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Lehmann Johannes - - 2008
Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only by accelerated loss of humus but also by loss of charcoal. It is also unclear whether ...
Lesser Luis E - - 2008
The use of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a diagnostic tool for MTBE biodegradation in aquifers was tested at the Port Hueneme, CA site. There, a 1500-m long dissolved MTBE plume and associated engineered aerobic flow-through biobarrier have been well-studied, leading to delineation of regions of known significant and limited ...
Daux Valérie - - 2008
The oxygen isotope composition of human phosphatic tissues (delta18OP) has great potential for reconstructing climate and population migration, but this technique has not been applied to early human evolution. To facilitate this application we analyzed delta18OP values of modern human teeth collected at 12 sites located at latitudes ranging from ...
Avalos Ramirez Antonio - - 2008
The kinetics of microbial growth and the biodegradation of methanol and toluene in (a) biofilters (BFs), and (b) biotrickling filters (BTFs), packed with inert materials, has been studied and analyzed. The specific growth rate, mu, for the treatment of methanol was 0.037h(-1) for a wide range of operating conditions. In ...
Thingstad T F - - 2008
Predicting the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle requires an understanding of the stoichiometric coupling between carbon and growth-limiting elements in biogeochemical processes. A recent addition to such knowledge is that the carbon/nitrogen ratio of inorganic consumption and release of dissolved organic matter may increase in a high-CO(2) world. ...
Kaufman Mette R - - 2008
Food web studies based on stable C and N isotope ratios usually assume isotopic equilibrium between a consumer and its diet. In the Arctic, strong seasonality in food availability often leads to diet switching, resulting in a consumer's isotopic composition to be in flux between different food sources. Experimental work ...
Johannessen S C - - 2008
Marginal seas provide a globally important interface between land and interior ocean where organic carbon is metabolized, buried or exported. The trophic status of these seas varies seasonally, depending on river flow, primary production, the proportion of dissolved to particulate organic carbon and other factors. In the Strait of Georgia, ...
Povinec P P - - 2008
Results of groundwater and seawater analyses for radioactive (3H, 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and stable (D and 18O) isotopes are presented together with in situ spatial mapping and time series 222Rn measurements in seawater, direct seepage measurements using manual and automated seepage meters, pore water investigations using different ...
McCue Marshall D - - 2008
Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures ...
Bergschneider Heather - - 2008
The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima in the Pacific Northwest may host a single type of algal symbiont or two different algal symbionts simultaneously: zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium muscatinei) and zoochlorellae (green algae; Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). A seasonal comparison of zooxanthellate and zoochlorellate anemones showed stable symbiont population densities in summer and winter, ...
Consonni Roberto - - 2008
The importance of geographical origin determination is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Honey is one of the largest studied foods due to its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this paper, a total of 41 honey samples (polyfloral and acacia) from different countries have ...
Kote Naganagouda V - - 2009
The aim of this work was to establish optimal conditions for the maximum production of endo-beta-1,4 mannanases using cheaper sources. Eight thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from garden soil and compost samples collected in and around the Gulbarga University campus, India. Two strains were selected based on their ability to ...
Liu Jianjun - - 2009
Nitrogen-doped titania nanoparticles consisting of pure anatase, pure rutile and bicrystallites (anatase+rutile and anatase+brookite) have been prepared in TiCl(3)-HMT (hexamethylene tetramine)-alcohol solution under solvothermal process. The effect of the solvent type and amount of HMT as pH adjuster on the phase composition of titania and its visible photocatalytic activity for ...
Goffredi Shana K - - 2008
The Yeti crab, Kiwa hirsuta Macpherson et al., is the single known species in a recently discovered crab family Kiwaidae (Decapoda: Galatheoidea) from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Its chelipeds, walking legs and the ventral surface of its cephalothorax are covered with dense setae that, in turn, are covered with clusters of ...
Bretscher Andrew Jonathan AJ Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20QH, United - - 2008
Homeostasis of internal carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) levels is fundamental to all animals. Here we examine the CO2 response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This species inhabits rotting material, which typically has a broad CO2 concentration range. We show that well fed C. elegans avoid CO2 levels above ...
Hernández-Divers Stephen - - 2008
To objectively evaluate the collateral damage associated with radiosurgical and carbon dioxide (CO2) laser devices, a comparative surgical and histologic study was undertaken in white Carneau pigeons (Columba livia). Ten pigeons were anesthetized, and a series of 3 skin incisions were made in the pectoral region by using a 4.0-MHz ...
Palace Michael - - 2008
Necromass stocks account for up to 20% of carbon stored in tropical forests and have been estimated to be 14-19% of the annual aboveground carbon flux. Both stocks and fluxes of necromass are infrequently measured. In this study, we directly measured the production of fallen coarse necromass (> or = ...
Wille Martin - - 2008
Animal-like multicellular fossils appeared towards the end of the Precambrian, followed by a rapid increase in the abundance and diversity of fossils during the Early Cambrian period, an event also known as the 'Cambrian explosion'. Changes in the environmental conditions at the Precambrian/Cambrian transition (about 542 Myr ago) have been ...
Shanley James B - - 2008
Stable sulfur (S) isotope ratios can be used to identify the sources of sulfate contributing to streamwater. We collected weekly and high-flow stream samples for S isotopic analysis of sulfate through the entire water year 2003 plus the snowmelt period of 2004. The study area was the 41-ha forested W-9 ...
Chesson Lesley A - - 2008
The stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen provide insights into a heterotrophic organism's diet and geographic origin. Although the contribution of food delta (2)H and delta (18)O to the final tissue signal will not vary for constrained diets, it will for animals eating varied diets, that is, humans. ...
Gates John B - - 2008
Aerobic conditions in desert aquifers commonly allow high nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in recharge to persist for long periods of time, an important consideration for N-cycling and water quality. In this study, stable isotopes of NO3- (delta15N(NO3) and delta18O(NO3)) were used to trace NO3- cycling processes which affect concentrations in groundwater ...
Budge S M - - 2008
Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the ...
Ghafari Parnian - - 2008
Research on the toxicity of carbon nanotubes has focused on human health risks, and little is known about their impact on natural ecosystems. The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila has been widely studied by ecotoxicologists because of its role in the regulation of microbial populations through the ingestion and digestion of ...
Nandy Subir Kumar - - 2008
Bacillus subtilis is known to exhibit cannibalism under nutrient limitation to delay sporulation. Cells of B. subtilis in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) demonstrate an oscillatory behavior in cell number due to cannibalism. Since PBS did not contain any nutrients, the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the cannibalistic behavior ...
Goldstein Steven L - - 2008
The Gakkel ridge, which extends under the Arctic ice cap for approximately 1,800 km, is the slowest spreading ocean ridge on Earth. Its spreading created the Eurasian basin, which is isolated from the rest of the oceanic mantle by North America, Eurasia and the Lomonosov ridge. The Gakkel ridge thus ...
Nakano A - - 2008
Four bentonites from various sources were exposed to batch adsorption testing, selective sequential extraction and consolidation tests to investigate their metal retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity for geoenvironmental application such as in clay barrier materials. The Japanese bentonites (JB1-JB3) contain approximately 2-4% of carbonate and trace amount of zeolite (JB2 ...
Ni Hong-Gang - - 2008
A total of 1008 samples were collected from the eight major riverine runoff outlets in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during 2005-2006 to estimate the fluxes of total organic carbon (TOC) to the coastal ocean off South China. The average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was 1.67 mg/L with a ...
Soumis Nicolas - - 2008
The dry ice sowing experiment (DISE) consisted in adding dry ice to a lake and monitoring the subsequent evasion of carbon dioxide (CO2). DISE allowed us to evaluate two approaches commonly used for measuring aquatic CO2 diffusive fluxes: the boundary layer equation (BLE) from Cole and Caraco (1998) and a ...
Kelly Jeffrey F - - 2008
A primary constraint on effective conservation of migratory animals is our inability to track individuals through their annual cycle. One such animal is the endangered southwestern subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher, which is difficult to distinguish from conspecifics. Identifying wintering regions used by the endangered subspecies would be an important ...
Larcombe Alexander Neil - - 2008
Seasonal variation in various thermoregulatory, metabolic and ventilatory parameters was examined for southern brown bandicoots (Isoodon obesulus fusciventer) from a Mediterranean climate near Perth, Western Australia. There was significant seasonal variation over the four annual seasons at thermoneutrality (Ta=30 degrees C) in body temperature, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory ...
Buratti Susanna - - 2008
A glassy carbon electrode coated with cobalt oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) system was used for the detection of carbohydrates and thiols. The modification of the glassy carbon electrode increased the anodic current response of these organic compounds and decreased their overvoltage. The amperometric responses were extremely stable with no loss ...
Scott C - - 2008
Biogeochemical signatures preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks provide clues to the nature and timing of the oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere. Geochemical data suggest that oxygenation proceeded in two broad steps near the beginning and end of the Proterozoic eon (2,500 to 542 million years ago). The oxidation state of ...
Cuomo R - - 2008
Sweetened carbonated beverages are widely consumed, which has fuelled several conflicting opinions about their effects on upper digestive tract functions. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sweetened carbonated drinks, consumed with a standard meal, on gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying and gallbladder contraction and postmeal sensations in healthy subjects. Thirteen ...
Luo Wei - - 2008
The present study deals with the degradation of bensulfuron-methyl by microorganisms cultured with different sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Addition of carbon source accelerated the degradation of bensulfuron-methyl under co-metabolism process. Sodium lactate was the best carbon source for the degradation of bensulfuron-methyl, compared to other carbon sources studied, ...
Guelinckx, J.
A prerequisite to trace animal movements between two areas using stable isotopes is that food sources of the species under study are isotopically different between both areas. Additionally, for clear interpretation, it is important that the migratory source population is relatively homogeneous in isotopic composition. This preliminary study examined both ...
Ikemoto Tokutaka - - 2008
The present study elucidated the biomagnification profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through a tropical aquatic food web of Vietnam based on trophic characterization using stable nitrogen analysis. Various biological samples collected from the main stream of the Mekong Delta were provided for the analysis for both POPs, and stable ...
Odabasi Mustafa - - 2008
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and many organic chemicals contained in household cleaning products may react to generate halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Halogenated VOC emissions from eight different chlorine bleach containing household products (pure and diluted) were investigated by headspace experiments. Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were the leading compounds along with ...
Butt Craig M - - 2008
The present study examined spatial trends of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in liver samples from 11 populations of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in the Canadian Arctic from 2002 to 2005. Trophic position and relative carbon sources were compared by analyzing stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes in muscle samples. Geometric mean concentrations ...
Searchinger Timothy - - 2008
Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland ...
Fargione Joseph - - 2008
Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential low-carbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on how they are produced. Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food crop-based ...
Law Rachel M - - 2008
Unlike Le Quéré et al. (Reports, 22 June 2007, p. 1735), we do not find a saturating Southern Ocean carbon sink due to recent climate change. In our ocean model, observed wind forcing causes reduced carbon uptake, but heat and freshwater flux forcing cause increased uptake. Our inversions of atmospheric ...
Anastasiadou Sofia - - 2008
A direct plate bioassay procedure was applied for rapid and quantifiable assessment of the influence of various nutritional parameters on pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B5627. Solid-state cultivation of the microorganism was done on MRS-based media over 3-and 6-hours incubation periods. Nutritional parameters assessed included the carbon source (glucose, ...
Afrane G - - 2008
Coconut shells of West Africa Tall, a local variety of the coconut species Cocos nucifera L., were taken from five different geographical locations in Ghana and examined for the presence and concentration levels of some selected mineral elements using atomic absorption spectrometer. Activated carbons were subsequently made from the shells ...
Moreno, Ana Maria, Biotechnology ...
Bacteria-protozoa interactions are one of the oldest between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. As such, their study offers a unique opportunity to understand the different relationships that have evolved between them, including pathogenesis, and how their interaction can affect some important processes, such as wastewater treatment. In the first part of ...
Simon-Colin C - - 2008
AIMS: The objective of the present work was to describe a new deep-sea, aerobic, mesophilic and heterotrophic bacterium, referenced as strain AT1214, able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under laboratory conditions. This bacterium was isolated from a shrimp collected nearby a hydrothermal vent located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Moorhead S Anne - - 2008
The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased incidence of overweight and obesity, and a factor underlying this putative link could be the relatively low levels of satiety that may be induced by these beverages. Although many sugar-sweetened beverages are carbonated, little attention has been given to the potential ...
Shchepinov Mikhail S - - 2007
A new hypothesis is put forward, linking cellular endurance with dietary consumption of stable heavy isotopes. Due to the isotope effect, biomolecules that incorporate heavier isotopes give rise to more stable molecular structures with increased resistance to damages associated with aging and age-related disease. The inclusion of heavy isotopes might ...
Steffen Will - - 2007
We explore the development of the Anthropocene, the current epoch in which humans and our societies have become a global geophysical force. The Anthropocene began around 1800 with the onset of industrialization, the central feature of which was the enormous expansion in the use of fossil fuels. We use atmospheric ...
Tichomirowa Marion - - 2007
The isotopic composition of air-borne sulphur was investigated in Saxony, Southeast Germany--a region with formerly very high atmospheric SO(2) concentrations. In addition, data from various authors were compiled for different Saxonian locations, spanning from 1992 to 2004, i.e., a time of decreasing SO(2) concentrations in the atmosphere. There were no ...
Ewels Christopher P - - 2007
We present a new computer program able to systematically study chemical addition to and growth or evolution of carbon nanostructures. SACHA is a meta-code able to exploit a wide variety of pre-existing molecular structure codes, automating the otherwise onerous task of constructing, running, and analyzing the large number of input ...
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