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Results 201 - 250 of 1712
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Meyer Katie A KA Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel - - 2014
IMPORTANCE Fiscal food policies (eg, taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. OBJECTIVE To estimate subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-year follow-up (5 examinations) in a biracial US ...
Schneider Marion M Zoo Koeln, Koeln, - - 2014
Bears in the wild spend large proportions of time in foraging activities. In zoos their time budgets differ markedly from those of their wild counterparts. Feeding enrichment has been documented to increase foraging behavior and to reduce stereotypies. But in general these procedures have no long-term effects and result in ...
Baum William M WM University of California, - - 2014
In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food ...
Lagisz M M Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
Maternal undernutrition can result in significant alterations to the post-natal offspring phenotype, including body size and behaviour. For example, maternal food restriction has been implicated in offspring hyperphagia, potentially causing increased weight gain and fat accumulation. This could result in obesity and other adverse long-term health effects in offspring. We ...
Paupério Ana A Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, - - 2014
The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) is widely used in different countries, however appropriate psychometric analyses are required to allow cross-cultural comparisons. To our knowledge, most studies have been conducted among children and adult populations, with no reference to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to translate and test ...
Cox Daniel T C DT School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Bute Building, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TS, UK, - - 2014
Both mass (as a measure of body reserves) during breeding and adult survival should reflect variation in food availability. Those species that are adapted to less seasonally variable foraging niches and so where competition dominates during breeding, will tend to have a higher mass increase via an interrupted foraging response, ...
Grant Amber A AA School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, - - 2014
This study compared three methods of normalizing demand functions to allow comparison of demand for different commodities and examined how varying reinforcer magnitude affected these analyses. Hens responded under fixed-ratio schedules in 40-min sessions with response requirement doubling each session and with 2-s, 8-s, and 12-s access to wheat. Over ...
Dalenberg Jelle R JR Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Neuroimaging Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2014
Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of ...
Hertog Maarten L A T M ML KU Leuven, BIOSYST-MeBioS, Willem de Croylaan 42, , 3001 Leuven (Heverlee), - - 2014
In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by ...
Manitz Juliane J Department of Statistics and Econometrics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and ...
Uauy Ricardo R Division of Neonatology, Pontifical Catholic University Medical School and Institute of Nutrition INTA Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, - - 2014
Nutritional needs are defined as the amount and chemical form of a nutrient needed to support normal health, growth and development without disturbing the metabolism of other nutrients. Nutrient intake recommendations are based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) of a population group. Enteral and parenteral needs differ for many ...
Martin-Fernandez Judith J INSERM, UMR_S 1136, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Social Epidemiology, Paris, - - 2014
Objective The relationship between food insecurity and obesity is discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods : We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort ...
Tharner Anne A Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Definitions and assessment methods of fussy/picky eating are heterogeneous and remain unclear.We aimed to identify an eating behavior profile reflecting fussy/picky eating in children and to describe characteristics of fussy eaters. Eating behavior was assessed with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 4914 4-year olds in a population-based birth ...
Scott Jeremiah E JE Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, , Carbondale, IL 62901, - - 2014
The robust jaws and large, thick-enameled molars of the Plio-Pleistocene hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus have long been interpreted as adaptations for hard-object feeding. Recent studies of dental microwear indicate that only Paranthropus robustus regularly ate hard items, suggesting that the dentognathic anatomy of other australopiths reflects rare, seasonal exploitation of ...
Baruch-Mordo Sharon S Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of - - 2014
The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to ...
Carrera Olaia O Unidade Venres Clinicos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, - - 2014
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased ...
Bui-Klimke Travis R TR Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models ...
Lucan Sean C SC Department of Family and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine | Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Block Building, Room 410, Bronx, NY 10461. E-mail: - - 2014
Few studies have assessed how people's perceptions of their neighborhood environment compare with objective measures or how self-reported and objective neighborhood measures relate to consumption of fruits and vegetables. A telephone survey of 4,399 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided data on individuals, their households, their neighborhoods (self-defined), their food-environment perceptions, ...
Siegel Karen R KR Nutrition and Health Sciences, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America; Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of - - 2014
Low fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, but much of the world's population does not consume the recommended servings of FV daily. It remains unknown whether global supply of FV is sufficient to meet current and growing population needs. We sought to ...
Feron Gilles G INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, - - 2014
For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food ...
Queliconi Bruno B BB Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo; - - 2014
Protocols for anoxia/starvation in the genetic model organism C. elegans simulate ischemia/reperfusion. Worms are separated from bacterial food and placed under anoxia for 20 hr (simulated ischemia), and subsequently moved to a normal atmosphere with food (simulated reperfusion). This experimental paradigm results in increased death and neuronal damage, and techniques ...
Bjornlie Daniel D DD Large Carnivore Section, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Lander, Wyoming, United States of - - 2014
Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth ...
Liu Yong Y Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Division of Population Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, MS F-78, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep. We analyzed data from the ...
Watanabe Yuuki Y YY National Institute of Polar Research, , Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, - - 2014
Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to ...
Harbron Janetta J Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Observatory 7925, South Africa. - - 2014
The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these ...
Canella Daniela Silva DS Departamento de Nutrição, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess ...
Avadí Angel A Université Montpellier 2- Sciences et Techniques, Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR212 EME IFREMER/IRD/UM2, Sète, - - 2014
Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators ...
Adam Clare L CL Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, - - 2014
Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. ...
Choi Jong-Yun JY Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of - - 2014
In this study, we examined the effects of two phytoplankton species, Chlorella vulgaris and Stephanodiscus hantzschii, on growth of the zooplankton Daphnia magna. Our experimental approach utilized stable isotopes to determine the contribution of food algae to offspring characteristics and to the size of adult D. magna individuals. When equal ...
Lau Jackie J Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research Sydney, NSW, - - 2014
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has ...
Moussu Lise L Allergology department, Centre de l'Asthme et des Allergies, Hôpital d'Enfants Armand-Trousseau (Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris) - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, - - 2014
In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. ...
Meule Adrian A Department of Psychology I, Institute of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, - - 2014
One of the most often used instruments for the assessment of food cravings is the Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ), which consists of a trait (FCQ-T; 39 items) and state (FCQ-S; 15 items) version. Scores on the FCQ-T have been found to be positively associated with eating pathology, body mass index ...
Wolfe Jared D JD School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America ; Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California, United States of - - 2014
Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence ...
Johns David J DJ Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in ...
Jacquier Marine M Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5208, Institut Camille Jordan, Villeurbanne-Cedex, France; Inria Team Dracula, Inria Center Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, - - 2014
Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, ...
Rasconi Serena S CNRS UMR 6250, UMRi 7266, LIENSs, Université de La Rochelle La Rochelle, - - 2014
This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom ...
Keshteli Ah A Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, - - 2014
Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Within the framework of the ...
Collins Patricia A PA Queen's University. - - 2014
Household food insecurity (HFI) is a persistent public health problem affecting 3.8 million Canadians. While the causes of HFI are rooted in income insecurity, solutions to HFI have been primarily food-based, with the bulk of activity occurring at the municipal level across Canada. We conceptualize these municipal-level actions as falling ...
Merlo Caitlin L CL Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop F-78, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Most students in grades kindergarten through 12 have access to foods and beverages during the school day outside the federal school meal programs, which are called competitive foods. At the time of this study, competitive foods were subject to minimal federal nutrition standards, but states could implement additional standards. Our ...
Heath Michael R MR Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Strathclyde, Livingstone Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, - - 2014
Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding ...
Shin Hyeong-Moo HM Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and ...
Taber Daniel R DR Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of - - 2014
Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that ...
Iizumi Toshichika T National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, - - 2014
The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus ...
Hendrie Gilly A GA Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. BOX 10041, Adelaide 5000, Australia. - - 2014
Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions ...
Wu Hemmings H Research Group Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. ...
Chakravarti Leela J LJ Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, United - - 2014
Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of intraspecific competition within ...
Fernandes Ricardo R Leibniz Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany ; Graduate School "Human Development in Landscapes", Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, - - 2014
Human and animal diet reconstruction studies that rely on tissue chemical signatures aim at providing estimates on the relative intake of potential food groups. However, several sources of uncertainty need to be considered when handling data. Bayesian mixing models provide a natural platform to handle diverse sources of uncertainty while ...
Landeira José M JM Département Dynamiques de l'Environnement Côtier/Pelagos, IFREMER/Centre de Brest, Plouzané, - - 2014
Phytoplankton blooms are usually dominated by chain-forming diatom species that can alter food pathways from primary producers to predators by reducing the interactions between intermediate trophic levels. The food-web modifications are determined by the length of the chains; however, the estimation is biased because traditional sampling strategies damage the chains ...
Han Jong-Min JM Liver and Immunology Research Center, Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience of Daejeon University, 22-5, Daeheung-dong, Jung-gu, Daejeon, Republic of - - 2014
Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. ...
Serckx Adeline A Behavioural Biology Unit, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium; Conservation Biology Unit, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium; Ecole Régionale Post-Universitaire d'Aménagement et de Gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires Tropicaux, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, - - 2014
A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos' grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits ...
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