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Costello Cecily M CM College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana Missoula, MT, 59812, - - 2014
When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing ...
Arganda S S Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition animale, UMR 5169, CNRS Université de Toulouse, - - 2014
In a foraging context, social insects make collective decisions from individuals responding to local information. When faced with foods varying in quality, ants are known to be able to select the best food source using pheromone trails. Until now, studies investigating collective decisions have focused on single nutrients, mostly carbohydrates. ...
Kral Tanja V E TV Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
Food portion size is an important determinant of intake in children. It remains unknown if children's weight status and relative reinforcing value of food (RRVF) interact with portion size to affect intake. In a randomized crossover design, 25 normal-weight and 25 obese children, ages 8-10 years, consumed dinner once a ...
Watts Allison W - - 2014
High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students' levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity ...
López-Bao José Vicente JV Research Unit of Biodiversity (UO/CSIC/PA), Oviedo University, 33600, Mieres, Spain; Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-730 91, Riddarhyttan, - - 2014
1. Food availability is considered a major factor determining spacing behaviour in territorial species, especially for females. Theoretically, spatial overlap (considered the opposite of territoriality) and food availability are related in a non-linear manner (hypothesized inverted-U function), with high overlap levels at the extremes of a food availability gradient and ...
Bakolis Ioannis I Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, - - 2014
Dietary patterns derived empirically using principal components analysis (PCA) are widely employed for investigating diet-disease relationships. In the present study, we investigated whether PCA performed better at identifying such associations than an analysis of each food on a FFQ separately, referred to here as an exhaustive single food analysis (ESFA). ...
Biesbroek Sander - - 2014
Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) ...
Giussani Augusto A Department of Radiation Protection and Health, BfS-Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleißheim, - - 2014
A recent work has shown that the current ICRP biokinetic model for the transfer of caesium radionuclides from food to human breast milk was able to describe with satisfactory accuracy (137)Cs activity concentrations in human breast samples collected a few weeks after the Chernobyl accident as well as in samples ...
Verger Eric O EO AgroParisTech, CRNH-IdF, UMR914 Nutrition Physiology and Ingestive Behavior, Paris, - - 2014
Identifying the dietary changes with the greatest potential for improving diet quality is critical to designing efficient nutrition communication campaigns. Our objective was to simulate the effects of different types of dietary substitutions to improve diet quality at the individual level. Starting from the observed diets of 1330 adults participating ...
Lederer Ashley A New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Long Island City, New York. Electronic address: - - 2014
Poor diet is a leading cause of disability, death, and rising health care costs. Government agencies can have a large impact on population nutrition by adopting healthy food purchasing policies. In 2007, New York City (NYC) began developing a nutrition policy for all foods purchased, served, or contracted for by ...
Schaffner Donald W DW Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA. - - 2014
There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree ...
Gewa Constance A CA 1 Department of Nutrition & Food Studies, College of Health & Human Services, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 1F8, Fairfax, VA 22030, - - 2014
To explore multiple methods of calculating diet diversity scores (DDS) to maximize associations with predicted dietary micronutrient adequacy among schoolchildren in rural Kenya. Up to three 24 h recall interviews were administered for each child for a total of 1544 d of intake from all schoolchildren. Daily amounts of food ...
Godber Olivia F OF Veterinary Parasitology & Ecology Group, Bristol Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United - - 2014
Livestock production is an important contributor to sustainable food security for many nations, particularly in low income areas and marginal habitats that are unsuitable for crop production. Animal products account for approximately one third of global human protein consumption. Here a range of indicators, derived from FAOSTAT and World Bank ...
Jankovic Nicole - - 2014
Reduced rank regression (RRR) combines exploratory analysis with a-priori knowledge by including risk factors in the model. Dietary patterns, derived from RRR analysis, can be interpreted by the chosen risk factor profile and give an indication of positive or adverse health effects for a specific disease. Our aim was to ...
Stephens Philip A - - 2014
An aspect of life history that has seen increasing attention in recent years is that of strategies for financing the costs of offspring production. These strategies are often described by a continuum ranging from capital breeding, in which costs are met purely from endogenous reserves, to income breeding, in which ...
Pattrick P P Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South - - 2014
The influence of wind and wave exposure on larval fish assemblages within a large bay system was investigated. Larval fishes were sampled from two areas with vastly different exposure to waves and wind, namely the windward and leeward sectors of Algoa Bay. In total, 5702 larval fishes were collected using ...
Gupta Ruchi S RS Smith Child Health Research Program & Children's Community Physicians Association, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Ill; Center for Healthcare Studies, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill. Electronic address: - - 2014
Although allergists typically use allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) levels or skin prick test wheal sizes to identify food allergens that may provoke IgE-mediated food-induced allergic reactions, both tests have high rates of false positivity and mislabel patients who are tolerant as allergic to the food allergen. To examine the accuracy of ...
Giuseppe Aiello A Department of Chemical, Management, Informatics, Mechanical Engineering, University of Study of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze 90128, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face ...
Stephens Lena D LD Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. ...
Luber Florian F Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Lebensmitteltechnologie, Maximus-von-Imhof-Forum 2, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, - - 2014
Governments all over the world have implemented regulatory frameworks concerning food allergen labelling and established or discussed the implementation of thresholds. Therefore, quantitative methods are needed for their surveillance. DNA-based approaches using a matrix-adapted calibration, an internal standard material and a modified standard addition have been developed. In order to ...
Iwata Yuji Y Faculty of Child Studies, Chubu-Gakuin University, 30-1 Naka-Oitacho, Kakamigahara, Gifu, 504-0837, Japan, - - 2014
In this paper, I describe the food-dropping behavior of western lowland gorillas observed in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. I collected observational data of gorillas eating in trees, and recorded whether any individuals were positioned under the same tree. In 22 of the 24 cases of individuals being present under a ...
Schneider Klaus K a FoBiG, Forschungs- und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH , Freiburg , - - 2014
Lead is a highly toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II, NVS II) with about 20,000 participants (15,371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the ...
Drewnowski Adam A Center for Public Health Nutrition and the UW Center for Obesity Research, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (AD); the Institute for Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France (AD); and the Nutrition Impact LLC, Battle Creek, MI - - 2014
Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. ...
Olsen Nina Veflen NV Nofima, Norway. Electronic address: - - 2014
Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. ...
Chessa S S Model Gut Platform, Institute of Food Research, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Characterisation of the effect of food on the bio-performance of modified and extended release dosage forms can be very challenging due to the need to replicate the dynamic biochemical conditions of the human gut as well as the complex physical processing modalities under fed state. Classical compendial methods are useful ...
Legg Edward W EW Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK, - - 2014
Animals that cache food risk having their stored food pilfered by conspecifics. Previous research has shown that a number of food-caching species of corvid use strategies that decrease the probability of conspecifics pilfering their caches. In this experiment, we investigated whether Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) would choose between caching behind ...
Springer Nathaniel P - - 2014
In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This ...
Borghese Michael M MM a Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L1, - - 2014
The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. ...
Latner Janet D JD Psychology Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The present study examined the impact of the food-addiction model of obesity on weight stigma directed at obese people. Participants (n = 625) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. They were asked to read either a food-addiction explanatory model of obesity or a nonaddiction model, and subsequently read a vignette describing ...
Pruchno Rachel R Rachel Pruchno is with the New Jersey Institute for Successful Aging and Adarsh K. Gupta is with the Department of Family Practice, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, NJ. Maureen Wilson-Genderson is with the Department of Social and Behavioral Health, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, - - 2014
Objectives. We tested hypotheses about the relationship between neighborhood-level food sources and obesity, controlling for individual-level characteristics. Methods. Data (collected November 2006-April 2008) derived from a random-digit-dial sample of 5688 community-dwelling adults aged 50 to 74 years residing in 1644 census tracts in New Jersey. Using multilevel structural equation models, ...
Smith Lindsey P LP The authors are with the Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel - - 2014
Objectives. We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. Methods. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time ...
Chantarasataporn Patomporn P The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phyathai Rd., Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, - - 2014
Water-based chitosans in the forms of oligochitosan (OligoCS) and nanowhisker chitosan (CSWK) are proposed as a novel food preservative based on a minced pork model study. The high surface area with a positive charge over the neutral pH range (pH 5-8) of OligoCS and CSWK lead to an inhibition against ...
Brigolin D D Centre for Estuarine and Coastal Marine Sciences, DAIS, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
We propose a modelling approach relating the functioning of a transitional ecosystem with the spatial extension of its habitats. A test case is presented for the lagoon of Venice, discussing the results in the context of the application of current EU directives. The effects on food web functioning due to ...
von Soest Tilmann T University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Social Research, Oslo, - - 2014
This study examines secular trends in eating problems among adolescents between 1992 and 2010. The study aims further to investigate whether such trends can be accounted for by secular changes in putative risk factors. Three nationwide surveys of Norwegian senior high-school students were conducted in 1992, 2002, and 2010 (response ...
Semmar Nabil N Institut Supérieur des Sciences Biologiques Appliquées de Tunis (ISSBAT). Université de Tunis El Manar (UTM), Tunis, Tunisia; Laboratoire de Biomathématiques, Service 462, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Saint-Jérômes, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 13, France. Electronic address: - - 2014
Stomach contents represent complex mixture systems which depend on feeding mode of forager species (carnivores, herbivores) as well as on natural availability/distribution of food resources (preys, plants). Such mixture systems can be considered as small black boxes condensing wide ecological information on (i) feeding behaviors of predator (or herbivore) and ...
Guamuch Monica M Guatemala City, - - 2014
The objective of this work was to present a generic model for estimating fortification contents when several food vehicles are being considered simultaneously. It is based on approximating the magnitude of the nutritional inadequacy of the population (nutrient gap), the optimal use of the combination of food vehicles (fortifiable food ...
Yan Changmin C a Edward R. Murrow College of Communication , Washington State - - 2014
This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted ...
Delgado Cynthia C Division of Nephrology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, and Nephrology Section, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California. Electronic address: - - 2014
Estimating dietary intake is challenging in patients with chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to calibrate the Block Brief 2000 food frequency questionnaire (BFFQ) using 3-day food diary records among patients on dialysis. Data from 3-day food diary records from 146 patients new to dialysis were reviewed and ...
Fahimipour Ashkaan K AK Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA; Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, - - 2014
Community assembly is central to ecology, yet ecologists have amassed little quantitative information about how food webs assemble. Theory holds that colonisation rate is a primary driver of community assembly. We present new data from a mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that colonisation rate also determines the assembly dynamics ...
Ali Mir M MM Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA. - - 2014
Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated ...
Skiff J J - - 2014
Mosquito larvae often exhibit different behaviors depending on the aspects of the aquatic environment, including the presence of different physical factors and detrital food sources. Regardless of these physical differences, different genera also devote different amounts of time to different behaviors. To determine if differences existed among four focal mosquito ...
Wolka Eskinder - - 2014
Iodine-deficiency disorders are a major public health problem all over the world. Goiter is the most visible manifestation of iodine-deficiency disorder. Goiter rate is useful to assess the long-term impact of iodine-deficiency disorders. To determine the risk factors for goiter in primary schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study on ...
Guilherme Pablo D B - - 2014
The sea star Astropecten marginatus has a neotropical distribution and is a highly abundant and frequent species in shrimp trawling by-catchin many places along the Brazilian coast. This has caused its threat to extinction and in addition, its bio-ecological aspects are poorly known. Thus, the main objective of this study ...
Ford Matthew M MM Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, L-584, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is generated by subjecting a highly motivated animal to a sub-optimal rate of food reinforcement while also providing access to a fluid. SIP is one of several adjunctive (or displacement) behaviors that are expressed in an exaggerated form that is deemed 'excessive.' This feature makes SIP an ...
Chow Carson C CC Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, - - 2014
Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as ...
Disantis Katherine I KI Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 423 Guardian Drive, 8th Floor Blockley Hall, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Present Address: Department of Community and Global Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Arcadia University, 460 S. Easton Rd, Glenside, PA, 19083, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective ...
Morawetz Deborah Y DY Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, - - 2014
The prevalence of Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy in the developed world is increasing, overwhelming tertiary allergy services. Alternative models of care are required. General paediatricians could provide this care but may require further training to do so. We aimed to determine Australian general paediatricians': (i) knowledge and management of ...
Barrett Emily S ES Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Environmental chemicals are widely found in food and personal care products and may have adverse effects on fetal development. Our aim was to examine women's attitudes about these chemicals and ask whether they try to limit their exposure during pregnancy. A multi-center cohort of women in the first trimester of ...
Kim Tae Hyun TH Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health Services Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, South - - 2014
The aim of this study was to explore the heterogeneous association of consumption of food away from home (FAFH) with individual body mass outcomes including body mass index and waist circumference over the entire conditional distribution of each outcome. Information on 16 403 adults obtained from nationally representative data on ...
Havlík Petr P Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, - - 2014
Livestock are responsible for 12% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable intensification of livestock production systems might become a key climate mitigation technology. However, livestock production systems vary substantially, making the implementation of climate mitigation policies a formidable challenge. Here, we provide results from an economic model using a detailed ...
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