Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1667
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Landeira José M JM Département Dynamiques de l'Environnement Côtier/Pelagos, IFREMER/Centre de Brest, Plouzané, - - 2014
Phytoplankton blooms are usually dominated by chain-forming diatom species that can alter food pathways from primary producers to predators by reducing the interactions between intermediate trophic levels. The food-web modifications are determined by the length of the chains; however, the estimation is biased because traditional sampling strategies damage the chains ...
Boit Alice A University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Department of Ecology & Ecosystem Modelling, Potsdam, Germany ; Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam, - - 2014
Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties ...
Golubski Antonio J AJ Department of Biology and Physics, Kennesaw State University, , 1000 Chastain Road, Kennesaw, GA 30144, - - 2014
We model a potentially mutualistic interaction between a species making antipredator alarm calls and a species which eavesdrops on those calls. Callers may or may not make deceptive alarm calls in order to kleptoparasitize food from eavesdroppers, which in turn may either heed or ignore all alarm calls. The two ...
Queliconi Bruno B BB Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo; - - 2014
Protocols for anoxia/starvation in the genetic model organism C. elegans simulate ischemia/reperfusion. Worms are separated from bacterial food and placed under anoxia for 20 hr (simulated ischemia), and subsequently moved to a normal atmosphere with food (simulated reperfusion). This experimental paradigm results in increased death and neuronal damage, and techniques are ...
Meule Adrian A Department of Psychology I, Institute of Psychology, University of Würzburg Würzburg, - - 2014
One of the most often used instruments for the assessment of food cravings is the Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ), which consists of a trait (FCQ-T; 39 items) and state (FCQ-S; 15 items) version. Scores on the FCQ-T have been found to be positively associated with eating pathology, body mass index ...
Correa Sandra Bibiana - - 2014
In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by ...
Robino Antonietta A Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy; University of Trieste, Trieste, - - 2014
Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six ...
Delgado Mikel M MM Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of - - 2014
Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The ...
Bui-Klimke Travis R TR Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of - - 2014
Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models ...
Liu Yong Y Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Division of Population Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, MS F-78, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Housing insecurity and food insecurity may be psychological stressors associated with insufficient sleep. Frequent mental distress may mediate the relationships between these variables. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between housing insecurity and food insecurity, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep. We analyzed data from the ...
Paredes Rosana R Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of - - 2014
We hypothesized that changes in southeastern Bering Sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. To test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010) at two sites in the ...
Chakravarti Leela J LJ Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, United - - 2014
Optimal Diet Theory suggests that individuals make foraging decisions that maximise net energy intake. Many studies provide qualitative support for this, but factors such as digestive constraints, learning, predation-risk and competition can influence foraging behaviour and lead to departures from quantitative predictions. We examined the effects of intraspecific competition within ...
Serckx Adeline A Behavioural Biology Unit, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium; Conservation Biology Unit, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium; Ecole Régionale Post-Universitaire d'Aménagement et de Gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires Tropicaux, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, - - 2014
A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos' grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits ...
Dalenberg Jelle R JR Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Neuroimaging Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The - - 2014
Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of ...
Canella Daniela Silva DS Departamento de Nutrição, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas Epidemiológicas em Nutrição e Saúde, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, - - 2014
Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess ...
Lucan Sean C SC Department of Family and Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine | Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Block Building, Room 410, Bronx, NY 10461. E-mail: - - 2014
Few studies have assessed how people's perceptions of their neighborhood environment compare with objective measures or how self-reported and objective neighborhood measures relate to consumption of fruits and vegetables. A telephone survey of 4,399 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided data on individuals, their households, their neighborhoods (self-defined), their food-environment perceptions, ...
Carrera Olaia O Unidade Venres Clinicos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, - - 2014
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased ...
Feron Gilles G INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), UMR6265 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, France; Université de Bourgogne, UMR Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l'Alimentation, Dijon, - - 2014
For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food ...
Shin Hyeong-Moo HM Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of - - 2014
The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and ...
Deng Jian J 0000-0002-0841-7084 College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, P.O. Box 95, Shaanxi 712100, China ; The Research Center of Recycle Agricultural Engineering and Technology of Shaanxi Province, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, - - 2014
Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and ...
Guénette Sylvie S UMR Agrocampus Ouest, Inra, Ecologie et santé des écosystèmes, Université Européenne de Bretagne, Rennes, - - 2014
Most modelling studies addressed the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPA) for fisheries sustainability through single species approach. Only a few models analysed the potential benefits of MPAs at the ecosystem level, estimating the potential export of fish biomass from the reserve or analysing the trophic relationships between organisms inside ...
Soldatini Cecilia C Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C., Ensenada, Baja California, - - 2014
Seabirds are affected by changes in the marine ecosystem. The influence of climatic factors on marine food webs can be reflected in long-term seabird population changes. We modelled the survival and recruitment of the Mediterranean storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis) using a 21-year mark-recapture dataset involving almost 5000 birds. We ...
Hemiö Katri K Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland. - - 2014
Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman ...
Uauy Ricardo R Division of Neonatology, Pontifical Catholic University Medical School and Institute of Nutrition INTA Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile, - - 2014
Nutritional needs are defined as the amount and chemical form of a nutrient needed to support normal health, growth and development without disturbing the metabolism of other nutrients. Nutrient intake recommendations are based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) of a population group. Enteral and parenteral needs differ for many ...
Orrock John L JL Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, , Madison, WI 53704, USA, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, , Gainesville, FL 32611, - - 2014
Anti-predator behaviour affects prey population dynamics, mediates cascading effects in food webs and influences the likelihood of rapid extinctions. Predator manipulations in natural settings provide a rare opportunity to understand how prey anti-predator behaviour is affected by large-scale changes in predators. Here, we couple a long-term, island-wide manipulation of an ...
Choi Jong-Yun JY Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of - - 2014
In this study, we examined the effects of two phytoplankton species, Chlorella vulgaris and Stephanodiscus hantzschii, on growth of the zooplankton Daphnia magna. Our experimental approach utilized stable isotopes to determine the contribution of food algae to offspring characteristics and to the size of adult D. magna individuals. When equal ...
Glaz Patricia P Département de biologie et centre d'études nordiques, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, - - 2014
Perturbations on ecosystems can have profound immediate effects and can, accordingly, greatly alter the natural community. Land-use such as forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...
Laursen Karsten K Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Rønde, - - 2014
The Baltic/Wadden Sea eider Somateria mollissima flyway population is decreasing, and this trend is also reflected in the large eider colony at Christiansø situated in the Baltic Sea. This colony showed a 15-fold increase from 1925 until the mid-1990's, followed by a rapid decline in recent years, although the causes ...
Heymans Johanna Jacomina JJ Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, United - - 2014
Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts ...
Hertog Maarten L A T M ML KU Leuven, BIOSYST-MeBioS, Willem de Croylaan 42, , 3001 Leuven (Heverlee), - - 2014
In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by ...
Martin-Fernandez Judith J INSERM, UMR_S 1136, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Social Epidemiology, Paris, - - 2014
Objective The relationship between food insecurity and obesity is discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods : We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort ...
Merlo Caitlin L CL Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop F-78, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: - - 2014
Most students in grades kindergarten through 12 have access to foods and beverages during the school day outside the federal school meal programs, which are called competitive foods. At the time of this study, competitive foods were subject to minimal federal nutrition standards, but states could implement additional standards. Our ...
Bodirsky Benjamin Leon BL 1] Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg C4, PO Box 60 12 03, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany [2] International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, - - 2014
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an indispensable nutrient for agricultural production and human alimentation. Simultaneously, agriculture is the largest contributor to Nr pollution, causing severe damages to human health and ecosystem services. The trade-off between food availability and Nr pollution can be attenuated by several key mitigation options, including Nr efficiency ...
Iizumi Toshichika T National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, - - 2014
The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus ...
Manitz Juliane J Department of Statistics and Econometrics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2014
The key challenge during food-borne disease outbreaks, e.g. the 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany, is the design of efficient mitigation strategies based on a timely identification of the outbreak's spatial origin. Standard public health procedures typically use case-control studies and tracings along food shipping chains. These methods are time-consuming and ...
Korkala Essi A E EA Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, - - 2014
Climate change is a major public health threat that is exacerbated by food production. Food items differ substantially in the amount of greenhouse gases their production generates and therefore individuals, if willing, can mitigate climate change through dietary choices. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study to assess if the understanding ...
Zhen Chen C Research Triangle - - 2014
A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and ...
Moussu Lise L Allergology department, Centre de l'Asthme et des Allergies, Hôpital d'Enfants Armand-Trousseau (Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris) - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, - - 2014
In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. ...
Heath Michael R MR Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Strathclyde, Livingstone Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, - - 2014
Discarding by fisheries is perceived as contrary to responsible harvesting. Legislation seeking to end the practice is being introduced in many jurisdictions. However, discarded fish are food for a range of scavenging species; so, ending discarding may have ecological consequences. Here we investigate the sensitivity of ecological effects to discarding ...
Johns David J DJ Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, United - - 2014
Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP) tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in ...
Coogan Sean C P SC Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, - - 2014
Nutrient balance is a strong determinant of animal fitness and demography. It is therefore important to understand how the compositions of available foods relate to required balance of nutrients and habitat suitability for animals in the wild. These relationships are, however, complex, particularly for omnivores that often need to compose ...
Ferrer-Garcia Marta M Department of Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatments, Universitat de - - 2014
This study shows preliminary data on the validity of a new virtual reality-based application for cue-exposure treatment of binge eating in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Thirty-eight undergraduate students without eating disorders were exposed to several virtual environments with different foods in four different contexts (kitchen, dining-room, bedroom, and ...
Han Jong-Min JM Liver and Immunology Research Center, Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience of Daejeon University, 22-5, Daeheung-dong, Jung-gu, Daejeon, Republic of - - 2014
Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. ...
Collins Patricia A PA Queen's University. - - 2014
Household food insecurity (HFI) is a persistent public health problem affecting 3.8 million Canadians. While the causes of HFI are rooted in income insecurity, solutions to HFI have been primarily food-based, with the bulk of activity occurring at the municipal level across Canada. We conceptualize these municipal-level actions as falling ...
Shibahara Kyoko K Research Center for Food Safety, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan ; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, - - 2014
Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is a mediator of food allergic reaction; however, the mechanisms of its production in response to an ingested antigen are not fully understood. For analysis of IgE production, here we propose an IgE response mouse model created by injection of a Th2 cell culture and feeding of ...
Rasconi Serena S CNRS UMR 6250, UMRi 7266, LIENSs, Université de La Rochelle La Rochelle, - - 2014
This study assesses the quantitative impact of parasitic chytrids on the planktonic food web of two contrasting freshwater lakes during different algal bloom situations. Carbon-based food web models were used to investigate the effects of chytrids during the spring diatom bloom in Lake Pavin (oligo-mesotrophic) and the autumn cyanobacteria bloom ...
Jacquier Marine M Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR 5208, Institut Camille Jordan, Villeurbanne-Cedex, France; Inria Team Dracula, Inria Center Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, Grenoble Rhône-Alpes, - - 2014
Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, ...
Moskal Aurelie A Dietary Exposure Assessment Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2014
Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ...
Duchaine Caroline S - - 2014
The increasing consumption of sugar worldwide seems to lead to several health problems, including some types of cancer. While some studies reported a positive association between sweet foods intake and breast cancer risk, little is known about their relation to mammographic density (MD), a strong breast cancer risk factor. This ...
Del Chierico Federica F Unit of Metagenomics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza Sant'Onofrio, Rome 400165, Italy. - - 2014
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models. Many of the characteristic components of the MD have functional features with positive effects on health and wellness. The MD adherence, calculated through various computational scores, can lead to a reduction of the incidence of major diseases (e.g., ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >