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Riesch Rüdiger - - 2011
Divergent selection through biotic factors like predation or parasitism can promote reproductive isolation even in the absence of geographical barriers. On the other hand, evidence for a role of adaptation to abiotic factors during ecological speciation in animals is scant. In particular, the role played by perpetual darkness in establishing ...
Lee Jg - - 2011
In Australia, caries experience of 6-year-old and 12-year-old children has increased since the mid to late 1990s. Previously, caries rates had declined, attributable to community water fluoridation. The recent caries increase has been attributed speculatively to changes in fluid intake, including increased consumption of sweet drinks and bottled waters. Increasing ...
Martin Cathie - - 2011
One of the most pressing challenges for the next 50 years is to reduce the impact of chronic disease. Unhealthy eating is an increasing problem and underlies much of the increase in mortality from chronic diseases that is occurring worldwide. Diets rich in plant-based foods are strongly associated with reduced ...
Thow Anne Marie - - 2011
This article describes pathways through which trade policy change in two Pacific Island countries has contributed to changes in the food supply, and thereby to the nutrition transition. The effect of various trade policies from 1960 to 2005 on trends in food imports and availability is described, and case studies ...
Tee E-Siong - - 2011
Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. ...
Blokland Marco H - - 2011
The administration of growth-promoting compounds, to food producing animals is banned within the European Union. We developed several methods whereby the cleanup is based on LLE and SPE and detection based on GC-MSMS or LC-MSMS to identify and confirm the identity of different growth promoting agents in several food products. ...
Sirichakwal Prapaisri P - - 2011
Dietary guidelines based on 5 food groups was used as a main nutrition education tool until 1996 when food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) were promoted after 2 years of formulation and development. These FBDGs for the general population were designed to promote desirable and culturally acceptable eating behavior. The nine ...
Krzyzanowska Justyna - - 2011
This chapter is a comprehensive review of the health promoting phytochemicals commonly found in our daily food. These include carotenoids, phenolics, phytoestrogenes, polyunsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, tocols, allicin, glucosinolates, limonene and capsaicinoids. The review encompasses the main food sources of these chemicals in the diet, the possible mechanisms ...
Musaiger Abdulrahman O - - 2011
The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached ...
Bari Md Latiful - - 2011
Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian ...
Birch Leann L - - 2011
What has become familiar tends to be preferred while the unfamiliar is avoided. Additionally, liking is impacted by associative learning processes where new stimuli become liked via repeated pairings with familiar, already-liked stimuli. In addition to the ability to learn to like new foods and flavors, infants bring genetic taste ...
Engel Kathrin M Y - - 2011
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions. Therefore, GPCR variants may have conferred important selective advantages during periods of human evolution. Indeed, several genomic loci with signatures of recent selection in humans contain GPCR genes among them the X-chromosomally located gene for GPR82. This ...
Klingerman Candice M - - 2011
We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3), and the putative anorectic hormones ...
Tao Meng-Hua MH Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA. - - 2011
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-β(2) genes in archived ...
Carvalho Fernando P - - 2011
The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of ...
Vanaverbeke Jan - - 2011
We investigated the sediment-related distribution of both nematodes and macrofauna on the Belgian part of the North Sea (Southern Bight of the North Sea) in order to evaluate whether both faunal groups reflect similar patterns in community composition and diversity. Fine-grained sediments (median grain size <200μm) were inhabited by nematode ...
Haukås Marianne - - 2010
Knowledge of the bioavailability of brominated flame retardants for sediment-dwelling organisms is limited. The present study investigated bioaccumulation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the ragworm Hediste diversicolor exposed to field-contaminated sediments and food. Sediments and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were sampled from a fjord on the Norwegian west coast known to ...
Lynch Meghan - - 2010
This exploratory study describes the virtual socialization, behaviors, and attitudes being promoted in one community of food bloggers. Two months of entries from 45 blogs created by young women belonging to a photography-based food blogging community were analyzed and coded using a qualitative approach. Analysis revealed widespread group practices as ...
Doig Lorne E - - 2010
Burrowing of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca was evaluated under laboratory conditions similar to those recommended for standard sediment toxicity testing in Canada (EPS 1/RM/33; Environment Canada, 1997) and the United States (EPA/600/R-99/064; US EPA, 2000). Sediment type, time of day (light versus dark), size of animal, and the presence ...
Nadal Martí - - 2011
This study was aimed at assessing the levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po concentrations as well as gross alpha and beta activities in environmental monitors from the Catalan stretch of the Ebro River (Spain), potentially influenced by the presence of sediments with high concentrations of (238)U and its decay chain daughters ...
De Fabiani Emma E Giovanni Galli Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Lipids and Mass Spectrometry, Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano, Italy. - - 2010
Post-translational modifications of chromatin contribute to the epigenetic control of gene transcription. The response to food intake and individual nutrients also includes epigenetic events. Bile acids are necessary for lipid digestion and absorption, and more recently have emerged as signaling molecules. Their synthesis is transcriptionally regulated also in relation to ...
Klosterhaus Susan L - - 2010
The flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) accumulates in humans and terrestrial food webs, but few studies have reported the accumulation of BDE 209 in aquatic biota. To investigate the mechanisms controlling the bioavailability of BDE 209, a 28-d bioaccumulation experiment was conducted in which the marine polychaete worm Nereis ...
Puel Olivier - - 2010
Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, ...
Hédouin Laetitia - - 2010
Bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr and Zn was studied in the oysters Isognomon isognomon and Malleus regula, using highly sensitive radiotracer techniques. Metals were readily bioconcentrated from the dissolved phase. Sediment exposures indicated a low bioavailability of sediment-bound metals (3-5 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved metals). In both ...
Robison William L - - 2010
Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utr??k Island at Utr??k Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of ...
Gordana Vitorović - - 2009
The activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 232Th and 137Cs were measured using gamma spectrometric method in different food chain samples from Serb Belgrade environment during the periods May-June 2007 and May-June 2008 year. Relatively high activities of 40K and 137Cs were detected in the soil. These results indicate that 137Cs ...
Sugiyama Hideo - - 2009
The isotope (210)Po was suspected of being involved in the death of a former Russian intelligence agent in 2006 in the UK. Although human exposure to this natural radionuclide in foods is estimated to be high, few studies are available. UNSCEAR Report 2000 does not contain data on (210)Po concentrations ...
Schaller Jörg - - 2009
In contrast to the classification of most invertebrate shredders being sensitive to uranium, a G. pulex L. population with reproduction was found in a stream at a former uranium mining site with uranium concentrations of 150 microg l(-1) in water and up to 2000 mg kg(-1) DW(-1) (dry weight) in ...
Sakurai Takeo - - 2009
We investigated the transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from unspiked bottom sediment to a benthic marine fish, marbled sole (Pleuronectes yokohamae), via non-food-chain pathways, i.e., via sediment particles and water column. One-year-old sole were held for 28days in an exposure tank with bottom sediment or in a control tank. ...
Metian Marc - - 2009
Bioaccumulation of Pb was determined in Chlamys varia and Pecten maximus exposed to (210)Pb via seawater, food and sediment. Both scallops readily concentrated dissolved Pb with whole-body 7-d concentration factors of 250+/-40 and 170+/-70, respectively. In both species, more than 70% of Pb taken up from seawater was strongly retained ...
Jabbar T - - 2009
To determine radiological impact of composite food served at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) on its worker, cooked meals were collected during 2000-2007 and analysed by gamma and beta radiometry techniques for naturally occurring radionuclides and fission fragments. The only measurable radionuclide was naturally occurring (40)K. Its ...
Niemistö Juha P - - 2009
Sediment resuspension is an important factor for nutrient cycling in shallow lakes. Temporal variation in sediment resuspension and its influence on P concentrations and internal loading were studied in the shallow and eutrophic Kirkkojärvi basin. Gross sedimentation and sediment resuspension were estimated with sediment traps during three exposure periods in ...
Hyne Ross V - - 2009
The influence of various diets on the survival, fecundity, and the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of the benthic estuarine amphipod Melita plumulosa (Zeidler) in laboratory cultures were determined. Apart from a natural silty sediment, six commercial food supplements were examined: an omega-6 PUFA enriched Spirulina-based dry powder, Sera micron; ...
Zhu Jun - - 2009
Measured monthly atmospheric depositional fluxes of cosmogenically produced (7)Be ranged from 1 to 67 mBq/cm(2) in Boston, Massachusetts between September 2000 and August 2007. These fluxes exhibited seasonality and supported a decay-corrected (7)Be atmospheric depositional running inventory that ranged from 36 to 144 mBq/cm(2). Annual (7)Be deposition exhibited an increasing ...
Johnson W E - - 2009
Hurricane Katrina made landfall on August 29, 2005 and caused widespread devastation along the central Gulf Coast states. Less than a month later Hurricane Rita followed a similar track slightly west of Katrina's. A coordinated multi-agency response followed to collect water, sediment and tissue samples for a variety of chemical, ...
Kilemade M - - 2009
Hatchery-reared juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) were exposed for 3 weeks, under laboratory conditions, to inter-tidal sediments collected from polluted sites in Cork Harbour (Whitegate and Agahda) and a reference site at Ballymacoda Co., Cork, Ireland. The potential of the sediment exposure to induce cytochrome P450 activities and CYP1A1 in ...
DeLorenzo M E - - 2009
Toxicity effects of the antifouling compound, Irgarol 1051, were examined using a simulated estuarine salt marsh ecosystem. The 35 day mesocosm exposure incorporated tidal flux and contained seawater, sediments, marsh grass, and estuarine biota. Irgarol (10.0 microg/l) caused a significant reduction in phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity. HPLC pigment analysis ...
Viganò Luigi - - 2009
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in sediments and invertebrates (gammarids and caddisflies) collected in the River Po, upstream and downstream from a polluted tributary. Besides a diffuse contamination by penta-BDE technical mixture, the river sediments identified the tributary as an important source to the main river of decabromodiphenyl ether ...
Díez Sergi - - 2009
The occurrence of butyltin (BT) compounds in more than 50 recent sediment samples of the Iberian Peninsula, collected in the harbours of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain) and the North Atlantic Ocean (Portugal), including domestic and industrial sewage disposal sites, has been assessed. The highest levels of tributyltin (TBT) (7673 ...
Garcia-Orellana J - - 2009
Artificial radionuclides enter the Mediterranean Sea mainly through atmospheric deposition following nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident, but also through the river discharge of nuclear facility effluents. Previous studies of artificial radionuclides impact of the Mediterranean Sea have focussed on shallow, coastal sediments. However, deep sea sediments have the ...
Yang Z Z - - 2009
Mudsnails and sediments from an electronic waste recycling region in South China were chosen to study the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) bioavailability of mudsnail in different ambient levels. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) versus the reciprocal of PBDE concentration in sediment (1/Sed) occurred in all ...
Ruhl Henry A - - 2008
Diverse faunal groups inhabit deep-sea sediments over much of Earth's surface, but our understanding of how interannual-scale climate variation alters sediment community components and biogeochemical processes remains limited. The vast majority of deep-sea communities depend on a particulate organic carbon food supply that sinks from photosynthetically active surface waters. Variations ...
Rabitsch Herbert - - 2008
The accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in humans and domestic animals is of interest in estimating effective doses of exposed humans and to decide whether animal products can be used for nutrition of the population. In this paper we present an investigation of the (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity levels of ...
Gribben Paul E - - 2009
Despite well-documented negative impacts of invasive species on native biota, evidence for the facilitation of native organisms, particularly by habitat-forming invasive species, is increasing. However, most of these studies are conducted at the population or community level, and we know little about the individual fitness consequences of recruitment to habitat-forming ...
Kaeriyama Hideki - - 2008
To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of (137)Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than ...
Ylipieti J - - 2008
The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries ...
Hamilton Terry F - - 2008
We have determined the level and distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium activity concentrations, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in tissue samples of giant clam (Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus), a top snail (Trochus nilaticas) and sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) collected from different locations around Enewetak Atoll. The plutonium isotopic measurements were ...
Dheetcha Arun - - 2008
The uranium sequestering potential of Spirulina platensis was studied in batch mode, and its equilibrium was established in approximately 60 minutes. It had maximum sorption at pH 4.0 to 4.5. Equilibrium data is well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model followed by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson models. The interference of ...
Bogdal Christian - - 2008
Chronology of brominated fame retardants (BFRs), a class of currentlywidely used chemicals, was compared to the respective historical profiles of legacy organochlorine compounds in three dated sediment cores from a prealpine lake (Lake Thun, Switzerland). Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) started to increase in the 1980s-1990s. ...
Jibiri N N - - 2008
Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was ...
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