Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1518
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Heath Michael R - - 2013
Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to ...
Le Révérend Benjamin B Nestlé Research Center, Vers Chez Les Blancs, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland. Electronic address: - - 2013
The human diet contains a large variety of aromas, tastes and textures. The latter is particularly important since it determines whether foods are difficult to process orally and thus can be one source of food avoidance. It has also been reported in recent literature that food texture was a main ...
Mendoza Julio Ernesto JE 50 Stone Road East, 309 J.D. MacLachlan Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2V7, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2013
Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers' level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers' engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of ...
Sánchez J - - 2013
Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region ...
Bower Kelly M - - 2013
Food store availability may determine the quality of food consumed by residents. Neighborhood racial residential segregation, poverty, and urbanicity independently affect food store availability, but the interactions among them has not been studied. To examine availability of supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores in US census tracts according to neighborhood ...
Duncanson Kerith - - 2013
Community based nutrition interventions aimed at influencing child dietary intake are rarely evaluated. We hypothesised that providing self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to parents living in rural northern New South Wales, Australia would positively impact on the dietary patterns of children aged 2 to 5 years. A total of 146 ...
Schürch Roger - - 2013
Honey bees communicate to nestmates locations of resources, including food, water, tree resin and nest sites, by making waggle dances. Dances are composed of repeated waggle runs, which encode the distance and direction vector from the hive or swarm to the resource. Distance is encoded in the duration of the ...
Murphy Mary M - - 2013
The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for ...
Ponce Xochitl - - 2013
To evaluate the dietary quality of Mexican adults' diet, we constructed three dietary quality indices: a cardioprotective index (CPI), a micronutrient adequacy index (MAI) and a dietary diversity index (DDI). Data were derived from the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a national survey representative of the Mexican ...
Turner Dana P DP Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. Electronic address: - - 2013
Missing meals and fasting have long been reported as headache triggers. Stress also has received attention for its role in precipitating headaches. This study explored the effects of eating behaviors on new-onset headache. Analyzing only the 1070 of 1648 (64.9%) diary days that followed a non-headache day, the study included ...
Zheng Jiajia - - 2013
Lead from historical mining and mineral processing activities may pose potential human health risks if materials with high concentrations of bioavailable lead minerals are released to the environment. Since the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization withdrew the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of ...
Maderich V - - 2013
The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model ...
Collins Clare E - - 2013
Food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are used in epidemiological studies to investigate the relationship between diet and disease. There is a need for a valid and reliable adult FFQ with a contemporary food list in Australia. To evaluate the reproducibility and comparative validity of the Australian Eating Survey (AES) FFQ in ...
Dupuch Angélique - - 2013
In systems where predation plays a key role in the dynamics of prey populations, such as in Arctic rodents, it is reasonable to assume that differential patterns of habitat use by prey species represent adaptive responses to spatial variation in predation. However, habitat selection by collared (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) and brown ...
Robinson Eric - - 2013
We review recent research on the effect of social context on food intake and food choice and assess the implications for nutritional interventions. We focus on studies of modelling of eating behaviour and the impact of perceived eating norms on the amounts and types of food that individuals eat. We ...
Bizjak Mojca - - 2013
To develop and validate an electronic FFQ that estimates the food and nutrient intakes, especially fat intake, in a healthy, adult population from the coastal (Mediterranean) part of Slovenia. A new electronic FFQ was developed for a survey entitled 'A multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of obesity', conducted at the ...
Hur In Young - - 2013
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School ...
Dressler Heidi - - 2013
Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, ...
Wade Charles E - - 2013
Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) ...
Ware Joseph - - 2013
GDC-0941 is an orally administered potent, selective pan-inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) with good preclinical antitumor activity in xenograft models, favorable pharmacokinetics and tolerability in phase 1 trials, and is currently being investigated in Phase II clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent. In vitro solubility and dissolution studies suggested that ...
O'Neill Matthew W MW Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, 617 South Beaver Street, Flagstaff, Arizona - - 2014
Abstract We examined two sympatric desert fishes, Sonora suckers (Catostomus insignis) and desert suckers (Pantosteus clarkii), and asked, does feeding behavior facilitate trophic niche partitioning? To answer this question, we conducted laboratory-based feeding trials to determine whether morphology alone facilitates the diet separation between the relatively unspecialized, omnivorous Sonora sucker ...
Wang Liang - - 2013
This study examined the relation of multiple aspects of the home food environment to dietary intake and body weight among overweight and obese children in southern Appalachia. The study used baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial, Parent-Led Activity and Nutrition for Healthy Living, evaluating a parent-mediated approach to treating ...
R Kearney Michael - - 2013
Correlative analyses predict that anthropogenic climate warming will cause widespread extinction but the nature and generality of the underlying mechanisms is unclear. Warming-induced activity restriction has been proposed as a general explanatory mechanism for recent population extinctions in lizards, and has been used to forecast future extinction. Here, I test ...
Vandevijvere S - - 2013
INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support) aims to monitor and benchmark the healthiness of food environments globally. In order to assess the impact of food environments on population diets, it is necessary to monitor population diet quality between countries and over time. This ...
Shennan Stephen - - 2013
Following its initial arrival in SE Europe 8,500 years ago agriculture spread throughout the continent, changing food production and consumption patterns and increasing population densities. Here we show that, in contrast to the steady population growth usually assumed, the introduction of agriculture into Europe was followed by a boom-and-bust pattern ...
Chen Hsin-Chen - - 2013
Dietary assessment is important in health maintenance and intervention in many chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is currently a lack of convenient methods for measuring the volume of food (portion size) in real-life settings. We present a computational method to estimate food volume from ...
Scheuerl Thomas T Imperial College London Silwood Park Campus, Berkshire, SL5 7PY, U.K ; Research Institute for Limnology, University of Innsbruck 5310, Mondsee, - - 2013
Local adaptation is an important principle in a world of environmental change and might be critical for species persistence. We tested the hypothesis that replicated populations can attain rapid local adaptation under two varying laboratory environments. Clonal subpopulations of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were allowed to adapt to ...
Kemps Eva - - 2013
There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food ...
Ashok Kumar Hassan G - - 2013
Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) belong to the pathogenesis-related family (PR-5) of plant defense proteins. TLPs from only 32 plant genera have been identified as pollen or food allergens. IgE epitopes on allergens play a central role in food allergy by initiating cross-linking of specific IgE on basophils/mast cells. A comparative analysis ...
Vetander Mirja - - 2013
Knowledge about repeated food reactions in paediatric emergency departments (ED) is sparse. To investigate the incidence and potential risk factors for repeated ED-visits for food allergic reactions among children with a prior ED visit due to reactions to food. 358 children with ED visits at paediatric hospitals in Stockholm due ...
Burgess E E - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse ...
Johansson Jacob - - 2013
Phenological shifts belong to the most commonly observed biological responses to recent climate change. It is, however, often unclear how these shifts are linked to demography and competitive interactions. We develop an eco-evolutionary model to study adaptation of timing of reproduction in organisms with social dominance hierarchies. We focus on ...
Brooker Rohan M RM School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University Townsville, Queensland, Australia ; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef studies, James Cook University Townsville, Queensland, - - 2013
Foraging theory predicts that individuals should choose a prey that maximizes energy rewards relative to the energy expended to access, capture, and consume the prey. However, the relative roles of differences in the nutritive value of foods and costs associated with differences in prey accessibility are not always clear. Coral-feeding ...
Christophersen Philip Carsten - - 2013
The present study aims at evaluating the ability of a gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis model to predict the performance of two lipid formulations and a conventional tablet containing a poorly soluble drug, cinnarizine, in dogs, both in the fasted and fed state. A self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was either ...
Loth Katie A - - 2013
To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Adolescents (N = 2,231) and their parents (N = 3,431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or ...
Remington Benjamin C - - 2013
In the United States, packaged food ingredients derived from allergenic sources must be clearly labeled. However, no requirement exists to declare the presence of residues of raw agricultural commodities due to agricultural commodity comingling. Clinical reports of allergic reactions to undeclared soy in wheat-based products do not exist suggesting that ...
Doyennette M - - 2013
A mechanistic model predicting flavour release during oral processing of masticated foods was developed. The description of main physiological steps (product mastication and swallowing) and physical mechanisms (mass transfer, product breakdown and dissolution) occurring while eating allowed satisfactory simulation of in vivo release profiles of ethyl propanoate and 2-nonanone, measured ...
Baek Jonggyu - - 2013
Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to ...
Sharkey Joseph R - - 2013
Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among ...
Dekker Louise H - - 2013
Insight into the stability of dietary behavior over time is important, because only a single measurement of diet is often available to study the association between eating behavior and the occurrence of chronic diseases many years after baseline data collection. Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. ...
Aceves Seema S - - 2013
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing prevalence in children and adults. The triggering antigen in EoE is often a food that initiates a cascade of Th2 associated interleukins such as IL-5, -13, and chemokines such as eotaxin-3 as well as esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Amino acid based ...
Radwan Asma - - 2013
Food intake may delay tablet disintegration. Current in vitro methods have little predictive potential to account for such effects. The effect of a variety of factors on the disintegration of immediate release tablets in the gastrointestinal tract has been identified. They include viscosity of the media, precipitation of food constituents ...
Richmond Tracy K - - 2013
Prior studies have demonstrated disproportionate clustering of fast food outlets around schools. The purpose of this study is to determine if racial/ethnic differences in middle school student self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is explained by differential distributions of food outlets surrounding their schools. Baseline (2005) data were analyzed from 18,281 ...
Yeakel Justin D JD Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California, 95064. - - 2014
Foraging is constrained by the energy within resources and the mechanics of acquisition and assimilation. Thick molar enamel, a character trait differentiating hominins from African apes, is predicted to mitigate the mechanical costs of chewing obdurate foods. The classic expression of hyperthick enamel together with relatively massive molars, termed megadontia, ...
Chung Younshik - - 2013
More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In ...
Prasad B S R V - - 2013
Use of additional/alternative food source to predators is one of the widely recognised practices in the field of biological control. Both theoretical and experimental works point out that quality and quantity of additional food play a vital role in the controllability of the pest. Theoretical studies carried out previously in ...
Walter Adriani - - 2013
Individual differences in behavioral flexibility are a significant issue in human psychopathology as well as in its animal models. We aimed to investigate individual variations of operant-choice behavior in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, using a new operant panel with two hand-poking holes. Methods. Experimental ...
Hebestreit A - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between proxy-reported energy intake, daily food intake and energy density of foods and body mass index (BMI) z-score in 2-9-year-old European children. From 16,225 children who participated in the identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and ...
de Medeiros Maria Angélica Tavares - - 2013
Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A ...
Minaker Leia M - - 2013
Pathways by which food environments affect residents' diet-related outcomes are still unclear. Understanding pathways may help decision makers identify food environment strategies to promote healthy diets. To examine the hypothesis that residents' perceptions mediate the relationship between objective food environment and residents' diet quality and weight status. In the Waterloo ...
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