditions vary over time, this can have important consequences for the dynamics of individual populations and entire species communities. While the importance of environmental variation on the structuring and stability of natural food webs is recognised, ...
Schulte-Mecklenbeck Michael - - 2013
The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, ...
Hanušová Kristýna - - 2013
Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticiser and stabiliser mainly in food contact materials on the base of polyvinylchloride (PVC), especially in the gaskets of jar lids. PVC gaskets containing 10-37% of ESBO were prepared by the baking of PVC plastisols at various process temperatures (180-240°C) in ...
Manjrekar Eishita - - 2013
Consistent with affect regulation models of eating-related psychopathology, prior research indicates that trait-like shame and state self-conscious emotion are associated with maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors. The present investigation extended past research on shame and maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors by examining the role of shame aversion - the perception of shame as an ...
Wang Jing - - 2013
Abstract The classification of food allergens based on the structure and function of proteins contributes to the study of the relationship between bioinformatics and potential allergenicity of allergens. Food allergens always share sequence similarity with the allergens in the same allergen families. For that reason, food proteins from different allergen ...
Turbill Christopher - - 2013
Abstract Energy expenditure is a key mechanism underlying animal ecology, yet why individuals often differ in metabolic rate even under identical conditions remains largely unexplained. Individual variation in metabolism might be explained by correlations with other behavioral and physiological traits, with individual syndromes having environment- or state-dependent costs and benefits ...
Booth Shawn - - 2013
We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot ...
Xia Binfeng B Department Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, One Health Plaza 436 3253, East Hanover, New Jersey 07936, - - 2013
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has become a useful tool to estimate the performance of orally administrated drugs. Here, we described multiple in silico/in vitro/in vivo tools to support formulation development toward mitigating the positive food effect of NVS123, a weak base with a pH-dependent and limited solubility. Administered orally ...
Oliveira A Virgílio M - - 2013
The present work is dedicated to the study of cold thermal environments in food distribution industrial units through a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire which aims to describe the working conditions of employees often exposed to cold. The survey was carried out in Portugal and the sample consists ...
Barletta Bianca - - 2013
Among food allergies, peanut allergy is frequently associated with severe anaphylactic reactions. In the need for safe and effective therapeutic strategies, probiotics may be considered on the basis of their immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological mediators involved in the effects of probiotic ...
Shivappa Nitin - - 2013
To design and develop a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index (DII) to compare diverse populations on the inflammatory potential of their diets. Peer-reviewed primary research articles published through December 2010 on the effect of diet on inflammation were screened for possible inclusion in the DII scoring algorithm. Qualifying articles were ...
Ivar do Sul Juliana A - - 2013
Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine ...
Cowie Sarah - - 2013
Six pigeons worked on concurrent exponential variable-interval schedules in which the relative frequency of food deliveries for responding on the two alternatives reversed at a fixed time after each food delivery. Across conditions, the point of food-ratio reversal was varied from 10 s to 30 s, and the overall reinforcer rate was ...
Haque Mainul - - 2013
The current paper accounts for the influence of intra-specific competition among predators in a prey dependent tri-trophic food chain model of interacting populations. We offer a detailed mathematical analysis of the proposed food chain model to illustrate some of the significant results that has arisen from the interplay of deterministic ...
Jeanson Sophie - - 2013
Lactococci inoculated into cheese grow as colonies producing lactic acid. The pH-microgradients were investigated around colonies, for the first time in a complex food such as cheese. The results demonstrated that pH-microgradients did not occur regardless of the acidification kinetics and the size of the colony, using a non-destructive technique.
Planqué Robert - - 2013
Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when ...
Mughini-Gras L - - 2013
SUMMARY The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. ...
Johnson Donna B - - 2013
The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated ...
Huelsemann F - - 2013
Dietary analysis using δ(15) N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15) N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary ...
Ben-Davies Maureen E - - 2013
To identify factors associated with the presence and severity of food insecurity among a sample of Honduran caregivers of young children. Cross-sectional study in which the dependent variable, household food insecurity, was measured using a fourteen-item questionnaire developed and validated in a population of similar cultural context. A predictive modelling ...
Biemans H - - 2013
The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6billion in 2000 towards 2billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate ...
Su Kuo-Chih - - 2013
This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of ...
Gosselin Jennifer L - - 2013
Determining when resource competition increases survivorship can reveal processes underlying population dynamics and reinforce the importance of heterogeneity among individuals in conservation. We ran an experiment mimicking the effects of competition in a growing season on survivorship during a selection event (e.g., overwinter starvation, drought). Using a model fish species ...
Sánchez Peréz J A JA Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain; CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería, - - 2013
This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent ...
Halder Amal K - - 2013
Structured observation is frequently used to measure handwashing at critical events, such as after fecal contact and before eating, but it is time-consuming. We aimed to assess the impact of reducing the duration of structured observation on the number and type of critical events observed. The study recruited 100 randomly ...
Wang Julie - - 2013
To describe the development of a novel treatment for food allergy, named the food allergy herbal formula-2 (FAHF-2), that is based on traditional Chinese medicine. FAHF-2 has proven to be well tolerated and effective for the treatment of food allergies in murine models of peanut and multiple food allergies. These ...
Nanney Marilyn S - - 2013
The distribution of food and nutrition policies and practices from 28 US states representing 6,732 secondary schools was evaluated using data from the 2008 School Health Profiles principal survey. School policies and practices evaluated were: availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense (LNED) snacks/drinks; use of healthy eating strategies; banning food marketing; availability ...
Lee Jae Yeon - - 2013
Data are limited on the association between dietary patterns and screen time among Korean adolescents. The present study identified dietary patterns of 691 adolescents, aged 13-18 years, who had participated in the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) and analyzed their associations with screen time. Screen ...
Martins Ana Paula Bortoletto AP Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São PauloSP, - - 2013
OBJECTIVE To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. METHODS Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in the ...
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