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Scheuerl Thomas T Imperial College London Silwood Park Campus, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, U.K ; Research Institute for Limnology, University of Innsbruck 5310, Mondsee, - - 2013
Local adaptation is an important principle in a world of environmental change and might be critical for species persistence. We tested the hypothesis that replicated populations can attain rapid local adaptation under two varying laboratory environments. Clonal subpopulations of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were allowed to adapt to ...
Haatanen Marja-Katariina MK 1 Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, FI-20014 University of Turku, - - 2013
Abstract Body size in animals is affected by both genes and the environment (e.g., the amount of food resources). In ants, body size is related to several traits in an individual's physiology and life history. For example, a large queen may increase offspring production, thus increasing her overall fitness. In ...
Kemps Eva - - 2013
There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food ...
Ashok Kumar Hassan G - - 2013
Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) belong to the pathogenesis-related family (PR-5) of plant defense proteins. TLPs from only 32 plant genera have been identified as pollen or food allergens. IgE epitopes on allergens play a central role in food allergy by initiating cross-linking of specific IgE on basophils/mast cells. A comparative analysis ...
Vetander Mirja - - 2013
Knowledge about repeated food reactions in paediatric emergency departments (ED) is sparse. To investigate the incidence and potential risk factors for repeated ED-visits for food allergic reactions among children with a prior ED visit due to reactions to food. 358 children with ED visits at paediatric hospitals in Stockholm due ...
Burgess E E - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse ...
Johansson Jacob - - 2013
Phenological shifts belong to the most commonly observed biological responses to recent climate change. It is, however, often unclear how these shifts are linked to demography and competitive interactions. We develop an eco-evolutionary model to study adaptation of timing of reproduction in organisms with social dominance hierarchies. We focus on ...
Brooker Rohan M RM School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University Townsville, Queensland, Australia ; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef studies, James Cook University Townsville, Queensland, - - 2013
Foraging theory predicts that individuals should choose a prey that maximizes energy rewards relative to the energy expended to access, capture, and consume the prey. However, the relative roles of differences in the nutritive value of foods and costs associated with differences in prey accessibility are not always clear. Coral-feeding ...
Christophersen Philip Carsten - - 2013
The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was either ...
Loth Katie A - - 2013
To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Adolescents (N = 2,231) and their parents (N = 3,431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or ...
Remington Benjamin C - - 2013
In the United States, packaged food ingredients derived from allergenic sources must be clearly labeled. However, no requirement exists to declare the presence of residues of raw agricultural commodities due to agricultural commodity comingling. Clinical reports of allergic reactions to undeclared soy in wheat-based products do not exist suggesting that ...
Doyennette M - - 2013
A mechanistic model predicting flavour release during oral processing of masticated foods was developed. The description of main physiological steps (product mastication and swallowing) and physical mechanisms (mass transfer, product breakdown and dissolution) occurring while eating allowed satisfactory simulation of in vivo release profiles of ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone, measured ...
Baek Jonggyu - - 2013
Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2013
Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among ...
Dekker Louise H - - 2013
Insight into the stability of dietary behavior over time is important, because only a single measurement of diet is often available to study the association between eating behavior and the occurrence of chronic diseases many years after baseline data collection. Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. ...
Aceves Seema S - - 2013
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing prevalence in children and adults. The triggering antigen in EoE is often a food that initiates a cascade of Th2 associated interleukins such as IL-5, -13, and chemokines such as eotaxin-3 as well as esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Amino acid based ...
Radwan Asma - - 2013
Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents ...
Richmond Tracy K - - 2013
Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 ...
Yeakel Justin D JD Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California, 95064. - - 2014
Foraging is constrained by the energy within resources and the mechanics of acquisition and assimilation. Thick molar enamel, a character trait differentiating hominins from African apes, is predicted to mitigate the mechanical costs of chewing obdurate foods. The classic expression of hyperthick enamel together with relatively massive molars, termed megadontia, ...
Chung Younshik - - 2013
More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In ...
Prasad B S R V - - 2013
Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in ...
Walter Adriani - - 2013
Individual differences in behavioral flexibility are a significant issue in human psychopathology as well as in its animal models. We aimed to investigate individual variations of operant-choice behavior in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, using a new operant panel with two hand-poking holes. Methods. Experimental ...
Hebestreit A - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2-9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and ...
de Medeiros Maria Angélica Tavares - - 2013
Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A ...
Minaker Leia M - - 2013
Pathways by which food environments affect residents' diet-related outcomes are still unclear. Understanding pathways may help decision makers identify food environment strategies to promote healthy diets. To examine the hypothesis that residents' perceptions mediate the relationship between objective food environment and residents' diet quality and weight status. In the Waterloo ...
Cook Judith A - - 2013
This editorial discusses the problem of obesity in people with serious mental illnesses, as well as the role of those in the field of psychiatric/psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) in addressing this issue. The term "obesogenic environment" has been coined to refer to environments that both promote weight gain and act as ...
Waters A Blake - - 2013
In 2010 the Salt Lake Valley Health Department conducted a pilot of an announced inspection program utilizing a randomized assignment of restaurants to an intervention group with announced inspections and a control group that remained on the usual schedule of unannounced inspections. After adjusting for food type, visible kitchen, outside ...
Gholami Ali - - 2013
To assess the prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among rural households in north-east of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4647 rural households (18,061 persons) were studied in Neyshabur, a city in north-east of Iran. The Iranian version of the Six-Item Short questionnaire of Household Food ...
Wasserberg Gideon - - 2013
For organisms lacking parental care and where larval dispersal is limited, oviposition site selection decisions are critical fitness-enhancing choices. However, studies usually do not consider the interdependence of the two. In this study, we evaluated the effect of food level on the oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the ...
Armstrong Jonathan B - - 2013
Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily ...
Bonnet Céline C Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse 1 Capitole, Toulouse, - - 2013
Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be ...
Pacherres Cesar O - - 2013
Large amplitude internal waves (LAIW) cause frequent and severe changes in the physico-chemical environment of Andaman Sea coral reefs and are a potentially important source of disturbance for corals. To explore the coral response to LAIW, prey capture disposition and photosynthesis were investigated in relation to changes in seawater temperature, ...
Ruokolainen Lasse - - 2013
The physiological performance and behaviour of organisms is contingent on environmental conditions. When these conditions vary over time, this can have important consequences for the dynamics of individual populations and entire species communities. While the importance of environmental variation on the structuring and stability of natural food webs is recognised, ...
Schulte-Mecklenbeck Michael - - 2013
The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, ...
Hanušová Kristýna - - 2013
Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) is widely used as a plasticiser and stabiliser mainly in food contact materials on the base of polyvinylchloride (PVC), especially in the gaskets of jar lids. PVC gaskets containing 10-37% of ESBO were prepared by the baking of PVC plastisols at various process temperatures (180-240°C) in ...
Manjrekar Eishita - - 2013
Consistent with affect regulation models of eating-related psychopathology, prior research indicates that trait-like shame and state self-conscious emotion are associated with maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors. The present investigation extended past research on shame and maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors by examining the role of shame aversion - the perception of shame as an ...
Wang Jing - - 2013
Abstract The classification of food allergens based on the structure and function of proteins contributes to the study of the relationship between bioinformatics and potential allergenicity of allergens. Food allergens always share sequence similarity with the allergens in the same allergen families. For that reason, food proteins from different allergen ...
Turbill Christopher - - 2013
Abstract Energy expenditure is a key mechanism underlying animal ecology, yet why individuals often differ in metabolic rate even under identical conditions remains largely unexplained. Individual variation in metabolism might be explained by correlations with other behavioral and physiological traits, with individual syndromes having environment- or state-dependent costs and benefits ...
Xia Binfeng - - 2013
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has become a useful tool to estimate the performance of orally administrated drugs. Here, we described multiple in silico/in vitro/in vivo tools to support formulation development toward mitigating the positive food effect of NVS123, a weak base with a pH-dependent and limited solubility. Administered orally ...
Booth Shawn - - 2013
We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot ...
Oliveira A Virgílio M - - 2013
The present work is dedicated to the study of cold thermal environments in food distribution industrial units through a subjective assessment based on an individual questionnaire which aims to describe the working conditions of employees often exposed to cold. The survey was carried out in Portugal and the sample consists ...
Barletta Bianca - - 2013
Among food allergies, peanut allergy is frequently associated with severe anaphylactic reactions. In the need for safe and effective therapeutic strategies, probiotics may be considered on the basis of their immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological mediators involved in the effects of probiotic ...
Shivappa Nitin - - 2013
To design and develop a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index (DII) to compare diverse populations on the inflammatory potential of their diets. Peer-reviewed primary research articles published through December 2010 on the effect of diet on inflammation were screened for possible inclusion in the DII scoring algorithm. Qualifying articles were ...
Ivar do Sul Juliana A - - 2013
Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine ...
Cowie Sarah - - 2013
Six pigeons worked on concurrent exponential variable-interval schedules in which the relative frequency of food deliveries for responding on the two alternatives reversed at a fixed time after each food delivery. Across conditions, the point of food-ratio reversal was varied from 10 s to 30 s, and the overall reinforcer rate was ...
Haque Mainul - - 2013
The current paper accounts for the influence of intra-specific competition among predators in a prey dependent tri-trophic food chain model of interacting populations. We offer a detailed mathematical analysis of the proposed food chain model to illustrate some of the significant results that has arisen from the interplay of deterministic ...
Jeanson Sophie - - 2013
Lactococci inoculated into cheese grow as colonies producing lactic acid. The pH-microgradients were investigated around colonies, for the first time in a complex food such as cheese. The results demonstrated that pH-microgradients did not occur regardless of the acidification kinetics and the size of the colony, using a non-destructive technique.
Planqué Robert - - 2013
Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when ...
Mughini-Gras L - - 2013
SUMMARY The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. ...
Johnson Donna B - - 2013
The present study measured the perceived impact and political and implementation feasibility of state-level policy strategies related to increasing access to healthy foods and limiting unhealthy foods. Potential state-level policy strategies to improve access to healthy foods were identified through a review of evidence-based literature and policy recommendations. Respondents rated ...
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