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Ellickson-Larew Stephanie - - 2013
The current study examined the bivariate and multivariate associations of personality with Body Mass Index (BMI) and several eating behavior inventories, focusing on facets of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Impulsivity. Simultaneous multiple regressions showed that the facets Traditionalism, Urgency, and low Vulnerability were significant predictors of BMI. A factor analysis of ...
Gu Baojing - - 2013
The nitrogen (N) footprint is a novel approach to quantify losses to the environment of reactive N (Nr; all species of N except N2) derived from human activities. However, current N footprint models are difficult to apply to new countries due to the large data requirement, and sources of Nr ...
Klecka Jan - - 2013
Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed ...
Moore Kari - - 2013
Little is known about the neighbourhood characteristics of workplaces, the extent to which they are independently and synergistically correlated with residential environments, and their impact on health. This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between home and workplace neighbourhood environments with body mass index (BMI) in 1503 working participants of the Multi-Ethnic ...
Berntssen M H G - - 2013
European Union legislation on the upper limits of toxaphene in feed and food include the congeners CHB-26, CHB-62 and CHB-50 and is set at 50 µg kg(-1) feed for the sum of these three congeners. However, due to their elevated presence in fish, the congeners CHB-40 and CHB-41, CHB-44, and CHB-42 ...
Santillana Farakos S M - - 2013
Salmonella can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Reduced microbial inactivation during heating is believed to be due to the interaction of cells and water, and is thought to be related to water activity (aw). Little is known about the role of water mobility in influencing the ...
Hollands Simon - - 2013
To investigate the association between fast-food restaurant density and adult body mass index (BMI) in Canada. Individual-level BMI and confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey master file. Locations of the fast-food and full-service chain restaurants and other non-chain restaurants were obtained from the 2008 Infogroup ...
Péan Samuel - - 2013
The use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned for several decades. PCBs have a long biological half-life and high liposolubility which leads to their bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food chains over a wide range of trophic levels. Exposure can lead to changes in animal physiology and behavior and has ...
Suciu Nicoleta A - - 2013
Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure ...
Robinson Eric - - 2013
Attentive eating means eating devoid of distraction and increasing awareness and memory for food being consumed. Encouraging individuals to eat more attentively could help reduce calorie intake, as a strong evidence base suggests that memory and awareness of food being consumed substantially influence energy intake. The development and feasibility testing ...
Säterberg Torbjörn - - 2013
Intensified exploitation of natural populations and habitats has led to increased mortality rates and decreased abundances of many species. There is a growing concern that this might cause critical abundance thresholds of species to be crossed, with extinction cascades and state shifts in ecosystems as a consequence. When increased mortality ...
Plante Sabrina - - 2013
Most animals need to actively search for food to meet energetic requirements and live in heterogeneous environments where food resources have complex spatio-temporal patterns of availability. Consequently, foraging animals need to find a balance between effort and resource allocation while accounting for intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are often overlooked ...
Wu Linhai - - 2013
This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food ...
Kalinkat Gregor - - 2013
The stability of ecological communities depends strongly on quantitative characteristics of population interactions (type-II vs. type-III functional responses) and the distribution of body masses across species. Until now, these two aspects have almost exclusively been treated separately leaving a substantial gap in our general understanding of food webs. We analysed ...
Jayaratne Naomi - - 2013
Vitamin D intake from foods or supplements is a safe and attractive means to improve vitamin D status of populations. The aim of this study was to help identify population subgroups that would benefit most from efforts to increase intake. To do so, we investigated which personal characteristics are associated ...
Strait David S - - 2013
Recent biomechanical analyses examining the feeding adaptations of early hominins have yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that hard foods exerted a selection pressure that influenced the evolution of australopith morphology. However, this hypothesis appears inconsistent with recent reconstructions of early hominin diet based on dental microwear and stable isotopes. ...
Niiranen Susa - - 2013
Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and ...
Hou Y - - 2013
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China's food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. ...
Albu Adriana A Discipline of Hygiene-Environmental Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, - - 2013
Food is a major contributor to healthy children and youth. The study of this factor must be complex, considering the dietary habits of the population. 65 pupils from rural area were surveyed weekly about eating chicken, fish, fruits, bread and cereal by-products. A special attention was given to daily consumption ...
Anderson Emma L EL MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United - - 2013
Methods for the assessment of changes in dietary intake across the life course are underdeveloped. We demonstrate the use of linear-spline multilevel models to summarize energy-intake trajectories through childhood and adolescence and their application as exposures, outcomes, or mediators. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children assessed children's dietary ...
Singh C P - - 2013
A comparative study was conducted for the food items and feeding pattern of Channa punctatus in pond environment and in reservoir of Tarai region in Uttarakhand state. Observation was made for body length, gut length, food and feeding frequency and qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut content. Both, body length ...
Wood Brian M - - 2013
We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not ...
Pearce J - - 2013
Mandatory food-based and nutrient-based standards for the food provided in English schools were introduced in 2008 (primary) and 2009 (secondary) and have had a positive impact on pupils' food choice and nutrient intake at school. There are no recommendations for portion sizes in England, although anecdotal evidence suggests that portions ...
Lowe Michael R - - 2013
The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients ...
Kamran-Disfani Ahmad R - - 2013
It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of ...
Burgoine Thomas - - 2013
Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment ('foodscape'). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete ...
Scarborough P - - 2013
Background/Objective:The World Health Assembly recommends that children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods should be reduced. Nutrient profile models have been developed that define 'unhealthy' to support regulation of broadcast advertising of foods to children. The level of agreement between these models is not clear. The objective of this study ...
Costa Hermann Ferreira - - 2013
Food allergy is a severe human disease with imminent risk of life. Cissampelos sympodialis (Menispermaceae) is a native Brazilian plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory allergies. In this study the experimental model of food allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA) was used to determine whether the ...
Bae Min-Jung - - 2013
Peanut allergy is IgE-mediated type-I hypersensitivity, and T helper 2 cytokines are central to those pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of the administration of chitin and chitosan on peanut-induced hypersensitivities in mouse food allergy models. Chitin and chitosan protected mice against peanut-induced anaphylaxis reactions, and the peanut-specific IgE production decreased ...
Faber Mieke - - 2013
Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food ...
Northstone Kate - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set ...
Szpyrka Ewa - - 2013
Dissipation behaviour of simultaneously applied fungicides fluquinconazole and pyrimethanil was studied in/on apples intended for baby food production (cultivars Jonagold Decosta, Golden and Champion). The apples were sprayed at two dosages to control the pathogen Venturia inaedequalis (Cooke) Aderh. A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD and GC-NPD) was used to ...
Tenenhaus-Aziza Fanny - - 2013
According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach ...
Fleming-Milici Frances - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Exposure to large numbers of television advertisements for foods and beverages with little or no nutritional value likely contributes to poor diet among youth. Given higher rates of obesity and overweight for Hispanic youth, it is important to understand the amount and types of food advertising they view. OBJECTIVE ...
Starrs D - - 2013
This experimental study compared the precision and accuracy of the biological intercept (BI), modified fry (MF) and time-varying growth (TVG) backcalculation models in estimating the early growth of the tropical freshwater purple-spotted gudgeon Mogurnda adspersa. Larvae were reared up to 41 days post hatching under two temperatures and four different feeding ...
Servennti Luca - - 2013
We investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads, and the bioaccessiblity of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was greater than for type E ...
Theresa Allhoff Korinna - - 2013
Evolutionary foodweb models are used to build food webs by the repeated addition of new species. Population dynamics leads to the extinction or establishement of a newly added species, and possibly to the extinction of other species. The food web structure that emerges after some time is a highly nontrivial ...
Crépet A - - 2013
Owing to the intensive use of pesticides and their potential persistence in the environment, various pesticide residues can be found in the diet. Consumers are therefore exposed to complex pesticide mixtures which may have combined adverse effects on human health. By modelling food exposure to multiple pesticides, this paper aims ...
Luce Kristine H - - 2013
This research used multilevel modeling to investigate the hypothesis that restrained eaters increase dietary restriction when they expect to drink alcohol. Undergraduate women (39 restrained eaters; 40 unrestrained eaters) monitored their food and alcohol intake for ten days. Restrained eaters, on average, consumed fewer calories per day than unrestrained eaters. ...
Wilcox Sara S Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA. - - 2013
Fast-food restaurants are more prevalent in lower-income and predominately African American neighborhoods, where consumption of fast food is also higher. In general populations, fast-food consumption is related to less healthy dietary intake. This cross-sectional study examined the hypotheses that greater fast-food consumption is associated with less healthy dietary intake and ...
Bader Michael D M MD Department of Sociology and Center on Health, Risk and Society, American University Washington, DC 20016-8072, USA. - - 2013
Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. ...
Eng Carolyn M - - 2013
Maximum bite force affects craniofacial morphology and an organism's ability to break down foods with different material properties. Humans are generally believed to produce low bite forces and spend less time chewing compared with other apes because advances in mechanical and thermal food processing techniques alter food material properties in ...
Millward D Joe - - 2013
Obesity in the UK was assumed to have developed against a population decline in physical activity, with health messages focused on diet and exercise prevention strategies. Doubly-labelled water (DLW) studies of energy expenditure have indicated the alternative scenario that the increased obesity prevalence reflects excessive food energy intake with physical ...
Dowd Kylie - - 2013
This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian ...
Hofmann Wilhelm - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The literature on dieting has sparked several debates over how restrained eaters differ from unrestrained eaters in their self-regulation of healthy and unhealthy food desires and what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful dieters. We addressed these debates using a four-component model of self-control that was tested using ecological momentary assessment, ...
Grünwald Stefanie - - 2013
: Food quality is a fundamental issue all over the world. There are two major requirements to provide the highest quality of food: having the lowest reachable concentrations of health-threatening ingredients or contaminants and having the optimal concentrations of health-improving functional ingredients. Often, the boundaries of both requirements are blurred, ...
Hennig Kristin - - 2013
Epidemiological and mechanistic studies show health-promoting effects of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. In literature, differences in non-enzymatic glucosinolate degradation rates during food processing between different vegetables are described, which provide the basis for studying the genetic effects of this trait and breeding vegetables with high glucosinolate retention during food ...
Shapaval V - - 2013
The application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for characterization of yeasts is growing rapidly. Since it is known that the phenotypic expression of yeast cells depends sensitively on the nutrients that are available in the growth medium, one standardized growth medium is usually used for identification and characterization purposes in ...
Schaffner Donald W - - 2013
This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. ...
Kyamuhangire William - - 2013
Concern over micronutrient inadequacies in Uganda has prompted the introduction of mass fortification. To use food intake to determine nutrient inadequacies in children aged 24 to 59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, and to model the adequacy of mass fortification. Data were collected by the 24-hour recall method ...
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