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Results 251 - 300 of 1712
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Hemiö Katri K Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. - - 2014
Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman ...
Gebrehiwot Tagel T a Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation , University of Twente , Enschede , The - - 2014
This article examines the main household demographics and economic factors associated with food insecurity and coping behavior of rural households employed during times of food shortages in northern Ethiopia. Using a cost-of-basic-needs approach we estimated the food poverty line. This cut-off value was used to classify households as either food ...
Macho Gabriele A GA Research Laboratory for Archaeology (RLAHA), Oxford, - - 2014
Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. ...
Schürch Roger R Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, United - - 2014
Waggle dancing bees provide nestmates with spatial information about high quality resources. Surprisingly, attempts to quantify the benefits of this encoded spatial information have failed to find positive effects on colony foraging success under many ecological circumstances. Experimental designs have often involved measuring the foraging success of colonies that were ...
Deng Jian J 0000-0002-0841-7084 College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, P.O. Box 95, Shaanxi 712100, China ; The Research Center of Recycle Agricultural Engineering and Technology of Shaanxi Province, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and ...
Cwiek-Ludwicka Kazimiera K National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, - - 2014
Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that ...
Ferrer-Garcia Marta M Department of Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatments, Universitat de - - 2014
This study shows preliminary data on the validity of a new virtual reality-based application for cue-exposure treatment of binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Thirty-eight undergraduate students without eating disorders were exposed to several virtual environments with different foods in four different contexts (kitchen, dining-room, bedroom, and ...
Guénette Sylvie S UMR Agrocampus Ouest, Inra, Ecologie et santé des écosystèmes, Université Européenne de Bretagne, Rennes, - - 2014
Most modelling studies addressed the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA) for fisheries sustainability through single species approach. Only a few models analysed the potential benefits of MPAs at the ecosystem level, estimating the potential export of fish biomass from the reserve or analysing the trophic relationships between organisms inside ...
Coogan Sean C P SC Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, - - 2014
Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose ...
Bui Thi Hong Hanh TH Australian Rivers Institute and School of Environment, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Qld, - - 2014
In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma ...
Moskal Aurelie A Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2014
Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ...
Laursen Karsten K Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Rønde, - - 2014
The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes ...
Del Chierico Federica F Unit of Metagenomics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant'Onofrio, Rome 400165, Italy. - - 2014
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models. Many of the characteristic components of the MD have functional features with positive effects on health and wellness. The MD adherence, calculated through various computational scores, can lead to a reduction of the incidence of major diseases (e.g., ...
Fan Jessie X JX Department of Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, - - 2014
Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between ...
Ballesteros Yolanda Y Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, - - 2014
Although diet has traditionally been considered to be a property of the species or populations as a whole, there is nowadays extensive knowledge that individual specialization is widespread among animal populations. Nevertheless, the factors determining the shape of interactions within food webs remain largely undiscovered, especially in predatory insects. We ...
Correa Sandra Bibiana - - 2014
In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by ...
Xu Zhiwei Z School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, - - 2014
Little is known about the spatiotemporal pattern of bacillary dysentery (BD) in China. This study assessed the geographic distribution and seasonality of BD in China over the past two decades. Data on monthly BD cases in 31 provinces of China from January 1990 to December 2009 obtained from Chinese Center ...
Seligman Hilary K - - 2014
One in seven US households cannot reliably afford food. Food budgets are more frequently exhausted at the end of a month than at other points in time. We postulated that this monthly pattern influenced health outcomes, such as risk for hypoglycemia among people with diabetes. Using administrative data on inpatient ...
Buren Alejandro D AD Cognitive and Behavioural Ecology Programme, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada ; Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, - - 2014
The Northwest Atlantic marine ecosystem off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, has been commercially exploited for centuries. Although periodic declines in various important commercial fish stocks have been observed in this ecosystem, the most drastic changes took place in the early 1990s when the ecosystem structure changed abruptly and has not ...
Boit Alice A University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Department of Ecology & Ecosystem Modelling, Potsdam, Germany ; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam, - - 2014
Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties ...
Okada Ryuichi R Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193, - - 2014
The honeybee waggle dance communicates the location of profitable food sources, usually with a certain degree of error in the directional information ranging from 10-15° at the lower margin. We simulated one-day colonial foraging to address the biological significance of information error in the waggle dance. When the error was ...
Orrock John L JL Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, , Madison, WI 53704, USA, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, , Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
Anti-predator behaviour affects prey population dynamics, mediates cascading effects in food webs and influences the likelihood of rapid extinctions. Predator manipulations in natural settings provide a rare opportunity to understand how prey anti-predator behaviour is affected by large-scale changes in predators. Here, we couple a long-term, island-wide manipulation of an ...
Glaz Patricia P Département de biologie et centre d'études nordiques, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, - - 2014
Perturbations on ecosystems can have profound immediate effects and can, accordingly, greatly alter the natural community. Land-use such as forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...
Heymans Johanna Jacomina JJ Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, United - - 2014
Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts ...
Soldatini Cecilia C Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C., Ensenada, Baja California, - - 2014
Seabirds are affected by changes in the marine ecosystem. The influence of climatic factors on marine food webs can be reflected in long-term seabird population changes. We modelled the survival and recruitment of the Mediterranean storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) using a 21-year mark-recapture dataset involving almost 5000 birds. We ...
Bodirsky Benjamin Leon BL 1] Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg C4, PO Box 60 12 03, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany [2] International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, - - 2014
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an indispensable nutrient for agricultural production and human alimentation. Simultaneously, agriculture is the largest contributor to Nr pollution, causing severe damages to human health and ecosystem services. The trade-off between food availability and Nr pollution can be attenuated by several key mitigation options, including Nr efficiency ...
Wakefield Ewan D ED British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, , High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK, Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, , Fife KY16 8LB, UK, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, , Glasgow G12 8QQ, - - 2014
Animal populations are frequently limited by the availability of food or of habitat. In central-place foragers, the cost of accessing these resources is distance-dependent rather than uniform in space. However, in seabirds, a widely studied exemplar of this paradigm, empirical population models have hitherto ignored this cost. In part, this ...
Mukherjee Shomen S Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, Florida, United States of America ; School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South - - 2014
Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less ...
Zhen Chen C Research Triangle - - 2014
A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and ...
Golubski Antonio J AJ Department of Biology and Physics, Kennesaw State University, , 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, GA 30144, - - 2014
We model a potentially mutualistic interaction between a species making antipredator alarm calls and a species which eavesdrops on those calls. Callers may or may not make deceptive alarm calls in order to kleptoparasitize food from eavesdroppers, which in turn may either heed or ignore all alarm calls. The two ...
Robino Antonietta A Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy; University of Trieste, Trieste, - - 2014
Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six ...
Duchaine Caroline S - - 2014
The increasing consumption of sugar worldwide seems to lead to several health problems, including some types of cancer. While some studies reported a positive association between sweet foods intake and breast cancer risk, little is known about their relation to mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor. This ...
Wood Kevin A KA Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science & Technology, Bournemouth University, Dorset, United - - 2014
Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We ...
Korkala Essi A E EA Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, - - 2014
Climate change is a major public health threat that is exacerbated by food production. Food items differ substantially in the amount of greenhouse gases their production generates and therefore individuals, if willing, can mitigate climate change through dietary choices. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess if the understanding ...
Shibahara Kyoko K Research Center for Food Safety, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan ; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2014
Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is a mediator of food allergic reaction; however, the mechanisms of its production in response to an ingested antigen are not fully understood. For analysis of IgE production, here we propose an IgE response mouse model created by injection of a Th2 cell culture and feeding of ...
- - 2014
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100073.].
Scelza Brooke A BA a Department of Anthropology , University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California , - - 2014
Foraging models have rarely been used to address how behavior is altered by the presence of non-foraged foods. Here, choices of store-bought and hunted foods in one Aboriginal community are analyzed. Hunting occurs frequently, but community residents also purchase food from the shop. Increases in the frequency of hunting certain ...
Klecka Jan J Departmemt of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Laboratory of Theoretical Ecology, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; Department of Ecosystems Biology, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech - - 2014
The structure of food webs is frequently described using phenomenological stochastic models. A prominent example, the niche model, was found to produce artificial food webs resembling real food webs according to a range of summary statistics. However, the size structure of food webs generated by the niche model and real ...
Dixon Laura M LM Animal and Veterinary Science, SRUC, Edinburgh, United - - 2014
Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and ...
Delgado Mikel M MM Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of - - 2014
Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The ...
Paredes Rosana R Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of - - 2014
We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010) at two sites in the ...
Harrison Flo F UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. - - 2014
The school journey may make an important contribution to children's physical activity and provide exposure to food and physical activity environments. Typically, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used to model assumed routes to school in studies, but these may differ from those actually chosen. We aimed to identify the ...
Powolny Thibaut T Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, Villiers en bois, France; Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villiers en bois, - - 2014
The relationship between intake rate and food density can provide the foundation for models that predict the spatiotemporal distribution of organisms across a range of resource densities. The functional response, describing the relationship between resource density and intake rate is often interpreted mechanistically as the relationships between times spend searching ...
Leech Rebecca M RM The Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research (C-PAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, 3125, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during ...
Almendros Sara Sáez - - 2013
Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean ...
Minervini Vanessa V University of Florida Department of Psychology 945 Center Drive Gainesville, FL 32611. Electronic address: - - 2013
When laboratory mice are provided with free access to food, they often fragment their food such that it collects on the cage floor-wasted. An operant analysis of food waste, however, has not yet been conducted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of response requirement and ...
Paulot Fabien - - 2013
We use a model of agricultural sources of ammonia (NH3) coupled to a chemical transport model to estimate the impact of U.S. food export on particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5). We find that food export accounts for 11% of total U.S NH3 emissions (13% of agricultural emissions) and that it increases ...
Massarelli Nicole N University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD,  21250, USA, - - 2013
Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go ...
Zhao Zhenxiang Z Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1747 West Roosevelt Road, Chicago, IL 60608, United States. Electronic address: - - 2013
In this paper, we used a randomized experiment, the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO) study, to assess whether several environmental attributes are causes of obesity. To accomplish our objective, we linked the MTO data with several external data sources that provide information on potential determinants of obesity ...
Carter Megan Ann MA KFL&A Public Health, Kingston, ON K7M 1V5, - - 2014
Childhood excess weight and family food insecurity are food-system related public health problems that exist in Canada. Since both relate to issues of food accessibility, availability and utilization, which have elements of "place", they may share common risk factors in the local environment that are amenable to intervention. In this ...
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