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Crevel R W R RW Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford, - - 2014
The need to assess the risk from food allergens derives directly from the need to manage effectively this food safety hazard. Work spanning the last two decades dispelled the initial thinking that food allergens were so unique that the risk they posed was not amenable to established risk assessment approaches ...
Jacobs David R DR Jr School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, - - 2014
This article summarizes background materials and presentations at a symposium that considered the issue of the role of foods and dietary patterns vs. nutrients in relation to chronic disease risk. A model of food synergy is presented as a basis for studying whole foods and dietary patterns. Findings from a ...
Zaborskis Apolinaras A Academy of Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. Electronic address: - - 2014
To examine whether dietary intake reported by school-aged children relates to the chronological period of data collection. Cross-sectional surveys in 39 countries in different monthly periods of the 2009-2010 school year. Questionnaires were completed in schools anonymously. Children from 39 countries, aged 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 209,320). ...
Mendoza Julio Ernesto - - 2014
Population-wide sodium reduction strategies encourage consumer participation in lowering dietary sodium. This study aims to measure and rank consumers’ level of engagement in following 23 recommendations to reduce dietary sodium and to compare variation in level of consumers’ engagement by sociodemographic sub-groups. The study included 869 randomly selected participants of ...
De Vogli Roberto R Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Med Sci 1-C, Davis, CA 95616, United States of America - - 2014
To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and ...
Oyoshi Michiko K MK Division of Immunology, Boston Children's Hospital and the Departments of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address: - - 2014
Food allergy is a rapidly growing public health concern because of its increasing prevalence and life-threatening potential. Animal models of food allergy have emerged as a tool for identifying mechanisms involved in the development of sensitization to normally harmless food allergens, as well as delineating the critical immune components of ...
Le Révérend Benjamin - - 2014
The human diet contains a large variety of aromas, tastes and textures. The latter is particularly important since it determines whether foods are difficult to process orally and thus can be one source of food avoidance. It has also been reported in recent literature that food texture was a main ...
Labatut Rodrigo A RA Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A long-term comparative study using continuously-stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs) operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures was conducted to evaluate the influence of the organic loading rate (OLR) and chemical composition on process performance and stability. Cow manure was co-digested with dog food, a model substrate to simulate a generic, multi-component ...
Sattar Md Abdus MA Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: - - 2014
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of food production on river export of nutrients to the coastal waters of the Bay of Bengal in the past (1970 and 2000) and the future (2030 and 2050), and the associated potential for coastal eutrophication. We model nutrient export ...
Seiler Annika A a Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV) , Freising , - - 2014
Abstract Today most foods are available in a packed form. During storage, migration of chemical substances from food packaging materials into food may occur and may therefore be a potential source of consumer exposure. To protect the consumer standard migration tests are laid down in Regulation (EU) No.10/2011. When using ...
Chen Zhipeng Z Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, - - 2014
The results of TG/DTG when curcumin was used as the food colouring agent indicated that the processing temperature of the food should not exceed 190°C. The decomposition process of curcumin involved two stages. The results of Eα values, determined by an advanced isoconversional method, showed that the two stages were ...
Cushen Maeve - - 2014
Silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) and copper nanoparticles (nanocopper) exhibit antimicrobial activity and have been incorporated into polymers to create antimicrobial packaging materials. Their use in conjunction with food has caused concerns regarding the potential risk of particle migration, resulting in human exposure to nanoparticles. A migration experiment was carried out to ...
Trasande Leonardo L Wagner School of Public Service and the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at - - 2014
There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food ...
Gerdessen Johanna C JC 1 Group Operations Research and Logistics, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, the - - 2014
To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed ...
Olstad Dana Lee - - 2014
Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and ...
Atlas William I WI Earth to Ocean Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, - - 2014
Resource subsidies increase the productivity of recipient food webs and can affect ecosystem dynamics. Subsidies of prey often support elevated predator biomass which may intensify top-down control and reduce the flow of reciprocal subsidies into adjacent ecosystems. However, top-down control in subsidized food webs may be limited if primary consumers ...
Pourfarzad Amir A Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1163, Iran. Electronic address: - - 2014
The fructans, inulin and oligofructose, are known to exert many food and pharmaceutical applications and are widely used in functional foods throughout the world for their nutritional and techno-functional properties. In the present study, the Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal conditions for fructan precipitation from Eremurus spectabilis ...
Tarning Joel J Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, - - 2014
Previously published literature reports a varying impact of food on the oral bioavailability of piperaquine. The aim of this study was to use a population modeling approach to investigate the impact of concomitant intake of a small amount of food on piperaquine pharmacokinetics. This was an open randomized comparison of ...
Pandey Preetanshu P Drug Product Science and Technology, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08901, USA, - - 2014
This study presents a formulation approach that was shown to mitigate the dramatic food effect observed for a BCS Class II drug. In vitro (dissolution), in vivo (dog), and in silico (GastroPlus®) models were developed to understand the food effect and design strategies to mitigate it. The results showed that ...
Zhang Hefei H Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Florham Park, New Jersey, USA, - - 2014
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been broadly used to facilitate drug development, hereby we developed a PBPK model to systematically investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed positive food effect of compound X (cpd X) and to strategically explore the feasible approaches to mitigate the food effect. Cpd X ...
Berkowitz Seth A SA General Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adults with chronic disease are often unable to meet medication and/or food needs, but no study has examined the relationship between cost-related medication underuse and food insecurity in a nationally representative sample. We examined which groups most commonly face unmet food and medication needs. Cross-sectional analysis of data from chronically ...
Chen Hsin-Jen - - 2014
Little is known about the dynamics of the food outlet distributions associated with local contextual factors in the U.S. This study examines the changes in food stores/services at the 5-digit Zip Code Tabulated Area (ZCTA5) level in the U.S., and assesses contextual factors associated with the changes. Data from 27,878 ...
Wolfenden Luke L School of Medicine and Public Health (LW, RW, EC, JW, and TRH) and the School of Psychology (AF and JB), University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia; Hunter New England Population Health, Newcastle, Australia (LW, EC, JW, and TRH); Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, Australia (LW, RW, EC, and JW); the School of Psychology, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia (LB); and the Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia - - 2014
Telephone-based interventions can be effective in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake in the short term (<6 mo). The long-term efficacy of such interventions, however, is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the short-term (<6 mo) impact of a telephone-based intervention on children's fruit and ...
Miller Jane J 1 Preventive Health Unit, Queensland Health, PO Box 2368, Fortitude Valley BC, Queensland 4006, - - 2014
The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of ...
Einum Sigurd S Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, - - 2014
Abstract Genetically based variation in metabolic rates of resting animals (RMR) suggests a potential role for evolutionary adaptations, but mechanistic models yielding evolutionary predictions are lacking. Here I utilize the increasingly recognized genetic correlation between RMR and activity metabolism and propose that optimality of the former is simply an outcome ...
Ng Shu Wen SW Department of Nutrition (SWN, MMS, and BMP) and Carolina Population Center (SWN, BMP), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, - - 2014
In the past decade, the United States has seen declining energy intakes and plateauing obesity levels. We examined whether these observed trends suggest a longer-term shift in dietary and health behavior that is independent of adverse economic conditions. We used nationally representative cross-sectional surveys on intake and longitudinal household food ...
Meyer Katie A KA Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel - - 2014
IMPORTANCE Fiscal food policies (eg, taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. OBJECTIVE To estimate subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-year follow-up (5 examinations) in a biracial US ...
Schneider Marion M Zoo Koeln, Koeln, - - 2014
Bears in the wild spend large proportions of time in foraging activities. In zoos their time budgets differ markedly from those of their wild counterparts. Feeding enrichment has been documented to increase foraging behavior and to reduce stereotypies. But in general these procedures have no long-term effects and result in ...
Baum William M WM University of California, - - 2014
In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food ...
Lagisz M M Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
Maternal undernutrition can result in significant alterations to the post-natal offspring phenotype, including body size and behaviour. For example, maternal food restriction has been implicated in offspring hyperphagia, potentially causing increased weight gain and fat accumulation. This could result in obesity and other adverse long-term health effects in offspring. We ...
Paupério Ana A Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, - - 2014
The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) is widely used in different countries, however appropriate psychometric analyses are required to allow cross-cultural comparisons. To our knowledge, most studies have been conducted among children and adult populations, with no reference to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to translate and test ...
Cox Daniel T C DT School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Bute Building, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TS, UK, - - 2014
Both mass (as a measure of body reserves) during breeding and adult survival should reflect variation in food availability. Those species that are adapted to less seasonally variable foraging niches and so where competition dominates during breeding, will tend to have a higher mass increase via an interrupted foraging response, ...
Grant Amber A AA School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton, - - 2014
This study compared three methods of normalizing demand functions to allow comparison of demand for different commodities and examined how varying reinforcer magnitude affected these analyses. Hens responded under fixed-ratio schedules in 40-min sessions with response requirement doubling each session and with 2-s, 8-s, and 12-s access to wheat. Over ...
Seligman Hilary K - - 2014
One in seven US households cannot reliably afford food. Food budgets are more frequently exhausted at the end of a month than at other points in time. We postulated that this monthly pattern influenced health outcomes, such as risk for hypoglycemia among people with diabetes. Using administrative data on inpatient ...
Scott Jeremiah E JE Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, , Carbondale, IL 62901, - - 2014
The robust jaws and large, thick-enameled molars of the Plio-Pleistocene hominins Australopithecus and Paranthropus have long been interpreted as adaptations for hard-object feeding. Recent studies of dental microwear indicate that only Paranthropus robustus regularly ate hard items, suggesting that the dentognathic anatomy of other australopiths reflects rare, seasonal exploitation of ...
Macho Gabriele A GA Research Laboratory for Archaeology (RLAHA), Oxford, - - 2014
Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. ...
Baruch-Mordo Sharon S Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of - - 2014
The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to ...
Wakefield Ewan D ED British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, , High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK, Scottish Oceans Institute, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, , Fife KY16 8LB, UK, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, , Glasgow G12 8QQ, - - 2014
Animal populations are frequently limited by the availability of food or of habitat. In central-place foragers, the cost of accessing these resources is distance-dependent rather than uniform in space. However, in seabirds, a widely studied exemplar of this paradigm, empirical population models have hitherto ignored this cost. In part, this ...
Scelza Brooke A BA a Department of Anthropology , University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California , - - 2014
Foraging models have rarely been used to address how behavior is altered by the presence of non-foraged foods. Here, choices of store-bought and hunted foods in one Aboriginal community are analyzed. Hunting occurs frequently, but community residents also purchase food from the shop. Increases in the frequency of hunting certain ...
Watanabe Yuuki Y YY National Institute of Polar Research, , Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, - - 2014
Food is heterogeneously distributed in nature, and understanding how animals search for and exploit food patches is a fundamental challenge in ecology. The classic marginal value theorem (MVT) formulates optimal patch residence time in response to patch quality. The MVT was generally proved in controlled animal experiments; however, owing to ...
Wolfe Jared D JD School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America ; Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California, United States of - - 2014
Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence ...
Wu Hemmings H Research Group Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Leuven, - - 2014
When a rat is on a limited fixed-time food schedule with full access to a running wheel (activity-based anorexia model, ABA), its activity level will increase hours prior to the feeding period. This activity, called food-anticipatory activity (FAA), is a hypothesized parallel to the hyperactivity symptom in human anorexia nervosa. ...
Hendrie Gilly A GA Animal, Food and Health Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. BOX 10041, Adelaide 5000, Australia. - - 2014
Nutrition guidelines now consider the environmental impact of food choices as well as maintaining health. In Australia there is insufficient data quantifying the environmental impact of diets, limiting our ability to make evidence-based recommendations. This paper used an environmentally extended input-output model of the economy to estimate greenhouse gas emissions ...
Buren Alejandro D AD Cognitive and Behavioural Ecology Programme, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada ; Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, - - 2014
The Northwest Atlantic marine ecosystem off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, has been commercially exploited for centuries. Although periodic declines in various important commercial fish stocks have been observed in this ecosystem, the most drastic changes took place in the early 1990s when the ecosystem structure changed abruptly and has not ...
Bjornlie Daniel D DD Large Carnivore Section, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Lander, Wyoming, United States of - - 2014
Changes in life history traits of species can be an important indicator of potential factors influencing populations. For grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), recent decline of whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis), an important fall food resource, has been paired with a slowing of population growth ...
Tharner Anne A Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2014
Definitions and assessment methods of fussy/picky eating are heterogeneous and remain unclear.We aimed to identify an eating behavior profile reflecting fussy/picky eating in children and to describe characteristics of fussy eaters. Eating behavior was assessed with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) in 4914 4-year olds in a population-based birth ...
Bui Thi Hong Hanh TH Australian Rivers Institute and School of Environment, Griffith University Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Qld, - - 2014
In tropical mangroves, brachyuran crabs have been observed to consume high percentages of leaf litter production. However, questions concerning their ability to assimilate this low-quality food remain, as stable isotope analysis of C and N does not seem to support assimilation. Individuals of the common eastern Australian mangrove grapsid Parasesarma ...
Fernandes Ricardo R Leibniz Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany ; Graduate School "Human Development in Landscapes", Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, - - 2014
Human and animal diet reconstruction studies that rely on tissue chemical signatures aim at providing estimates on the relative intake of potential food groups. However, several sources of uncertainty need to be considered when handling data. Bayesian mixing models provide a natural platform to handle diverse sources of uncertainty while ...
Mukherjee Shomen S Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, North Miami, Florida, United States of America ; School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South - - 2014
Key to predicting impacts of predation is understanding the mechanisms through which predators impact prey populations. While consumptive effects are well-known, non-consumptive predator effects (risk effects) are increasingly being recognized as important. Studies of risk effects, however, have focused largely on how trade-offs between food and safety affect fitness. Less ...
Gebrehiwot Tagel T a Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation , University of Twente , Enschede , The - - 2014
This article examines the main household demographics and economic factors associated with food insecurity and coping behavior of rural households employed during times of food shortages in northern Ethiopia. Using a cost-of-basic-needs approach we estimated the food poverty line. This cut-off value was used to classify households as either food ...
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