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Clerfeuille E - - 2013
Nutrient profiling classifies individual food products according to their nutrient content. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), validation is a key step in the development of a nutrient profiling system. The aim was to assess the construct validity of five European nutrient profiling systems (Choices, Keyhole, (AFSSA), European Commission ...
Davidek Tomas - - 2013
A fractional factorial experimental design was used to quantify the impact of process and recipe parameters on selected product attributes of extruded products (colour, viscosity, acrylamide, and the flavour marker 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, HDMF). The study has shown that recipe parameters (lysine, phosphate) can be used to modulate the HDMF level without ...
Duran A C - - 2013
Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional ...
Reitzel Lorraine R - - 2013
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to address current gaps in the literature by examining the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) density around the home and FFR proximity to the home, respectively, with body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of African American adults from Houston, Texas. ...
Peace Angela - - 2013
There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. For example, modeling under this framework allows food quality to affect consumer dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that ...
Overby Nina Cecilie - - 2013
Aim: The academic performance of children impacts future educational attainment which may increase socioeconomic status which again influences their health. One of several factors that might affect academic performance is the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross sectional relation between diet and self-reported reading-, writing-, ...
Batra Payal - - 2013
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy ...
Bellingeri Michele - - 2013
Food web responses to species loss have been mostly studied in binary food webs, thus without accounting for the amount of energy transferred in consumer-resource interactions. We introduce an energetic criterion, called extinction threshold, for which a species goes secondarily extinct when a certain fraction of its incoming energy is ...
Giacomini Henrique C - - 2013
Most models of fish growth and predation dynamics assume that food ingestion rate is the major component of the energy budget affected by prey availability, while active metabolism is invariant (here called constant activity hypothesis). However, increasing empirical evidence supports an opposing view: fish tend to adjust their foraging activity ...
Davis Caroline - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to employ a novel genetic methodology - whereby functional variants of the dopamine pathway were aggregated to reflect a polygenic liability - in the study of food addiction. We anticipated that the composite index of elevated dopamine signaling (a multilocus genetic profile score [MLGP]) would distinguish ...
Schnoell Anna Viktoria - - 2013
Reports on behavioural innovations in wild primate populations as well as on their transmission are rare. Here, we report observations suggesting that redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) invent new behaviours in the wild. We observed a novel feeding behaviour in redfronted lemurs in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. The feeding behaviour consisted ...
Laird Brian D - - 2013
Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods ...
Ma Lin - - 2013
The Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) costs of food production have increased greatly in China during the last 30 years, leading to eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate leaching to ground water, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present the results of scenario analyses in which possible changes in food production ...
Wu Felicia - - 2013
In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food ...
Calu Donna J - - 2013
Excessive consumption of unhealthy foods is a major public health problem. While many people attempt to control their food intake through dieting, many relapse to unhealthy eating habits within a few months. We have begun to study this clinical condition in rats by adapting the reinstatement model, which has been ...
Deangelis Donald L - - 2013
Traits such as skill at foraging and investment in anti-predator defense may vary among individuals within a species population. This intraspecific variation has implications for community dynamics. The implications of intraspecific variation of a consumer in the intermediate level of a tritrophic food chain are explored for the case in ...
Holt Robert D - - 2013
Predator-prey interactions play out in a physical matrix defined at least to some extent by the quantity and architecture of plants. Ambush predators for instance might more effectively encounter and capture prey in thick vegetation than in thin, open vegetation with good visibility. Yet these vegetation attributes are themselves potentially ...
Khajeh Mostafa - - 2013
In this study, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was employed to develop prediction model for removal of manganese from food samples using tea waste as a low cost adsorbent. After removal of manganese from food samples with acetic acid (5molL(-1)), manganese was adsorbed to a small amount of ...
Melin A D - - 2013
Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and ...
Monge-Rojas Rafael - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial ...
Le Révérend Benjamin J D - - 2013
Eating is a complex process with a range of phenomena occurring simultaneously, including fracture, temperature changes, mixing with saliva, flavour and aroma release. Sensory perception as experienced in the oral cavity has a strong effect on the overall acceptability of the food. Thus in an engineering sense one would want ...
Jones-Smith Jessica C - - 2013
OBJECTIVESIt is unknown whether any association between neighborhood food environment and obesity varies according to individual income and/or race/ethnicity. The objectives of this study were to test whether there was an association between food environments and obesity among adults with diabetes and whether this relationship differed according to individual income ...
Coura Oliveira Tatiana - - 2013
Although some animal models of food allergy in have already have been described, none of them uses the allergen in the animals' diet. This work describes the comparison between two developed models of food allergy in BALB/c mice, based in the administration of the allergen in the diet or by ...
Lee Hae-Rim - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Sulfur-Methyl-L-Methionine (SMM) have been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study ...
Williams Julie - - 2013
Microbial populations in a full-scale anaerobic digester fed on food waste were monitored over an 18-month period using qPCR. The digester exhibited a highly dynamic environment in which methanogenic populations changed constantly in response to availability of substrates and inhibitors. The methanogenic population in the digester was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, ...
Cobiac Linda J - - 2013
Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary ...
Mistura Lorenza - - 2013
This paper provides a model to assess dietary exposure to flavouring substances intentionally added to food. The purpose is to describe the approaches currently available and their scientific basis. The proposed exposure model for flavouring substances envisages three different levels of refinement: basic, intermediate and refined. At the two first ...
Wikenheiser Andrew M AM Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2013
Laboratory studies of decision making often take the form of two-alternative, forced-choice paradigms. In natural settings, however, many decision problems arise as stay/go choices. We designed a foraging task to test intertemporal decision making in rats via stay/go decisions. Subjects did not follow the rate-maximizing strategy of choosing only food ...
Gkogka E - - 2013
In the course of the last decade, the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), the Food Safety Objective (FSO) and their associated metrics have been proposed by the World Trade Organization and Codex Alimentarius as a means for competent authorities to ultimately translate governmental public health policy regarding food safety into ...
Pignatti Riccardo - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive (O-C) traits, and excessive food intake are well known behavioural manifestations among individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Other unwanted behaviours are also frequently observed, but they need a more specific investigation, especially in the adult population. METHODS: The behaviour of 31 PWS adults was investigated via the Symptom ...
van Asselt E D - - 2013
Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is derived that describes the uptake ...
Liu Lin - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The Food- Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary assessment tool frequently used in large-scale nutritional epidemiology studies. The goal of the present study is to validate a self-administered version of the Hawaii FFQ modified for use in the general adult population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). METHODS: Over a ...
Brinsden H - - 2013
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Many companies have signed voluntary agreements to restrict the marketing of foods high in fat, sugar and salt directly to children. Several nutrient profiling schemes have been proposed for defining products which can be advertised to children. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Provides evidence ...
Meglio Paolo - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The common treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy is to avoid the offending item and educating patients on appropriate emergency measures. Recently, attempts to gain food tolerance with oral administration of increasing doses of the offending food have become frequent. Desensitization procedures are risky and safety is a ...
Brissette Ian - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To examine purchase patterns at fast-food restaurants and their relation to restaurant characteristics, customer characteristics, and use of calorie information. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Fast-food restaurants in New York State. PARTICIPANTS: Adult fast-food restaurant customers (n = 1,094). VARIABLES MEASURED: Restaurant characteristics (fast-food chain type, presence of calorie labels, ...
Bray Emily E - - 2013
Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, ...
Lanerolle P - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Novel portion size estimation aids relevant to the cognitive potential of children are necessary for an improved accuracy in dietary recall. We developed graduated realistic food models for Asian foods and tested their accuracy and precision in children. METHODS: Food models were constructed for nine commonly consumed food items ...
Deville Anne-Sophie - - 2013
Accurate knowledge of the functional response of predators to prey density is essential for understanding food web dynamics, to parameterize mechanistic models of animal responses to environmental change, and for designing appropriate conservation measures. Greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus), a flagship species of Mediterranean wetlands, primarily feed on Artemias (Artemia spp.) ...
Rosário Rafaela - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of an intervention program held by teachers previously trained in nutrition, on the consumption of low nutrient, energy-dense (LNED) foods, of children attending elementary schools. METHOD: 464 children (239 female, 6 to 12years) from seven elementary Portuguese schools participated in this randomized trial. Three schools ...
Davison Karen M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: To address knowledge gaps regarding natural health product (NHP) usage in mental health populations, we examined their use in adults with mood disorders, and explored the potential for adverse events. METHODS: Food and NHP intake was obtained from 97 adults with mood disorders. NHP data was used to compare ...
Lin Shi Lin - - 2013
BACKGROUND:Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in ...
Xu Y - - 2013
A broad range of fluorochemicals is used to impart oil and water barrier properties to paper and paperboard food packaging. Many of the fluorochemicals are applied to paper and paperboard as complex mixtures containing reaction products and by-products and unreacted starting materials. This work primarily focussed on the determination of ...
Fletcher Amanda - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Consumption of non-core foods in childhood is associated with excessive weight gain in childhood. Parents play a vital role in establishing healthy diet behaviours in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a telephone-based intervention in reducing child consumption of non-core foods, and ...
Zurfluh Michael - - 2013
Conventional migration testing for long-term storage at ambient temperature with Tenax(®) was applied to a recycled paperboard as well as to the same paperboard with a polyethylene or polypropylene film in between. Test conditions were from the European Union plastic Regulation 10/2011, that is, 10 days at 60°C, but previous standard ...
Samanta S - - 2013
Diel vertical migration is a behavioral antipredator defense that is shaped by a trade-off between higher predation risk in surface waters and reduced growth in deeper waters. The strength of migration of zooplankton increases with a rise in the abundance of predators and their exudates (kairomone). Recent studies span multiple ...
Prevedello Jayme A - - 2013
The relative importance of food supply and predation as determinants of animal population density is a topic of enduring debate among ecologists. To address it, many studies have tested the potential effects of food on population density by experimentally supplementing natural populations, with much focus on terrestrial vertebrates, especially small ...
Andreeva Valentina A - - 2013
Certain beneficial foods taste bitter (eg, cruciferous vegetables) and might be aversive to consumers. Here, individual characteristics according to bitter food consumption patterns were assessed. The study included 2,327 participants in the SU.VI.MAX antioxidant-based randomized controlled trial (1994-2002). The sample was drawn from the general French population. Dietary data were ...
Rossetti Damiano - - 2013
Human whole saliva (HWS) is a physiological secretion that performs a number of essential functions including protection of oral health, lubrication of mouth tissues and food pre-digestion. The complexity of the saliva proteome reflects the unique physiochemical functionality of this biofluid. In addition, saliva influences the transduction of aroma, taste ...
Vargas German - - 2013
Lady beetles such as Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville have been categorized as income breeders because egg maturation depends on resources available during reproduction. However, capital resources acquired during larval feeding influence reproductive success via effects on adult body size and other traits. We produced three sizes of ...
Fernandes Meenakshi M MM Abt Associates Inc., 55 Wheeler Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. - - 2013
Since 2003, many states have introduced policies to improve the nutritional content and restrict the availability of competitive foods, which are foods offered outside of the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. This article evaluates the impact of 2 types of state-level policies on the availability of competitive foods in ...
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