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Giacomini Henrique C - - 2013
Arising from S. Pawar, A. I. Dell & V. M. Savage 486, 485-489 10.1038/nature11131(2012)A recent paper by Pawar and colleagues has provided important insights into the consequences of foraging behaviour for food-web dynamics. One notable pattern predicted by their analysis is that consumption rate (c) scales superlinearly (cm(1.16)) with consumer ...
Robertson Lauren T - - 2013
Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in ...
Kohn M J - - 2013
What is already known about this subject Most prior work suggests no consistent association between food assistance programme participation and increased risk for youth overweight. Previous studies have not accounted for youth food insecurity status, which may modify this relationship. What this study adds Associations between food assistance programme participation ...
Hughes Austin L - - 2013
In a captive flock of American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pattern of weight loss after the breeding season was observed in the majority of individuals of both sexes, but weights eventually stabilized after several months. Social dominance (as determined by a 6-month behavioral study) was a highly significant predictor ...
Beatty Timothy Km - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. DESIGN: After matching similar ...
Leroy Jef L - - 2013
There is a growing concern that food or cash transfer programs may contribute to overweight and obesity in adults. We studied the impact of Mexico's Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which provided very poor rural households with cash or in-kind transfers, on women's body weight. A random sample of 208 ...
Brogan Amy - - 2013
Objectives : The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. Design : A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed ...
Martínez Ari E - - 2013
Abstract The stability of tropical systems has been hypothesized to explain the evolution of complex behavioral interactions among species. We evaluate the degree to which one highly evolved social system, mixed-species flocks, are stable in space and time in French Guiana, where flocks were characterized 17 years apart. These flocks ...
Alston Julian M - - 2013
In this article we use an economic model to link markets for agricultural commodities to food-product markets, and to trace the effects of agricultural policies on prices of food products and, consequently, on food consumption and calorie intake. Contrary to common claims, US agricultural policies have had generally modest and ...
Smith James A - - 2013
Abstract In resource-limited populations, an increase in average body size can occur only with a decline in abundance. This is known as self-thinning, and the decline in abundance in food-limited populations is considered proportional to the scaling of metabolism with body mass. This popular hypothesis may be inaccurate, because self-thinning ...
Burgoine Thomas - - 2013
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Interest in the role of food environments in shaping food consumption behaviours has grown in recent years. However, commonly used secondary food environment data sources have not yet been fully evaluated for completeness and systematic biases. This paper assessed the accuracy of UK Points of Interest (POI) data, ...
Mâsse Louise C - - 2013
Objectives. We examined state laws affecting the school food environment and changes in these laws between 2003 to 2008. Methods. We used the Westlaw legal database to identify state-codified laws, with scoring derived from the updated School Nutrition-Environment State Policy Classification System, obtained from the Classification of Laws Associated With ...
Lioret S - - 2013
Background/Objectives:The objectives of the present study were to describe food and nutrient intakes in children aged 9 and 18 months, and to assess tracking of intakes between these two ages.Subjects/Methods:Participants were 177 children of first-time mothers from the control arm of the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) ...
Boogert Neeltje J NJ School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK. - - 2013
Theoretical models of social learning predict that animals should copy others in variable environments where resource availability is relatively unpredictable. Although short-term exposure to unpredictable conditions in adulthood has been shown to encourage social learning, virtually nothing is known concerning whether and how developmental conditions affect social information use. Unpredictable ...
Kurzius-Spencer Margaret M Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, - - 2013
Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in food and water is a significant public health problem. Person-specific aggregate exposure is difficult to collect and modeling based on limited food As residue databases is of uncertain reliability. Two cross-sectional population exposure studies, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey-Arizona and Arizona Border Survey, ...
Bakhtiyari Mahmood - - 2013
Food intake patterns in relation to mental health have already been revealed. To investigate the relationship between processed food consumption behavior and anxiety disorder, a cross sectional study was conducted. Overall, 1782 young adults aged 18-35years were randomly selected using cluster sampling method from 22 districts of Tehran-Iran in 2011. ...
Jain Nishank - - 2013
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential mineral required for diverse cellular processes. Recent genetic and dietary experiments in animal models indicate that Pi may be toxic to a variety of biological processes. High dietary Pi load in such animal models resulted in an increase in oxidative stress, DNA damage that ...
Hauder J - - 2013
Recycled board plays an important role in food packaging, but the great variety of organic impurities must be considered as potential food contaminants. The diffusion behaviour of the impurities is significantly different from that in plastic materials. The two-layer concept for paper and board introduced recently is now treated in ...
Carlson Bryce A - - 2013
Primate feeding behavior varies over long (e.g., weekly, seasonally, yearly) and short (e.g., hourly) scales of time due to changes in resource availability and the nutritional composition of foods. While the factors that affect long-term changes in feeding behavior have received considerable attention, few data exist regarding what drives variability ...
Fisher J O - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Large portions promote intake among children, but little is known about the external influences of the eating environment on children's self-selected portion sizes. This research experimentally tested effects of the amount of entree available and serving spoon size on children's self-served entree portions and intakes at dinner meals. A secondary ...
Dolan Kirk D - - 2013
Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. ...
Munther Daniel - - 2013
Understanding the geographic and temporal spread of food-borne diseases associated with fresh produce is crucial for informing adequate surveillance and control. As a first step towards this goal, we develop and analyze a novel three stage model at the processing/sanitization juncture in the fresh produce supply chain. The key feature ...
Haldimann M - - 2013
Migration experiments with small sheets cut out from ovenable PET trays were performed in two-sided contact with 3% acetic acid as food simulant at various temperatures. The fraction of diffusible antimony (Sb) was estimated to be 62% in the PET sample under study. Apparent diffusion coefficients of Sb in PET ...
Bashir Muhammad Khalid - - 2013
This paper reviews the determinants of rural household food security in Africa and Asia where more than 88% of the world's undernourished people live. A conceptual model is proposed on the basis of the three widely known components of food security: food availability, accessibility and utilisation. This model is used ...
Adams Amy L - - 2013
Invasive species are often favoured in fragmented, highly-modified, human-dominated landscapes such as urban areas. Because successful invasive urban adapters can occupy habitat that is quite different from that in their original range, effective management programmes for invasive species in urban areas require an understanding of distribution, habitat and resource requirements ...
Woodcock Paul - - 2013
Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We ...
Potter Charles A - - 2013
ABSTRACT: An important paper by Skrable et al. included a retention function for compartment contents during a continuous intake, including the same time variable in both the numerator and denominator of the replacement function. In fact, the time in the denominator should have been represented as a constant describing the ...
Wilson Brent M - - 2013
We examined whether a sugary drink limit would still be effective if larger-sized drinks were converted into bundles of smaller-sized drinks. In a behavioral simulation, participants were offered varying food and drink menus. One menu offered 16 oz, 24 oz, or 32 oz drinks for sale. A second menu offered ...
Higgins Janine - - 2013
There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity ...
Hoekstra Eddo J - - 2013
The release of Bisphenol A (BPA) from polycarbonate baby bottles into food and food simulants is reviewed in the perspective of the current intensive discussions on the risks of this substance. Potential factors that have been reported to influence the release of BPA are reviewed. Unlike most polymers polycarbonate is ...
Paquette Sébastien Rioux - - 2013
In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at ...
Wilson Nick - - 2013
Global health challenges include non-communicable disease burdens, ensuring food security in the context of rising food prices, and environmental constraints around food production, e.g., greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions. We therefore aimed to consider optimized solutions to the mix of food items in daily diets for a developed country population: New ...
Grebitus Carola - - 2013
Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide ...
Booth Rachelle - - 2013
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18-25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. ...
Mineau Pierre - - 2013
Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States ...
Weatherspoon Lorraine J - - 2013
Maternal and/or child-feeding behaviors and food choices may be important contributors to childhood obesity. We aimed to compare food patterns and mealtime behaviors and to determine predictors of frequent intake of nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods of low-income African American (AA; n = 199) and non-Hispanic White (NHW; n = 200) mother-toddlers dyads using a ...
Berthaume Michael A - - 2013
Tooth cusp sharpness, measured by radius of curvature (RoC), has been predicted to play a significant role in brittle/hard food item fracture. Here, we set out to test three existing hypotheses about this relationship: namely, the Blunt and Strong Cusp hypotheses, which predict that dull cusps will be most efficient ...
Geraldi Nathan R - - 2013
Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or ...
Monsarrat Sophie - - 2013
Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures ...
Seward Adam M - - 2013
Temperature-, rainfall- and habitat-driven change in food availability is one likely mechanism by which anthropogenic factors may affect animal population dynamics and species distributions. Long-distance migratory birds must synchronize their migrations with food availability at locations hundreds or thousands of kilometers apart, so changes in the overall abundance of food ...
Gingins Simon - - 2013
In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to 'cheat' and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation ...
Belachew Tefera - - 2013
Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of ...
Cline Timothy J - - 2013
Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food ...
Khoury David S - - 2013
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are increasingly in demand as pollinators for various key agricultural food crops, but globally honey bee populations are in decline, and honey bee colony failure rates have increased. This scenario highlights a need to understand the conditions in which colonies flourish and in which colonies fail. ...
Johansson Karin S L - - 2013
The large bloom-forming flagellate Gonyostomum semen has been hypothesized to be inedible to naturally occurring zooplankton due to its large cell size and ejection of long slimy threads (trichocysts) induced by physical stimulation. In a grazing experiment using radiolabelled algae and zooplankton collected from lakes with recurring blooms of G. ...
Leung Elaine S - - 2013
Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the ...
Chenillat Fanny - - 2013
The variability of the California Current System (CCS) is primarily driven by variability in regional wind forcing. In particular, the timing of the spring transition, i.e., the onset of upwelling-favorable winds, varies considerably in the CCS with changes in the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, this ...
Mesurolle Joshua - - 2013
The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma ...
Van Gramberg Jenna L - - 2013
Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and ...
Borgmann Kathi L - - 2013
Seasonal declines in avian clutch size are well documented, but seasonal variation in other reproductive parameters has received less attention. For example, the probability of complete brood mortality typically explains much of the variation in reproductive success and often varies seasonally, but we know little about the underlying cause of ...
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