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Results 401 - 450 of 568
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Ristola T - - 2001
Effects of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) on life-cycle traits of the midge Chironomus riparius and the ability of the midge to evolve tolerance to TCP were assessed using a reference group and a group preexposed to TCP during three generations, both originating from the same laboratory culture. F1 larvae of these groups ...
Schreiber J D - - 2001
To understand the effects of diffuse pollution information on the source of pollutants, quantities in transport, mode of transport, transient nature of the pollution event, and most importantly, a consideration of remediation efforts need to be known. For example, water quality research in the Yazoo Basin uplands in Mississippi has ...
Pietrzak-Flis Z - - 2001
Activity concentration of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides was determined in foodstuffs and drinking water in central Poland. Annual and daily intake for the adult population was estimated from the concentrations determined and average annual consumption of food and water. The daily intakes (in mBq) were 22.1 (238U), 26.5 ...
Giang N - - 2001
Diet samples were collected to estimate dietary intakes of 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium for Vietnamese adults using duplicate portion studies and market basket studies. Average concentrations of 232Th, 238U, cesium, and strontium in diet samples were 4.0 ng/g-dry, 2.5 ng/g-dry, 41 ng/g-dry, and 4.5 ng/g-dry, respectively. Daily intakes per ...
Gustafsson O - - 2001
Linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used to assess the fates of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) released to a large urban harbor and the adjoining offshore waters. We found that particulate concentrations of the individual C12 LAB isomers in 1996 summertime surface waters decreased from 1 pM in Boston Harbor to 20-200 ...
Sriyaraj K - - 2001
The impact of soil filtered runoff from a section of the M25 outer London motorway (constructed in 1981) on a pond, wetland and stream in a nature reserve was investigated by monitoring water, sediment. The tissues of the emergent plants Typha latifolia and Glyceria maxima collected from the pond were ...
Kritidis P - - 2001
The present study summarizes the published results of the studies of the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory on the radiological impact in Greece of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Some unpublished data from personal communications also have been used to present the time evolution of the studies. The radiological impact in Greece of ...
Kannan V - - 2001
Distribution of one of the natural radionuclides 210Po activity in food of plant origin such as cereals, pulses, vegetables and food of animal origin such fish, crab, prawn, chicken, egg etc. were determined in and around Kalpakkam upto a distance of 32 km radius. The general range of 210Po activity ...
Funaba M - - 2001
Feeding dry foods supplemented with urine acidifier (D,L-methionine (Met) or ammonium chloride) decreased urinary pH and struvite activity product in clinically normal cats. As a result, the number of struvite crystals in urine was greatly reduced. Supplementation with 3% Met but not 1% Met caused decrease in the urinary concentration ...
So C M - - 2001
Enrichments of alkane-degrading microorganisms were established under sulfate-reducing, denitrifying, iron-reducing, and methanogenic conditions using an estuarine sediment. The sulfate-reducing and denitrifying enrichments mineralized [1-14C]hexadecane to 14CO2. Degradation was coupled to sulfate reduction and denitrification, as indicated by the ratios of hexadecane degraded to the electron acceptors reduced. Dependence of hexadecane ...
Zimmer I - - 2001
Polyclonal antibodies against hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 (HFB1) were prepared by immunization of rabbits with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate coupled by glutaraldehyde. Sensitivity and specificity of these antibodies were tested in a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in which a HFB1-horseradish peroxidase conjugate prepared by reductive alkylation served as ...
Toal M E - - 2001
A study was undertaken to quantify the activity concentrations of 137Cs in Apodemus sylvaticus (the woodmouse) in two woodland sites, Lady Wood and Longrigg Wood, adjacent to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. A deterministic dynamic compartmental food chain model was also constructed to predict 137Cs activity concentration ...
Tsai S C - - 2001
Sorption and diffusion are important processes for the transport of radionuclides through buffer materials such as bentonite. In this study, the sorption and diffusion behaviors of Cs and Sr on Jih-Hsing bentonite are investigated using batch and through-diffusion techniques. The distribution coefficients (Kds) of Cs and Sr from batch experiments ...
Warila J - - 2001
Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, ...
Grützmacher G - - 2001
In a large area around the former open-pit lignite mines near Bitterfeld, Germany, groundwater taken from wells was analyzed for the major cations, anions, and trace elements. Quaternary and Tertiary sediments were collected from aquifers exposed on the sides of the pits and from boreholes outside the mines and analyzed ...
Potter T L - - 2001
Cerro Negro bitumen, separated from an Orimulsion sample, was incubated for up to 120 days with sediments collected at a petroleum-impacted site in Tampa Bay, Florida. Biodegradation conditions were optimized by increasing bitumen surface area, continuous agitation on a shaker apparatus, use of a complete growth medium, and maintenance at ...
Summers J K - - 2001
Monitoring the estuaries of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines of the United States from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Brownsville, Texas, was performed annually from 1990 through 1997 to assess ecological conditions on a regional basis for four biogeographic provinces. These province estimates--Virginian, Carolinian, West Indian, and Louisianian Provinces--are ...
Fesenko S - - 2001
Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated ...
May T W - - 2001
Water and sediment samples were collected from streams in Spearfish Creek, Whitewood Creek, and Bear Butte Creek watersheds in the Black Hills, SD, an area impacted by gold mining operations. Arsenic concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Limit of 50 microg/L for drinking water were found ...
Larsen L - - 2001
Herbicides may leach from agricultural fields into ground water feeding adjacent wetlands. However, only little is known of the fate of herbicides in wetland areas. The purpose of the study was to examine the potential of a riparian fen to mineralize herbides that could leach from an adjacent catchment area. ...
Lawrence A L - - 2001
The bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (HgI) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) by benthic organisms and subsequent trophic transfer couples the benthic and pelagic realms of aquatic systems and provides a mechanism for transfer of sedimentary contaminants to aquatic food chains. Experiments were performed to investigate the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of particle-associated HgI ...
Green N - - 2001
Habit surveys were carried out around four licensed nuclear sites to identify people who collect foodstuffs from the wild (so-called 'free foods'). In total, around 800 collectors were readily identified, most of whom collected more than one free food. The data indicated that estimates of higher than average doses could ...
Gibbs M - - 2001
Clay slurries, mixed in seawater, were deposited on intertidal mudflats in two contrasting estuaries in an experiment designed to evaluate the potential impact of soil erosion from adjacent urban developments on the biodiversity of the benthic communities, and the subsequent recovery mechanisms. Profiles of the natural abundance of stable isotopes ...
Lewis M A - - 2001
Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, benthic community composition, whole sediment toxicity, periphytic algal community composition and ...
Mehli H - - 2000
The reindeer-herding Southern Saamis, from Central Norway, were the population group exposed to the highest levels of radioactivity in Norway, following the Chernobyl accident. Radiocesium whole-body contents and dietary habits have been investigated regularly in this population group since 1987. Meat of semi-domesticated reindeer is important in their diet, and ...
Peeters E T - - 2000
The effects of sediment-bound toxicants to aquatic invertebrates may vary due to differences in bioavailability, food quality, or food structure. The equilibrium partitioning theory (EPT) assumes that organic matter content of sediments and not structure of organic matter is relevant for biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. To test this ...
Beresford N A - - 2000
A study is described in which 137Cs intake by free-ranging sheep was estimated at two farms in the area of west Cumbria (northwest England) which received some of the highest amounts of fallout from the Chernobyl accident within the United Kingdom. The faecal excretion of 137Cs was estimated from faecal ...
Narayana Y - - 2000
Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the ...
Yamamoto H - - 2000
Concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K contained in the front glass of CRTs (cathode ray tube) of three television sets are measured by gamma-ray spectrometry on the assumption of radioactive equilibrium in uranium and thorium series. The concentrations of 238U and 232Th are also measured by neutron activation analysis. The ...
Rappe C - - 2000
In 1997, we collected nine river sediment samples, including one duplicate, from above and below three pulp and paper mills on the Wisconsin River in Wisconsin, USA, and one mill on Beaver Dam Creek in Ontario, Canada. We also obtained twenty split sediment samples from the Wisconsin River that were ...
Weston D P - - 2000
A mass-balance bioaccumulation model was used to examine the bioaccumulation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from ingested sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Abarenicola pacifica over a series of experiments employing nine different sediments. Through selective ingestion of fine-grained material, the worm was able to increase the BaP content of ingested sediment by ...
Dim L A - - 2000
U-Th levels of the Kubanni River sediments in the Nigerian Basement Complex have been determined and shown to be enriched with mean values of 9.06+/-2.66 and 21.44+/-4.12 (ppm) respectively. The probable contributory factors are either phosphate fertilisers used on the neighbouring farms or low aeolian depositions from the NE trade ...
Gómez Ariza J L - - 2000
The feasibility of three sequential extraction schemes (a modification of the Tessier procedure, the scheme proposed by Meguellati and the protocol designed by BCR (now called the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme, M&T) have been compared to study the distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb ...
Aarkrog A - - 2000
Environmental studies of anthropogenic radionuclides in Greenland over four decades are reported. The studies have comprised the marine as well as the terrestrial environments and emphasis has been laid on measurements of 90Sr and 137Cs. The temporal and the spatial trends of these radionuclides are described. The radiation exposure from ...
Bernhard J M - - 2000
It is generally agreed that the origin and initial diversification of Eucarya occurred in the late Archaean or Proterozoic Eons when atmospheric oxygen levels were low and the risk of DNA damage due to ultraviolet radiation was high. Because deep water provides refuge against ultraviolet radiation and early eukaryotes may ...
Si S - - 1999
Based on the impedance characteristic of erythrocytes at high frequency, the response of piezoelectric crystal impedance (PCI) sensor in the erythrocyte suspension was derived and verified experimentally. A method of using PCI sensor to investigate erythrocyte aggregation-sedimentation phenomenon was proposed. From the frequency response of the PCI sensor, the erythrocyte ...
Yu K N - - 1999
Baseline values of concentrations of the natural radionuclides (238U, 226Ra, 228Ra/232Th, 210Pb) and artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co) in food and drinks (tap water, milk, and water-based drinks) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. All food and drinks were found to contain detectable 40K contents: 0.1 to 160 Bq kg(-1) (fresh mass) ...
Yamada M - - 1999
Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet ...
Fisk S - - 1999
Gamma-ray spectra were measured from Scottish heather honey samples gathered from hive locations with associated airborne gamma-ray survey data. The honeys all contained radiocesium, with activity concentrations ranging from 43-680 Bq kg(-1) 137Cs, and 134Cs/137Cs ratios consistent with Chernobyl deposition. Activity concentrations in honey were highly correlated with ground deposition ...
Robison W L - - 1999
Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the US as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 million t (million t TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive ...
Takahashi S - - 1999
Butyltin compounds (BTs), including tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products, di- (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), were determined in sea water, sediment, and biota at various trophic levels in the food chain collected from Otsuchi Bay, Japan, for understanding distribution and bioaccumulation of BTs in natural marine ecosystems. BT residues were ...
Thomas P A - - 1999
The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of ...
Carroll J - - 1999
As a prerequisite for most evaluations of radionuclide transport pathways in marine systems, it is necessary to obtain basic information on the sorption potential of contaminants onto particulate matter. Kd values for use in modeling radionuclide dispersion in the Kara Sea have been determined as part of several international programs ...
Matsuoka K - - 1999
To investigate temporal changes of water quality, a role of dinoflagellate cysts preserved in surface sediments was examined in Yokohama Port in Tokyo Bay, Japan. Two cores were collected, and sedimentation rates and ages of both were dated as approximately 1900 years or slightly older on the basis of 210Pb ...
Klevezal G A - - 1999
Doses of radiation estimated from ESR analysis of tooth enamel were compared with activities of alpha- and beta-emitters in enamel and in bone tissue of mandibles of 77 reindeer from populations with different levels of radiation contamination. Contribution of the radionuclides incorporated into bone (or bone-seeking radionuclides in food) to ...
Venturini L - - 1999
Thirty-eight types of food including fruits, vegetables, cereals, and meat have been analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Clove and black pepper were found to have the highest concentration of 137Cs. The annual intake of 40K, 228Ra, 226Ra, and 137Cs were found to be 14 kBq, 53.2 Bq, 17.5 Bq, and 3.2 ...
Martínez-Tabche L - - 1999
Toxicity and uptake data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri generated by nickel in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero), are presented. Nickel uptake and hemoglobin concentration were studied in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments. Nickel concentration and its toxic effect on hemoglobin were ...
Jia G - - 1999
A radioecological survey in Antarctica shows that the 239 + 240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am, 90Sr, and 137Cs activities were detectable in nearly all the samples. The activity level of 239 + 240Pu, 241Am, and 137Cs in antarctic sediments was about 5-20 times lower than in the northern Adriatic Sea sediments, but ...
Borio R - - 1999
The sedimentable mineral organic detritus (SMOD) drawn by rivers can be considered an important matrix for the monitoring of contaminants in aquatic environments. In Italy the collection and radioactivity analysis of SMOD has been introduced and standardised in the 80s. However hydrological parameters, like the flow and the amount of ...
McKenney C L CL - - 1998
Dry weight (W), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and energy (E) (calculated) accumulation were measured in the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, throughout larval development and during the first 2 weeks as postlarvae in seawater over sediment containing the pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate (SCF; nominal concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 microgram ...
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