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Results 451 - 500 of 555
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Taylor D M - - 1997
Uranium from the environment enters the human body by ingestion with food and drink and by inhalation of respirable airborne uranium-containing dust particles or aerosols. Daily intake of uranium in food and water varies from approximately 1 to approximately 5 micrograms U/d daily in uncontaminated regions to 13-18 micrograms/d or ...
Ban-nai T - - 1997
To estimate radiocesium intake due to eating mushrooms, about 100 samples belonging to 11 species were analyzed to establish representative values for 137Cs and 40K in common edible mushrooms available in food markets. Concentration ranges were <0.047-39 Bq kg(-1) (wet wt) for 137Cs and 30-210 Bq kg(-1) (wet wt) for ...
Balonov M I - - 1997
This chapter discusses the events that led to the contamination of environments with the long-lived radionuclides of caesium, strontium and other elements, and to the internal exposure of populations living in contaminated areas. Among these events are radioactive releases into the river Techa from the Soviet nuclear weapons facility Mayak ...
Kabayama S - - 1997
In today's 'modern' society, no one can escape from the stresses of daily life. Stress stimulates the secretion of stress hormones (e.g. cortisol or noradrenaline) which generally suppress the immune response system, thus rendering the body vulnerable to infectious diseases and cancer. Therefore finding anti-stress food components, which diminish and/or ...
Cigna A A - - 1997
The consumption of food is an important pathway involved in the internal contamination of humans. The site-related critical foodstuffs can be grouped into three main categories: dairy products; aquatic animals, such as fish, molluscs and crustaceans; and other typical foods. The concentration factor plays a more important role than the ...
Likhtarev I A - - 1996
The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, resulted in the atmospheric release of about 70--100 PBq of 137Cs. This paper examines the doses to the adult population of the northern part of Rovno Oblast, Ukraine, from ingestion of 137Cs. Fallout of 137Cs in these regions was lower than in ...
Pascoe G A - - 1996
A food chain analysis of risks to wetland receptors was performed in support of a baseline ecological risk assessment at the Milltown Reservoir Sediments Superfund site in Montana. The study area consisted of over 450 acres of primarily palustrine wetland contaminated with metals from mining wastes transported from upstream sources ...
Hayer F - - 1996
Freshwater mussels, Anodonta cygnea L., were collected in a lowly polluted area in north-eastern France, and exposed during 28 days at three sites up and downstream of a chlorine bleached pulp and paper mill effluent Water, sediment and mussel samples were collected at regular intervals and analyzed for halogenated organic ...
Ruiz J M - - 1996
This account briefly reviews the fate, bioconcentration and effects of tributyltin (TBT) three decades after its introduction into the coastal environment. Data on TBT-related events that occurred in Arcachon Bay (gastropod imposex, oyster recruitment failure, oyster shell malformations, concentrations in water and sediments) are revised and reinterpreted. Historically, TBT concentrations ...
Rose N L - - 1996
Although fly-ash particles are found in high concentrations in areas of high acid deposition little environmental work has been done on the inorganic ash sphere (IAS) component. Spatial and temporal trends of IAS in the UK show similar patterns to those of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP), except that there appears ...
Ribera D - - 1996
The assessment of uranium chemical and radiological consequences depends on the physicochemical properties of these radioelements and the knowledge of their environmental fate. Although uranium is the source of all these fissionable isotopes, its fate in ecosystems has been poorly investigated. In this review, we have updated information concerning the ...
Kamath K R KR Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, - - 1995
The epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to varieties of antigens. In healthy individuals, only small amounts of ingested dietary antigens are absorbed. The normal immune response to absorbed food antigens is one of tolerance, which enables food to play its nutritive ("food") role without causing disease. Breakdown ...
Carvalho F P - - 1995
Through analysis of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet, the average ingestion rate for the Portuguese population is estimated at 1.2 and 0.47 Bq d-1 per capita for 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. Detailed analysis of foods indicate that seafood alone contributes up to 70% of the 210Po ingestion rate, whereas ...
Leggett R W - - 1995
This paper provides a review and reanalysis of data relating to gastrointestinal (GI) uptake of uranium in humans. Estimates of GI uptake of uranium in adult humans have been derived from results of three controlled experimental studies involving short-term oral intake of an elevated quantity of uranium in fluids, from ...
Liu J - - 1994
Biglycan is a small dermatan sulfate proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix of a variety of connective tissues. Sedimentation velocity and equilibrium studies were carried out to determine the monomer molecular weight of biglycan in denaturing solvents and to define the oligomeric states of biglycan in physiologic solvents in the ...
Cunningham W C - - 1994
Findings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for foods collected between October 1, 1986, and September 30, 1992. Concentrations of radionuclide activity in the Total Diet Study and reactor-survey foods were in Range 1 or low in Range II of the surveillance and ...
Noshkin V E - - 1994
The concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods ...
Keely B J - - 1994
The tetrapyrroles in a highly immature Late Pliocene lacustrine sediment (Willershausen, Germany) show a simple distribution of both chlorin and porphyrin components as the free bases. The major components are C32 desoxophylloerythroaetioporphyrin (DPEP), a C33 bicycloalkano porphyrin, the chlorin analogue of the latter, and desoxophylloerythrin and its chlorin counterpart. The ...
Connor E E - - 1994
Sediment from Killarney Lake, Idaho was added to the diet of captive northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) to determine absorption of Pb from contaminated sediment. The sediment, containing 4,500 micrograms g-1 Pb dry weight (d.w.), was added to ground poultry ration at 8% dry matter intake (DMI) for 21 days. Concentrations ...
Thomas P A - - 1994
Natural background activity and food chain transfer of the uranium decay products, 210Po and 210Pb, were examined in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain at two locations in the Northwest Territories of Canada. 210Po and 210Pb activities in lichens differed with species and location. Both 210Po and 210Pb were markedly higher in ...
Skwarzec B - - 1994
The determination of 63Ni was carried out on fish samples of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus Sprattus) and samples of sediment core from the GdaƄsk Bay. In contrast to stable nickel, 63Ni is non-uniformly distributed within the fish. More than 95% of total 63Ni content in cod ...
Dobler S - - 1994
Adult leaf beetles of the genusOreina are known to be defended either by autogenously produced cardenolides or by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) sequestered from the food plant, or both. In this paper we analyze larvae of differentOreina species and show that the larvae contain the same defensive toxins as the adults ...
Abbott M L - - 1994
A dynamic food chain model and computer code, named "COMIDA," has been developed to estimate radionuclide concentrations in agricultural food products following an acute fallout event. COMIDA estimates yearly harvest concentrations for five human crop types (Bq kg-1 crop per Bq m-2 deposited) and integrated concentrations for four animal products ...
Sack F D - - 1994
Roots of the aquatic angiosperm Limnobium spongia (Bosc) Steud. were evaluated by light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of organelle sedimentation towards gravity. Roots of Limnobium are strongly gravitropic. The rootcap consists of only two layers of cells. Although small amyloplasts are present in the central cap cells, ...
Bowmer T - - 1994
The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to sediments variously comprised of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) for two consecutive periods of 3 and 9 months. Chronic effects of PFA on this filter feeding bivalve were studied by examining changes in cellular and tissue pathology with the aid of a screening procedure ...
Smith Q T - - 1993
Extrasulcular substances such as saliva, supragingival plaque and salivary sediment may be contaminants in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) collected with Periopaper. This report provides data obtained with salivary amylase as a marker for these substances in GCF. Amylase was a common constituent of GCF collected from sites with clinical health ...
Trigo J R - - 1993
The arctiid mothHyalurga syma (subfamily Pericopinae) sequesters pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from its larval food plantHeliotropium transalpinum (Boraginaceae). Colorimetric quantification of total PAs in the larvae, pupae, and adults ofHyalurga revealed mean values of about 286-445μg per individual (1.4-2.6% of dry weight). The PA mixtures found in the moth and its ...
Van Middlesworth L - - 1993
Iodine is intensely concentrated in the thyroid of animals, while 137Cs is not. In this study, 129I and 137Cs concentrations were determined in animal thyroids from selected areas during 1984-1991. The thyroids were from deer killed within the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina; from the environs of Oak ...
Smith M L - - 1993
A comparison was made of 134Cs and 137Cs contamination in fungi from eastern Europe and eastern North America. Mean activities of 25 Ukrainian, 6 Swedish, and 10 North American collections were 4,660, 9,750, and 205 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. Additional measurements were made on samples from the Moscow, southern Belarus, ...
Racine C H - - 1992
The cause of the yearly death of an estimated 1,000 to 2,000 migrating dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and 10 to 50 swans (Cygnus buccinator and C. columbianus) has remained a mystery for the last ten years in Eagle River Flats (ERF), a 1,000 ha estuarine salt marsh near Anchorage, Alaska, ...
Reif R H - - 1992
A uranium in vitro bioassay (urinalysis) action level was derived for use at the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites to identify chronic inhalation intakes of uranium mill tailings causing 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) annual effective dose equivalent. All radionuclides in the 238U decay chain that ...
Landa E R - - 1992
Beginning as early as the first century A. D. and continuing until at least the 1970s, uranium was used as a coloring agent in glass and in ceramic glazes. The leaching of uranium from such items is of interest as some were designed for food storage or serving. Thirty-three glass ...
Edwards E A - - 1992
Benzene was mineralized to CO2 by aquifer-derived microorganisms under strictly anaerobic conditions. The degradation occurred in microcosms containing gasoline-contaminated subsurface sediment from Seal Beach, California, and anaerobic, sulfide-reduced defined mineral medium supplemented with 20 mM sulfate. Benzene, at initial concentrations ranging from 40 to 200 microM, was depleted in all ...
Hötzl H - - 1992
The sources of Chernobyl-derived caesium concentrations in air and deposition samples collected from mid-1986 to the end of 1990 at Munich-Neuherberg, Germany, were investigated. Local resuspension has been found to be the main source. By comparison with deposition data from other locations it is estimated that within a range from ...
Hwang D F - - 1992
Food poisoning incidents due to ingesting the cultured purple clam Soletellina diphos occurred in western Taiwan in February 1991. Clam specimens, sediment and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarensis were collected and assayed for lethality as paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The lethality of purple clam, wet sediment and phytoplankton was 1700 mouse ...
Holm E - - 1992
Fallout of Nickel-63 (T1/2 = 100 a) produced in small amounts at nuclear weapon tests following the neutron activation of weapon construction material was investigated by studying carpets of lichen collected during 1961 to 1988 at the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden (62.3 degrees N, 12.4 degrees E). The ...
Kukoc A H - - 1992
We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the "Gamma Contamination Food Factor" (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ...
Papastefanou C - - 1991
Results are presented on monthly measurements of 137Cs content in cows' milk over a 3-y period after the Chernobyl reactor accident. It was observed that, in an annual cycle of measurements, the 137Cs concentration of milk increased between December and August, peaking in April each year, due to the dependency ...
Louizi A - - 1991
Whole-body counting measurements were conducted to monitor the 137Cs biological half-life of 14 individuals in Athens during the period June 1988 to June 1989. The results and the solution of a 137Cs retention model showed that the individuals examined were receiving 0-3.7 Bq d-1 of 137Cs through the food chain ...
Howard B J - - 1991
A review of studies conducted before and after the Chernobyl accident is presented, showing that both the duration and the extent of radiocesium contamination of ruminants will be more severe in unimproved ecosystems compared with agricultural areas. Although such unimproved ecosystems provide comparatively small quantities of food for human consumption, ...
McKay W A - - 1991
The consumption of plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in locally collected shellfish is an important contributor to the radiation dose received by seafood consumers living in West Cumbria. Only a small fraction of the actinide activity is assumed to be absorbed via the gut whilst it is assumed that all the ...
Bogner Franz - - 1991
Larvae of the mothUtetheisa ornatrix are shown to cannibalize eggs in the laboratory. They proved most cannibalistic if they were systemically deficient in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA), the defensive agent that protectsUtetheisa at all stages of development against predation, and whichUtetheisa acquire as larvae from their food plant. In exercising cannibalistic ...
Marouf B A - - 1991
Since early 1986, a monitoring program for radionuclides in imported foods has been carried out by the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. After the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union, the program was expanded; our laboratory was officially designated by the Iraqi Government to measure radionuclide activity concentrations in ...
Isles C G - - 1991
OBJECTIVES: To compare caesium-137 concentrations in patients from the Western Isles Health Board, Glasgow area, and other parts of the Scottish mainland, and to investigate the source of 137Cs in patients from the Western Isles. DESIGN: Study of hypertensive patients having electrolyte concentrations measured, including 137Cs. Interview by questionnaire of ...
Byerly G R - - 1991
Tourmaline-rich rocks are common in the low-grade, interior portions of the Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa, where shallow-marine sediments and underlying altered basaltic and komatiitic lavas contain up to 50% tourmaline. The presence of tourmaline-bearing rip-up clasts, intraformational tourmaline pebbles and tourmaline-coated grains indicate that boron mineralization was a ...
Lau M M - - 1991
Tributyltin (TBT), the active ingredient in antifouling paint, has demonstrated extreme potency but also high toxicity to non-target marine organisms; it bioaccumulates in the food chain, and research evidence of its damaging effect on the reproduction and growth of various marine life forms have prompted action by various countries to ...
Jantunen M - - 1991
To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the ...
Havlik E - - 1991
Residents of Vienna, Austria were whole-body counted for radiocesium content due to fallout deposited after the Chernobyl accident. Data for a 2-y period were compared with prior estimates of radiocesium body burden based on food consumption. Our results suggest that the prior estimates be revised and the rejection limit be ...
Heitkamp M A - - 1991
The metabolism of 14C-labeled 1-nitropyrene in microcosms containing nonsterile estuarine sediments, and in cultures of a Mycobacterium sp. previously isolated from oil-contaminated sediments was investigated. Although mineralization of 1-nitropyrene by pure cultures of the Mycobacterium sp. totaled only 12.3% after 10 days of incubation, over 80% of the ethyl acetate ...
Lowe V P - - 1991
Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and ...
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