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Results 251 - 300 of 499
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Schurr Mark R - - 2005
Earlier weaning has often been suggested as a cause for population growth after the evolution of food production. However, evidence for weaning-time reduction is largely circumstantial. Collagen stable nitrogen- and carbon-isotope ratios from juvenile and adult burials from four sites in eastern North America were measured to estimate weaning onsets ...
Deng Wei - - 2005
Besides affecting the xylanases production, different nitrogen sources present in the media also caused changes in the xylanosomal subunit composition of Streptomyces olivaceoviridis E-86. Four xylanosome fractions, purified from the culture supernatant of S. olivaceoviridis E-86 grown on different nitrogen sources, exhibited high specificity towards different xylans and were composed ...
Hasek B E - - 2005
Biochemical composition of ovary, embryo, and hepatopancreas tissues in wild populations of Armases cinereum and Sesarma nr. reticulatum were monitored during the reproductive season. Total lipid, carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratio, and water concentration of the ovary, hepatopancreas and embryos were quantified over the course of ovarian maturation. Ovary nitrogen concentration ...
Long John F - - 2005
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of iron in carbon particulates enhances ultrastructural perturbation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) after phagocytosis. We used 1-microm synthetic carbon-based particulates, designed to simulate environmental particulates of mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Cultures of human ...
Basile-Doelsch Isabelle - - 2005
Silicon is the second most abundant element on Earth. It is an important nutrient for phytoplankton and is readily absorbed by terrestrial vegetation; it also assists the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the weathering of silicates. But the continental cycle of silicon is not well known, and ...
Peters Charles R - - 2005
A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are ...
Sponheimer Matt - - 2005
Stable carbon isotope analyses have shown that South African australopiths did not have exclusively frugivorous diets, but also consumed significant quantities of C4 foods such as grasses, sedges, or animals that ate these foods. Yet, these studies have had significant limitations. For example, hominin sample sizes were relatively small, leading ...
Widory David - - 2005
Nitrate (NO3) is one of the world's major pollutants of drinking water resources. Although recent European Directives have reduced input from intensive agriculture, NO3 levels in groundwater are approaching the drinking water limit of 50 mg L(-1) almost everywhere. Determining the sources of groundwater contamination is an important first step ...
Hu W F - - 2005
Accumulation of poly hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from excess activated sludge (EAS) was monitored and controlled via the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) adjusting process. The ORP was adjusted and controlled by only regulating the gas-flow rate pumped into the cultural broth in which sodium acetate (C2) and propionate (C3) were used as carbon ...
Shim S - - 2005
The aim of this study was to quantify and characterize the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of paddy fields and crop fields in Tottori, Japan. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV) absorbance was measured for the filtrated water of each samples. DOC concentration and SUVA (specific UV absorbance) of biodegradation ...
Cherel Yves - - 2005
Using measurements of naturally occurring stable isotopes to reconstruct diets or source of feeding requires quantifying isotopic discrimination factors or the relationships between isotope ratios in food and in consumer tissues. Diet-tissue discrimination factors of carbon ((13)C/(12)C, or delta (13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N, or delta (15)N) isotopes in whole blood ...
Langford Nigel J - - 2005
Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an ...
Gao Shan - - 2004
Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with ...
Ikehata Keisuke - - 2004
Optimum culture conditions for the batch production of extracellular peroxidase by Coprinus cinereus UAMH 4103 and Coprinus sp. UAMH 10067 were explored using 2 statistical experimental designs, including 2-level, 7-factor fractional factorial design and 2-factor central composite design. Of the 7 factors examined in the screening study, the concentrations of ...
Hanan Barry B - - 2004
The origin of the isotopic signature of Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts has remained enigmatic, because the geochemical composition of these basalts is consistent either with pollution from recycled, ancient altered oceanic crust and sediments, or with ancient continental crust or lithosphere. The radiogenic isotopic signature may therefore be the result ...
Bonnefille R - - 2004
Plio-Pleistocene global climate change is believed to have had an important influence on local habitats and early human evolution in Africa. Responses of hominin lineages to climate change have been difficult to test, however, because this procedure requires well documented evidence for connections between global climate and hominin environment. Through ...
Xie Huixiang - - 2004
Photodecarboxylation (often stoichiometrically expressed as RCOOH + (1/2)O2 --> ROH + CO2) has long been postulated to be principally responsible for generating CO2 from photooxidation of dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this study, the quantitative relationships were investigated among O2 consumption, CO2 production, and variation of carboxyl content resulting from ...
Chang Moo Been - - 2004
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [nitrogen oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are removed individually in traditional air pollution control technologies. This study proposes a combined plasma scrubbing (CPS) system for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx. CPS consists of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and wet ...
Simpson Myrna J - - 2004
Several recent reports suggest that black carbon (BC), which broadly encompasses charcoal, soot, and other forms of pyrogenic carbon, may constitute a significant proportion of the refractory carbon in soil and sedimentary organic matter. BC is a sink for biospheric and atmospheric carbon dioxide, and is intimately tied to the ...
Dickhut Rebecca M - - 2004
To test the potential for using stable isotope fractionation to examine the atmospheric transport of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), we conducted simplified distillation experiments in the laboratory and a tracer-release experiment using mixtures of stable isotope-labeled (D and 13C) and unlabeled SOCs. Perdeuterated phenanthrene and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane were transported more slowly ...
Freeman C - - 2004
Peatlands represent a vast store of global carbon. Observations of rapidly rising dissolved organic carbon concentrations in rivers draining peatlands have created concerns that those stores are beginning to destabilize. Three main factors have been put forward as potential causal mechanisms, but it appears that two alternatives--warming and increased river ...
Thornley J H M - - 2004
Climate change is predicted to shorten the fire interval in boreal forests. Many studies have recorded positive effects of fire on forest growth over a few decades, but few have modeled the long-term effects of the loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. We used a process-based, dynamic, forest ...
Yavich Alex A - - 2004
The major purpose of this study was to develop a simple procedure to describe the kinetics of biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water and to use this procedure to evaluate changes in the concentration of biodegradable organic matter during ozonation and biotreatment. The proposed approach quantitatively describes ...
Sowunmi, Akindayo O; Department ...
Influence of inorganic N<sub>2</sub> forms on pond food organisms was investigated. Seven identified plankton taxa comprising four phytoplankton: Desmidiaceae (desmids), Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) and Chlorophyceae (green algae) and three zooplankton: Protozoa, Cladocera and Rotifera fluctuated in response to nutrient inputs. All recorded significant F-value across treatments. With exception ...
Chadwick V. Tillberg
Workers of Paraponera clavata, a common Neotropical ant, collect both nectar and insect prey. Previous reports show that nectar accounts for up to 90 percent of the ants' food loads, while calculations suggest that nectar contributes only 10 percent of colonies' energy supply. We assessed the trophic source of carbon ...
Thom Corinna - - 2004
The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral ...
Zimnoch Miroslaw - - 2004
This article presents the results of measurements of the isotopic composition and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, performed on air samples from Kraków (Southern Poland) in different seasons of the year. A simple isotope mass balance model has been applied to determine the contributions of different sources of CO2 to ...
Nagashima Kazuhide - - 2004
Primitive chondritic meteorites contain material (presolar grains), at the level of a few parts per million, that predates the formation of our Solar System. Astronomical observations and the chemical composition of the Sun both suggest that silicates must have been the dominant solids in the protoplanetary disk from which the ...
Matthews Blake - - 2004
Individual variation in the diet of consumers is common in many ecological systems and has important implications for the study of population dynamics, animal behavior, and evolutionary or ecological interactions. Ecologists frequently quantify the niche of a population by intensive analyses of gut contents and feeding behaviors of consumers. Inter-individual ...
Huang W J - - 2004
Bromate (BrO3-) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) removal by activated carbon after ozonation is a subject of concern, since BrO3- and AOC are commonly found in the ozonation of bromide-containing and organic-rich waters. In batch ozonation experiment of this study, the major ozonation by-products were bromate, bromform, aldehydes, and AOC, ...
Tripathi G - - 2004
An epigeic (surface dweller) earthworm species Eisenia fetida and an anecic (deep burrower) earthworm species Lampito mauritii have been tested for decomposition of kitchen waste plus cow dung. Chemical analyses of worm-worked substrates by both species showed g/kg increases in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and decreases in C/N and C/P ...
Virtue Mark A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with decreased erythrocyte survival have an unusually low GHb percentage. The goal of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia, as reflected by GHb percentage, is associated with decreased erythrocyte survival. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Erythrocyte survival was quantitated in 23 subjects with type 2 diabetes, and these ...
Alster Tina S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Upper eyelid dermatochalasis is typically treated with excisional blepharoplasty. The role of the CO2 laser previously had been confined to that of a vaporizing, incisional, or hemostatic tool. Over the past several years, however, ablative CO2 laser skin resurfacing has been popularized as an adjunctive treatment to blepharoplasty to ...
Froneman, PW; Department of ...
Stable isotope (&delta;13C) composition of the food web in the temperate Kariega estuary in summer and winter was analysed to determine the trophic relationships between 19 taxa. There was no seasonality in the stable isotope ratios of the dominant producers and consumers in the estuary. Two distinct zooplankton assemblages were ...
Raczek Barbara - - 2004
The results of dynamic measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, in %) in exhaled air during speech are presented. Fourteen stuttering persons and 14 persons with fluent speech took part in a test that involved independent speaking and echo-assisted speaking (delayed auditory feedback). A statistical comparative analysis of average levels of ...
Feuchtmayr, H.
1. Density gradients of cladocerans and copepods were generated in an enclosure experiment to compare the impact on the plankton of a filter feeder (Daphnia hyalina × galeata) with that of more selective feeders (calanoid and cyclopoid copepods). The experiment was conducted in situ over 25 days during spring in ...
Guest, Michaela A
In estuarine and other aquatic systems, it is possible for water to transport locally produced carbon (food) across habitat boundaries, and provide nutrition for animals remote from the carbon source. In estuarine and marine systems, early work examining the movement of carbon from saltmarsh habitats in the USA suggested that ...
Bilanakis Nikos - - 2004
Lithium is widely used in the management of patients with affective and other behavioral disorders. In addition to its therapeutic role, it is important to recognize that it occasionally causes severe side effects. Associated with its long-term use, parathyroid hypersecretion and hypercalcemia is a rare but reported side effect. A ...
Oehmen A - - 2004
The effectiveness of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is directly affected by the competition of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs). This study investigated the short-term effects of carbon source on PAO and GAO performance. The tests were designed to clearly determine the impact of volatile ...
Cokgor E U - - 2004
This article evaluates effects of pH and substrate on the competition between glycogen (GAOs) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). A sequencing batch reactor system was operated for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with acetate as the sole carbon source and acetate added domestic wastewater at different influent acetate/phosphate ratios. Some ...
Ghosh Prosenjit - - 2004
The ionisation efficiencies of N2O vs. CO2 as well as their ratios were measured in detail introducing clean N2O and CO2 into the electron impact ion source of an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Changes in the ionisation efficiency ratio (IER) were found for different electron energy settings and compared with ...
Carmichael Ruth H - - 2004
To test and refine methods to detect nutrient enrichment and resulting eutrophication, we applied the Waquoit Bay nitrogen loading model (NLM) and Estuarine loading model (ELM) to estuaries of Pleasant Bay that receive increasing but low N loads (25-199 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) from land. Contributions of wastewater to these ...
Darnaude Audrey M - - 2004
The link between climate-driven river runoff and sole fishery yields observed in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) was analysed using carbon- and nitrogen stable isotopes along the flatfish food webs. Off the Rhone River, the main terrestrial (river POM) and marine (seawater POM) sources of carbon differed in delta(13)C ...
Van de Vijver Kristin Inneke - - 2003
This is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (FOCs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern North Sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta15N and delta13C). The presence of FOCs in top predators such as marine mammals would indicate a potential ...
Mauclaire Laurie - - 2003
A food chain consisting of toluene, toluene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. PS+ and a bacterivorous flagellated amoebae Vahlkampfia sp. was established in a batch culture. This culture was amended with [U-13C]toluene and served as a model system to elucidate the flux of carbon in the food chain by quantifying bacterial biovolumes and ...
Arruda Nicácio J M - - 2003
This work refers to a very easy to implementate flow injection system with potentiometric detection for l-glutamate determination in food samples. The proposed procedure is based on measurement of carbon dioxide produced by decarboxylation of l-glutamate catalyzed by l-glutamate decarboxylase (E.C. 4.1.1.1.5) from Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin). The FI potentiometric system ...
Pain Deborah J - - 2004
Understanding the links between breeding and wintering areas of migratory species has important ecological and conservation implications. Recently, stable isotope technology has been used to further our understanding. Stable isotope ratios vary geographically with a range of biogeochemical factors and isotope profiles in organisms reflect those in their food and ...
Connolly Rod M - - 2004
Ecological applications of stable isotope analysis rely on different producers having distinct isotopic ratios to trace energy and nutrient transfer to consumers. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are the usual elements analysed. We tested the hypothesis that producers unable to be separated using C and N would be separated by ...
Schultz Martin G - - 2003
If today's surface traffic fleet were powered entirely by hydrogen fuel cell technology, anthropogenic emissions of the ozone precursors nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide could be reduced by up to 50%, leading to significant improvements in air quality throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Model simulations of such a scenario predict ...
Beecher Gary R - - 2003
Flavonoids and their polymers constitute a large class of food constituents, many of which alter metabolic processes and have a positive impact on health. Flavonoids are a subclass of polyphenols. They generally consist of two aromatic rings, each containing at least one hydroxyl, which are connected through a three-carbon "bridge" ...
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