Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1706
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Schneider Marion M Zoo Koeln, Koeln, - - 2014
Bears in the wild spend large proportions of time in foraging activities. In zoos their time budgets differ markedly from those of their wild counterparts. Feeding enrichment has been documented to increase foraging behavior and to reduce stereotypies. But in general these procedures have no long-term effects and result in ...
Baum William M WM University of California, - - 2014
In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food ...
Lagisz M M Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
Maternal undernutrition can result in significant alterations to the post-natal offspring phenotype, including body size and behaviour. For example, maternal food restriction has been implicated in offspring hyperphagia, potentially causing increased weight gain and fat accumulation. This could result in obesity and other adverse long-term health effects in offspring. We ...
Paupério Ana A Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, - - 2014
The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) is widely used in different countries, however appropriate psychometric analyses are required to allow cross-cultural comparisons. To our knowledge, most studies have been conducted among children and adult populations, with no reference to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to translate and test ...
Cox Daniel T C DT School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Bute Building, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TS, UK, - - 2014
Both mass (as a measure of body reserves) during breeding and adult survival should reflect variation in food availability. Those species that are adapted to less seasonally variable foraging niches and so where competition dominates during breeding, will tend to have a higher mass increase via an interrupted foraging response, ...
Grant Amber A AA School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, - - 2014
This study compared three methods of normalizing demand functions to allow comparison of demand for different commodities and examined how varying reinforcer magnitude affected these analyses. Hens responded under fixed-ratio schedules in 40-min sessions with response requirement doubling each session and with 2-s, 8-s, and 12-s access to wheat. Over ...
Seligman Hilary K - - 2014
One in seven US households cannot reliably afford food. Food budgets are more frequently exhausted at the end of a month than at other points in time. We postulated that this monthly pattern influenced health outcomes, such as risk for hypoglycemia among people with diabetes. Using administrative data on inpatient ...
Scott Jeremiah E JE Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, , Carbondale, IL 62901, - - 2014
The robust jaws and large, thick-enameled molars of the Plio-Pleistocene hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus have long been interpreted as adaptations for hard-object feeding. Recent studies of dental microwear indicate that only Paranthropus robustus regularly ate hard items, suggesting that the dentognathic anatomy of other australopiths reflects rare, seasonal exploitation of ...
Macho Gabriele A GA Research Laboratory for Archaeology (RLAHA), Oxford, - - 2014
Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. ...
Baruch-Mordo Sharon S Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of - - 2014
The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to ...
Wakefield Ewan D ED British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, , High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK, Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, , Fife KY16 8LB, UK, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, , Glasgow G12 8QQ, - - 2014
Animal populations are frequently limited by the availability of food or of habitat. In central-place foragers, the cost of accessing these resources is distance-dependent rather than uniform in space. However, in seabirds, a widely studied exemplar of this paradigm, empirical population models have hitherto ignored this cost. In part, this ...
Scelza Brooke A BA a Department of Anthropology , University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California , - - 2014
Foraging models have rarely been used to address how behavior is altered by the presence of non-foraged foods. Here, choices of store-bought and hunted foods in one Aboriginal community are analyzed. Hunting occurs frequently, but community residents also purchase food from the shop. Increases in the frequency of hunting certain ...
Watanabe Yuuki Y YY National Institute of Polar Research, , Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, - - 2014
Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to ...
Wolfe Jared D JD School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America ; Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California, United States of - - 2014
Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence ...
Wu Hemmings H Research Group Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. ...
Hendrie Gilly A GA Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. BOX 10041, Adelaide 5000, Australia. - - 2014
Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions ...
Buren Alejandro D AD Cognitive and Behavioural Ecology Programme, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada ; Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, - - 2014
The Northwest Atlantic marine ecosystem off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, has been commercially exploited for centuries. Although periodic declines in various important commercial fish stocks have been observed in this ecosystem, the most drastic changes took place in the early 1990s when the ecosystem structure changed abruptly and has not ...
Bjornlie Daniel D DD Large Carnivore Section, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Lander, Wyoming, United States of - - 2014
Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth ...
Tharner Anne A Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Definitions and assessment methods of fussy/picky eating are heterogeneous and remain unclear.We aimed to identify an eating behavior profile reflecting fussy/picky eating in children and to describe characteristics of fussy eaters. Eating behavior was assessed with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 4914 4-year olds in a population-based birth ...
Bui Thi Hong Hanh TH Australian Rivers Institute and School of Environment, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Qld, - - 2014
In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma ...
Fernandes Ricardo R Leibniz Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany ; Graduate School "Human Development in Landscapes", Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, - - 2014
Human and animal diet reconstruction studies that rely on tissue chemical signatures aim at providing estimates on the relative intake of potential food groups. However, several sources of uncertainty need to be considered when handling data. Bayesian mixing models provide a natural platform to handle diverse sources of uncertainty while ...
Mukherjee Shomen S Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, Florida, United States of America ; School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South - - 2014
Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less ...
Gebrehiwot Tagel T a Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation , University of Twente , Enschede , The - - 2014
This article examines the main household demographics and economic factors associated with food insecurity and coping behavior of rural households employed during times of food shortages in northern Ethiopia. Using a cost-of-basic-needs approach we estimated the food poverty line. This cut-off value was used to classify households as either food ...
Keshteli Ah A Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran ; Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, - - 2014
Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Within the framework of the ...
Okada Ryuichi R Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193, - - 2014
The honeybee waggle dance communicates the location of profitable food sources, usually with a certain degree of error in the directional information ranging from 10-15° at the lower margin. We simulated one-day colonial foraging to address the biological significance of information error in the waggle dance. When the error was ...
Landeira José M JM Département Dynamiques de l'Environnement Côtier/Pelagos, IFREMER/Centre de Brest, Plouzané, - - 2014
Phytoplankton blooms are usually dominated by chain-forming diatom species that can alter food pathways from primary producers to predators by reducing the interactions between intermediate trophic levels. The food-web modifications are determined by the length of the chains; however, the estimation is biased because traditional sampling strategies damage the chains ...
Boit Alice A University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Department of Ecology & Ecosystem Modelling, Potsdam, Germany ; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam, - - 2014
Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties ...
Golubski Antonio J AJ Department of Biology and Physics, Kennesaw State University, , 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, GA 30144, - - 2014
We model a potentially mutualistic interaction between a species making antipredator alarm calls and a species which eavesdrops on those calls. Callers may or may not make deceptive alarm calls in order to kleptoparasitize food from eavesdroppers, which in turn may either heed or ignore all alarm calls. The two ...
Meule Adrian A Department of Psychology I, Institute of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, - - 2014
One of the most often used instruments for the assessment of food cravings is the Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ), which consists of a trait (FCQ-T; 39 items) and state (FCQ-S; 15 items) version. Scores on the FCQ-T have been found to be positively associated with eating pathology, body mass index ...
Correa Sandra Bibiana - - 2014
In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by ...
Robino Antonietta A Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy; University of Trieste, Trieste, - - 2014
Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six ...
Delgado Mikel M MM Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of - - 2014
Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The ...
Bui-Klimke Travis R TR Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models ...
Liu Yong Y Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Division of Population Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, MS F-78, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep. We analyzed data from the ...
Paredes Rosana R Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of - - 2014
We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010) at two sites in the ...
Chakravarti Leela J LJ Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, United - - 2014
Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of intraspecific competition within ...
Serckx Adeline A Behavioural Biology Unit, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium; Conservation Biology Unit, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium; Ecole Régionale Post-Universitaire d'Aménagement et de Gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires Tropicaux, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, - - 2014
A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos' grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits ...
Dalenberg Jelle R JR Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Neuroimaging Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2014
Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of ...
Canella Daniela Silva DS Departamento de Nutrição, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess ...
Lucan Sean C SC Department of Family and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine | Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Block Building, Room 410, Bronx, NY 10461. E-mail: - - 2014
Few studies have assessed how people's perceptions of their neighborhood environment compare with objective measures or how self-reported and objective neighborhood measures relate to consumption of fruits and vegetables. A telephone survey of 4,399 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided data on individuals, their households, their neighborhoods (self-defined), their food-environment perceptions, ...
Carrera Olaia O Unidade Venres Clinicos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, - - 2014
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased ...
Feron Gilles G INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, - - 2014
For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food ...
Shin Hyeong-Moo HM Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and ...
Deng Jian J 0000-0002-0841-7084 College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, P.O. Box 95, Shaanxi 712100, China ; The Research Center of Recycle Agricultural Engineering and Technology of Shaanxi Province, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and ...
Guénette Sylvie S UMR Agrocampus Ouest, Inra, Ecologie et santé des écosystèmes, Université Européenne de Bretagne, Rennes, - - 2014
Most modelling studies addressed the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA) for fisheries sustainability through single species approach. Only a few models analysed the potential benefits of MPAs at the ecosystem level, estimating the potential export of fish biomass from the reserve or analysing the trophic relationships between organisms inside ...
Soldatini Cecilia C Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C., Ensenada, Baja California, - - 2014
Seabirds are affected by changes in the marine ecosystem. The influence of climatic factors on marine food webs can be reflected in long-term seabird population changes. We modelled the survival and recruitment of the Mediterranean storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) using a 21-year mark-recapture dataset involving almost 5000 birds. We ...
Hemiö Katri K Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. - - 2014
Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman ...
Uauy Ricardo R Division of Neonatology, Pontifical Catholic University Medical School and Institute of Nutrition INTA Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, - - 2014
Nutritional needs are defined as the amount and chemical form of a nutrient needed to support normal health, growth and development without disturbing the metabolism of other nutrients. Nutrient intake recommendations are based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) of a population group. Enteral and parenteral needs differ for many ...
Orrock John L JL Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, , Madison, WI 53704, USA, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, , Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
Anti-predator behaviour affects prey population dynamics, mediates cascading effects in food webs and influences the likelihood of rapid extinctions. Predator manipulations in natural settings provide a rare opportunity to understand how prey anti-predator behaviour is affected by large-scale changes in predators. Here, we couple a long-term, island-wide manipulation of an ...
Choi Jong-Yun JY Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of - - 2014
In this study, we examined the effects of two phytoplankton species, Chlorella vulgaris and Stephanodiscus hantzschii, on growth of the zooplankton Daphnia magna. Our experimental approach utilized stable isotopes to determine the contribution of food algae to offspring characteristics and to the size of adult D. magna individuals. When equal ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >