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Results 201 - 250 of 506
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Choi Sung-Deuk - - 2006
The contribution of Korean forests to carbon sequestration for anthropogenic carbon emissions was evaluated. In addition, monitoring of carbon species released from forest fires was conducted. Despite a high carbon uptake by Korean forests, a tremendous increase in fossil fuel burning resulted in a small contribution by forests to carbon ...
Ferge T - - 2006
Different particulate matter (PM) samples were investigated by on-line single-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). The samples consist of soot particulates made by a diffusion flame soot generator (combustion aerosol standard, CAST), industrially produced soot material (printex), soot from a diesel passenger car as well as ambient particulates (urban dust ...
Holland Greg - - 2006
The relationship between solar volatiles and those now in the Earth's atmosphere and mantle reservoirs provides insight into the processes controlling the acquisition of volatiles during planetary accretion and their subsequent evolution. Whereas the light noble gases (helium and neon) in the Earth's mantle preserve a solar-like isotopic composition, heavy ...
Barrozo R B - - 2006
Carbon dioxide is generally recognized as an important cue used by haematophagous insects to locate a food source. When the mammalian hosts of these insects breathe, they normally emanate considerable amounts of CO2 at discrete intervals, i.e. with each exhalation. In this work, we analysed the effect of temporally pulsing ...
Pearson Robert - - 2006
This study focused on whether or not atrazine could be degraded by indigenous groundwater bacteria as part of an in situ remediation approach. Groundwater was taken from an unconfined middle upper chalk site where concentrations of atrazine and nitrate were typically in the ranges 0.02-0.2 microg litre-1 and 11.6-25.1 mg ...
Dasgupta Rajdeep - - 2006
The onset of partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges governs the cycling of highly incompatible elements from the mantle to the crust, the flux of key volatiles (such as CO2, He and Ar) and the rheological properties of the upper mantle. Geophysical observations indicate that melting beneath ridges begins at depths ...
Borodin Oleg - - 2006
A quantum chemistry study of Li(+) interactions with ethers, carbonates, alkanes, and a trifluoromethanesulfonylimide anion (TFSI(-)) was performed at the MP2, B3LYP, and HF levels using the aug-cc-pvDz basis set for solvents and TFSI(-) anion, and [8s4p3d/5s3p2d]-type basis set for Li. A classical many-polarizable force field was developed for the ...
Raymond Jason - - 2006
The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and ensuing oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere represent a major transition in the history of life. Although many organisms retreated to anoxic environments, others evolved to use oxygen as a high-potential redox couple while concomitantly mitigating its toxicity. To understand the changes in biochemistry and enzymology ...
Vizzini Salvatrice - - 2006
Stable isotope ratios were used to determine the impact of anthropogenically derived organic matter from onshore and offshore fish farming and a sewage outfall on organisms at different trophic levels (primary producers and consumers) on the south-east coast of Sicily (Italy, Mediterranean). Representative macroalgae and consumers were collected in three ...
Sponheimer M - - 2006
Several stable carbon isotopic studies have shown that South African australopiths consumed significant quantities of C(4) resources (tropical grasses, sedges, or animals that eat those foods), but relatively little is known about the consumption of such resources by chimpanzees. Here, we present stable carbon isotopic data for 36 chimpanzee hair ...
Zuo Jin-long - - 2006
Cyclops of zooplankton propagates prolifically in eutrophic waterbody and it cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process. The mutagenicity of Mesocyclops leukarti and its extermination with oxidants in a drinking waterworks in China were studied. Among five oxidants for use in bench-scale, chlorine dioxide is the most effective and the ...
Behringer Donald C - - 2006
Seagrasses produce much of the organic carbon in the shallow waters of the Caribbean and it has long been assumed that a substantial portion of this carbon is exported to nearby habitats, contributing substantially to their food webs. In the shallow coastal waters of the Florida Keys (USA), seagrass intersperses ...
Benstead Jonathan P - - 2006
We sampled consumers and organic matter sources (mangrove litter, freshwater swamp-forest litter, seagrasses, seagrass epiphytes, and marine particulate organic matter [MPOM]) from four estuaries on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia for stable isotope (sigma13C and sigma34S) analysis. Unique mixing solutions cannot be calculated in a dual-isotope, five-endmember scenario, so we ...
Codron Daryl - - 2006
Baboons are dietary generalists, consuming a wide range of food items in varying proportions. It is thus difficult to quantify and explain the dietary behavior of these primates. We present stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotopic data, and percentage nitrogen (%N), of feces from chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) living ...
Sakamaki Tatsuya - - 2006
Seismological observations have revealed the existence of low-velocity and high-attenuation zones above the discontinuity at 410 km depth, at the base of the Earth's upper mantle. It has been suggested that a small amount of melt could be responsible for such anomalies. The density of silicate melt under dry conditions ...
Leakey Andrew D B - - 2006
While increasing temperatures and altered soil moisture arising from climate change in the next 50 years are projected to decrease yield of food crops, elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is predicted to enhance yield and offset these detrimental factors. However, C4 photosynthesis is usually saturated at current [CO2] and theoretically should ...
Jang Am - - 2006
Biofilms are considered a significant health risk in the food and dairy industries because they can harbor pathogens, and direct contact with them can lead to food contamination. Biofilm control is often performed using strong oxidizing agents like chlorine and peracetic acid. Although chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is being used increasingly ...
Povinec P P - - 2006
A complex approach in characterisation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) off south-eastern Sicily comprising applications of radioactive and non-radioactive tracers, direct seepage measurements, geophysical surveys and a numerical modelling is presented. SGD fluxes in the Donnalucata boat basin were estimated by direct seepage measurements to be from 4 to 12Ls(-1), ...
Kalinowski Martin B - - 2006
A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The isotopic activity ratios of (135)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (131m)Xe are of interest for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of ...
Needham S A - - 2006
Uniform and aligned Nickel Oxide (NiO) nanotube bundles have been synthesized by a template process. Individual nanotubes are 60 microm long with a 200 nm outer diameter and wall thickness of 20-30 nm. The synthesis involved forming Ni(OH)2 nanotubes that were subsequently heated to 350 degrees C in order to ...
Oa Seong-Wook - - 2006
Groundwater contaminated by nitrates occurs frequently. In this research, fumarate, acetate, formate, lactate, propionate, ethanol, and methane were evaluated as a potential electron donor and carbon source by comparing the denitrification rate for the in situ bioremediation of nitrate contaminated groundwater. The denitrification rate for each substance was the quickest ...
Scholz Stephan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ...
Bao Huiming - - 2006
In the laboratory, barite precipitated from a solution with a high nitrate/sulfate ratio can have a significant amount (up to 28% by weight) of nitrate occluded in barite crystals that cannot be simply washed away. The impurity poses a serious problem for an accurate measurement of the oxygen isotope compositions ...
Moens, T.
The role and quantitative importance of free-living nematodes in marine and estuarine soft sediments remain enigmatic for lack of empirical evidence on the feeding habits and trophic position of most nematode species. Here we use natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of some abundant nematode species/genera from estuarine ...
Tremonte P - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for the improvement of the shelf life of fresh meat products. Three different conditions for preserving fresh sausages were tested: MAP1 (20% CO2, 70% O2, and 10% N2), MAP2 (40% CO2 and 60% O2), and MAP3 ...
Erda Lin - - 2005
A regional climate change model (PRECIS) for China, developed by the UK's Hadley Centre, was used to simulate China's climate and to develop climate change scenarios for the country. Results from this project suggest that, depending on the level of future emissions, the average annual temperature increase in China by ...
Pruell Richard J - - 2006
Stable nitrogen isotope ratios were used to study the incorporation of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen into the food webs of salt marsh systems along a contamination gradient in Narragansett Bay. Nitrogen isotope ratios (delta(15)N) were measured in six estuarine species collected from three marshes along this gradient, monthly from June to October ...
Cegelski Lynette - - 2006
Solid-state 13C NMR measurements of intact soybean leaves labeled by 13CO2 lead to the conclusion that photorespiration is 17% of photosynthesis for a well-watered and fertilized plant. This is the first direct assessment of the level of photorespiration in a functioning plant. A 13C{31P} rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurement tracked the ...
Casale John F - - 2005
The forensic application of stable isotope analysis to cocaine and heroin for geolocation of exhibits must take into account the possible enrichment and/or depletion of 13C and 15N during the illicit manufacturing process. Continuous-flow elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was utilized to measure changes in the stable isotope ratios of ...
Yang Yonglai - - 2005
A novel carbon nanotube-polystyrene foam composite has been fabricated successfully. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness measurements indicated that such foam composites can be used as very effective, lightweight shielding materials. The correlation between the shielding effectiveness and electrical conductivity and the EMI shielding mechanism of such foam composites are ...
Mills Andrew - - 2005
The detection of oxygen using optical sensors is of increasing interest, especially in modified atmosphere food packaging (MAP), in which the package, usually containing food, is flushed with a gas, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. This tutorial review examines the ideal properties of an oxygen optical sensor for MAP ...
Roy Diana M - - 2005
Stable isotope composition of human tissue reflects that of foods consumed, and can provide information about diet independent of artifactual remains. Here we refine and test this method by analyzing nitrogen (delta(15)N) and carbon (delta(13)C) isotope ratios in historic North American Plains Indians hair. Gas-source isotope-ratio mass spectrometry provides high-precision ...
Moeller Dade W - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and provide insights related to the influence of the intake of stable isotopes of carbon and iodine on the committed doses due to the ingestion of (14)C and (129)I. This was accomplished through the application of two different computational approaches. The first ...
Pelejero Carles - - 2005
The oceans are becoming more acidic due to absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems is unclear, but it will likely depend on species adaptability and the rate of change of seawater pH relative to its natural variability. To constrain the ...
Caquet Thierry - - 2006
In this study, the value of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotope ratios were determined in nymphs of a top-predator, the common backswimmer (Notonecta glauca L.), collected in 18 m3 outdoor freshwater mesocosms used to assess the fate and ecotoxicological effects of a diphenyl ether herbicide, fomesafen, applied alone ...
Jasper J P - - 2005
As a preliminary study of the utility of the natural stable-isotopic differentiation of batch samples produced by different synthetic pathways, multi-stable-isotopic analyses (delta(13)C, delta(15)N, delta(18)O, deltaD) of 53 samples of the antiepileptic drug, Topiramate, produced by three different synthetic pathways (designated "A," "B," "C") were performed. From the outset, we ...
Hunkeler Daniel - - 2005
The demonstration of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater is typically conducted through the evaluation of concentration trends and parent-daughter product relationships along prevailing groundwater flow paths. Unfortunately, at sites contaminated by mixtures of chlorinated ethenes, ethanes, and methanes, the evaluation of MNA by using solely concentration ...
Cohen Claire T - - 2005
Synthetic pathways to (salcy)CoX (salcy = N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; X = halide or carboxylate) complexes are described. Complexes (R,R)-(salcy)CoCl, (R,R)-(salcy)CoBr, (R,R)-(salcy)CoOAc, and (R,R)-(salcy)CoOBzF(5) (OBzF(5) = pentafluorobenzoate) are highly active catalysts for the living, alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide (PO) and CO(2), yielding poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) with no detectable byproducts. The PPC generated ...
VanStone Nancy - - 2005
Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB ...
Connolly Rod M - - 2005
We measured the extent of movement of carbon and its assimilation by invertebrates among estuarine habitats by analysing carbon stable isotopes of invertebrates collected along transects crossing the boundary of two habitats. The habitats were dominated by autotrophs with distinct isotope values: (1) mudflats containing benthic microalgae (mean -22.6, SE ...
Zhang Maogen - - 2005
An electrochemical sensing platform was developed based on the integration of redox mediators and carbon nanotubes (CNT) in a polymeric matrix. To demonstrate the concept, a redox mediator Azure dye (AZU) was covalently attached to polysaccharide chains of chitosan (CHIT) and interspersed with CNT to form composite films for the ...
Greenwood Richard C - - 2005
Immediately following the formation of the Solar System, small planetary bodies accreted, some of which melted to produce igneous rocks. Over a longer timescale (15-33 Myr), the inner planets grew by incorporation of these smaller objects through collisions. Processes operating on such asteroids strongly influenced the final composition of these ...
Poirier André - - 2005
Higher osmium concentrations and lower 187Os/188Os ratios in sediments from urban areas have been linked to anthropogenic osmium sources. Automobile catalytic converters that use platinum group metals (PGM) are a potential source for this Os pollution. We present the first direct Os concentrations and isotopic measurements of catalytic converters for ...
Sudaryanto Y - - 2006
Cassava is one of the most important commodities in Indonesia, an agricultural country. Cassava is one of the primary foods in our country and usually used for traditional food, cake, etc. Cassava peel is an agricultural waste from the food and starch processing industries. In this study, this solid waste ...
Braune Birgit M - - 2005
Adult long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) were collected from nine locations across their breeding grounds in northern Canada and measurements of stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C), nitrogen (delta(15)N) and sulfur (delta(34)S) in bone collagen were used to investigate if relative use of freshwater habitats such as the Great Lakes (with expected ...
Robison Bruce H - - 2005
An unresolved issue in ocean science is the discrepancy between the food requirements of the animals living on the deep sea floor and their food supply, as measured by sediment traps. A 10-year time-series study of the water column off Monterey Bay, California, revealed that the discarded mucus feeding structures ...
Petzke Klaus J - - 2005
The stable nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C) isotopic composition of tissues reflects the isotopic pattern of food sources. We investigated whether the isotopic composition of human hair can be used as a biomarker to predict the dietary intake of animal-derived food. Hair samples were collected from subjects during a 1987-1988 ...
Yamashita Koichi - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Prefilled disposable oxygen humidifiers are considered to prevent nosocomial pneumonia in hospital wards. However, their usefulness in intensive care units (ICUs) has not yet been established. In this study, we evaluated and compared contamination in prefilled disposable oxygen humidifiers and that in reusable oxygen humidifiers. METHODS: Six oxygen outlets ...
Perga M E - - 2005
Isotope turnover in muscle of ectotherms depends primarily on growth rather than on metabolic replacement. Ectotherms, such as fish, have a discontinuous pattern of growth over the year, so the isotopic signature of muscle (delta13C and delta15N) may only reflect food consumed during periods of growth. In contrast, the liver ...
Vaddi Haranath K - - 2005
PURPOSE: Physicochemical characterization and in vitro human skin diffusion studies of branched-chain ester and carbonate prodrugs of naltrexone (NTX) were compared and contrasted with straight-chain ester and carbonate NTX prodrugs. METHODS: Human skin permeation rates, thermal parameters, solubilities in mineral oil and buffer, and stabilities in buffer and plasma were ...
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