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Results 451 - 500 of 1667
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Fleming-Milici Frances - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. OBJECTIVE ...
Starrs D - - 2013
This experimental study compared the precision and accuracy of the biological intercept (BI), modified fry (MF) and time-varying growth (TVG) backcalculation models in estimating the early growth of the tropical freshwater purple-spotted gudgeon Mogurnda adspersa. Larvae were reared up to 41 days post hatching under two temperatures and four different feeding ...
Servennti Luca - - 2013
We investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads, and the bioaccessiblity of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was greater than for type E ...
Theresa Allhoff Korinna - - 2013
Evolutionary foodweb models are used to build food webs by the repeated addition of new species. Population dynamics leads to the extinction or establishement of a newly added species, and possibly to the extinction of other species. The food web structure that emerges after some time is a highly nontrivial ...
Crépet A - - 2013
Owing to the intensive use of pesticides and their potential persistence in the environment, various pesticide residues can be found in the diet. Consumers are therefore exposed to complex pesticide mixtures which may have combined adverse effects on human health. By modelling food exposure to multiple pesticides, this paper aims ...
Wilcox Sara - - 2013
Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and ...
Luce Kristine H - - 2013
This research used multilevel modeling to investigate the hypothesis that restrained eaters increase dietary restriction when they expect to drink alcohol. Undergraduate women (39 restrained eaters; 40 unrestrained eaters) monitored their food and alcohol intake for ten days. Restrained eaters, on average, consumed fewer calories per day than unrestrained eaters. ...
Bader Michael D M MD Department of Sociology and Center on Health, Risk and Society, American University Washington, DC 20016-8072, USA. - - 2013
Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. ...
Eng Carolyn M - - 2013
Maximum bite force affects craniofacial morphology and an organism's ability to break down foods with different material properties. Humans are generally believed to produce low bite forces and spend less time chewing compared with other apes because advances in mechanical and thermal food processing techniques alter food material properties in ...
Millward D Joe - - 2013
Obesity in the UK was assumed to have developed against a population decline in physical activity, with health messages focused on diet and exercise prevention strategies. Doubly-labelled water (DLW) studies of energy expenditure have indicated the alternative scenario that the increased obesity prevalence reflects excessive food energy intake with physical ...
Dowd Kylie - - 2013
This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian ...
Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component model of self-control that was tested using ecological momentary assessment, ...
Grünwald Stefanie - - 2013
: Food quality is a fundamental issue all over the world. There are two major requirements to provide the highest quality of food: having the lowest reachable concentrations of health-threatening ingredients or contaminants and having the optimal concentrations of health-improving functional ingredients. Often, the boundaries of both requirements are blurred, ...
Hennig Kristin - - 2013
Epidemiological and mechanistic studies show health-promoting effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. In literature, differences in non-enzymatic glucosinolate degradation rates during food processing between different vegetables are described, which provide the basis for studying the genetic effects of this trait and breeding vegetables with high glucosinolate retention during food ...
Shapaval V - - 2013
The application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for characterization of yeasts is growing rapidly. Since it is known that the phenotypic expression of yeast cells depends sensitively on the nutrients that are available in the growth medium, one standardized growth medium is usually used for identification and characterization purposes in ...
Schaffner Donald W - - 2013
This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. ...
Kyamuhangire William - - 2013
Concern over micronutrient inadequacies in Uganda has prompted the introduction of mass fortification. To use food intake to determine nutrient inadequacies in children aged 24 to 59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and to model the adequacy of mass fortification. Data were collected by the 24-hour recall method ...
Baldi Giulia - - 2013
The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (MCNut) is the cost of a theoretical diet satisfying all nutrient requirements of a family at the lowest possible cost, based on availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods. A comparison with household expenditure shows the proportion of households that would be ...
Sturm Roland R RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138, USA. - - 2013
Improving diet quality is a key health promotion strategy. There is much interest in the role of prices and financial incentives to encourage healthy diet, but no data from large population interventions. This study examines the effect of a price reduction for healthy food items on household grocery shopping behavior ...
Drewnowski A - - 2013
Objective:To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris.Methods:Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary ...
Richards Rickelle - - 2013
Abstract Background: This study evaluated environmental, personal, and behavioral correlates of BMI-for-age percentiles, dietary intake (kilocalories, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and Food Guide Pyramid food groups), and physical activity variables among homeless children. Methods: A 74-item survey, using social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, height, weight, and one 24-hour recall ...
Buck Christoph - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The availability of fast foods, sweets, and other snacks in the living environment of children is assumed to contribute to an obesogenic environment. In particular, it is hypothesized that food retailers are spatially clustered around schools and that a higher availability of unhealthy foods leads to its higher consumption ...
Florack Arnd - - 2013
Regulatory focus theory proposes two distinct modi of self-regulation, a promotion focus and a prevention focus. According to this theory, individuals in a prevention focus apply behavioral strategies to successfully avoid unpleasant outcomes and maintain a safe and secure state. By contrast, individuals in a promotion focus apply behavioral strategies ...
Clerfeuille E - - 2013
Nutrient profiling classifies individual food products according to their nutrient content. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), validation is a key step in the development of a nutrient profiling system. The aim was to assess the construct validity of five European nutrient profiling systems (Choices, Keyhole, (AFSSA), European Commission ...
Davidek Tomas - - 2013
A fractional factorial experimental design was used to quantify the impact of process and recipe parameters on selected product attributes of extruded products (colour, viscosity, acrylamide, and the flavour marker 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, HDMF). The study has shown that recipe parameters (lysine, phosphate) can be used to modulate the HDMF level without ...
Duran A C - - 2013
Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional ...
Reitzel Lorraine R - - 2013
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to address current gaps in the literature by examining the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) density around the home and FFR proximity to the home, respectively, with body mass index (BMI) among a large sample of African American adults from Houston, Texas. ...
Peace Angela - - 2013
There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. For example, modeling under this framework allows food quality to affect consumer dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that ...
Overby Nina Cecilie - - 2013
Aim: The academic performance of children impacts future educational attainment which may increase socioeconomic status which again influences their health. One of several factors that might affect academic performance is the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross sectional relation between diet and self-reported reading-, writing-, ...
Batra Payal - - 2013
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy ...
Bellingeri Michele - - 2013
Food web responses to species loss have been mostly studied in binary food webs, thus without accounting for the amount of energy transferred in consumer-resource interactions. We introduce an energetic criterion, called extinction threshold, for which a species goes secondarily extinct when a certain fraction of its incoming energy is ...
Giacomini Henrique C - - 2013
Most models of fish growth and predation dynamics assume that food ingestion rate is the major component of the energy budget affected by prey availability, while active metabolism is invariant (here called constant activity hypothesis). However, increasing empirical evidence supports an opposing view: fish tend to adjust their foraging activity ...
Davis Caroline - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to employ a novel genetic methodology - whereby functional variants of the dopamine pathway were aggregated to reflect a polygenic liability - in the study of food addiction. We anticipated that the composite index of elevated dopamine signaling (a multilocus genetic profile score [MLGP]) would distinguish ...
Schnoell Anna Viktoria - - 2013
Reports on behavioural innovations in wild primate populations as well as on their transmission are rare. Here, we report observations suggesting that redfronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) invent new behaviours in the wild. We observed a novel feeding behaviour in redfronted lemurs in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. The feeding behaviour consisted ...
Laird Brian D - - 2013
Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods ...
Ma Lin - - 2013
The Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) costs of food production have increased greatly in China during the last 30 years, leading to eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate leaching to ground water, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we present the results of scenario analyses in which possible changes in food production ...
Wu Felicia - - 2013
In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food ...
Calu Donna J - - 2013
Excessive consumption of unhealthy foods is a major public health problem. While many people attempt to control their food intake through dieting, many relapse to unhealthy eating habits within a few months. We have begun to study this clinical condition in rats by adapting the reinstatement model, which has been ...
Deangelis Donald L - - 2013
Traits such as skill at foraging and investment in anti-predator defense may vary among individuals within a species population. This intraspecific variation has implications for community dynamics. The implications of intraspecific variation of a consumer in the intermediate level of a tritrophic food chain are explored for the case in ...
Holt Robert D - - 2013
Predator-prey interactions play out in a physical matrix defined at least to some extent by the quantity and architecture of plants. Ambush predators for instance might more effectively encounter and capture prey in thick vegetation than in thin, open vegetation with good visibility. Yet these vegetation attributes are themselves potentially ...
Khajeh Mostafa - - 2013
In this study, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was employed to develop prediction model for removal of manganese from food samples using tea waste as a low cost adsorbent. After removal of manganese from food samples with acetic acid (5molL(-1)), manganese was adsorbed to a small amount of ...
Melin A D - - 2013
Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and ...
Monge-Rojas Rafael - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial ...
Le Révérend Benjamin J D - - 2013
Eating is a complex process with a range of phenomena occurring simultaneously, including fracture, temperature changes, mixing with saliva, flavour and aroma release. Sensory perception as experienced in the oral cavity has a strong effect on the overall acceptability of the food. Thus in an engineering sense one would want ...
Jones-Smith Jessica C - - 2013
OBJECTIVESIt is unknown whether any association between neighborhood food environment and obesity varies according to individual income and/or race/ethnicity. The objectives of this study were to test whether there was an association between food environments and obesity among adults with diabetes and whether this relationship differed according to individual income ...
Coura Oliveira Tatiana - - 2013
Although some animal models of food allergy in have already have been described, none of them uses the allergen in the animals' diet. This work describes the comparison between two developed models of food allergy in BALB/c mice, based in the administration of the allergen in the diet or by ...
Berthaume Michael A MA Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. - - 2013
Tooth cusp sharpness, measured by radius of curvature (RoC), has been predicted to play a significant role in brittle/hard food item fracture. Here, we set out to test three existing hypotheses about this relationship: namely, the Blunt and Strong Cusp hypotheses, which predict that dull cusps will be most efficient ...
Lee Hae-Rim - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Sulfur-Methyl-L-Methionine (SMM) have been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study ...
Williams Julie - - 2013
Microbial populations in a full-scale anaerobic digester fed on food waste were monitored over an 18-month period using qPCR. The digester exhibited a highly dynamic environment in which methanogenic populations changed constantly in response to availability of substrates and inhibitors. The methanogenic population in the digester was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, ...
Cobiac Linda J - - 2013
Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary ...
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