Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 499
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Peck William H - - 2010
Carbon isotopes are often used to detect the addition of foreign sugars to foods. This technique takes advantage of the natural difference in carbon isotope ratio between C(3) and C(4) plants. Many foods are derived from C(3) plants, but the low-cost sweeteners corn and sugar cane are C(4) plants. Most ...
Lapola David M - - 2010
The planned expansion of biofuel plantations in Brazil could potentially cause both direct and indirect land-use changes (e.g., biofuel plantations replace rangelands, which replace forests). In this study, we use a spatially explicit model to project land-use changes caused by that expansion in 2020, assuming that ethanol (biodiesel) production increases ...
Romanuk Tamara N - - 2010
Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the relative proportions of terrestrial and marine subsidies of carbon to invertebrates along a tidal gradient (low-intertidal, mid-intertidal, high-intertidal, supralittoral) and to determine the relative importance of terrestrial carbon in food web pathways leading to chum salmon fry Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) in Howe ...
Sponheimer Matt - - 2009
Stable isotope analysis can be used to document dietary changes within the lifetimes of individuals and may prove useful for investigating fallback food consumption in modern, historical, and ancient primates. Feces, hair, and enamel are all suitable materials for such analysis, and each has its own benefits and limitations. Feces ...
Martinez Elodie - - 2009
Phytoplankton--the microalgae that populate the upper lit layers of the ocean--fuel the oceanic food web and affect oceanic and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels through photosynthetic carbon fixation. Here, we show that multidecadal changes in global phytoplankton abundances are related to basin-scale oscillations of the physical ocean, specifically the Pacific Decadal ...
Brett Michael T - - 2009
Terrestrial organic matter inputs have long been thought to play an important role in aquatic food web dynamics. Results from recent whole lake (13)C addition experiments suggest terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC) inputs account for a disproportionate portion of zooplankton production. For example, several studies concluded that although t-POC only ...
Hardy Christopher M - - 2010
Determining the source and flow of carbon, energy and nutrients through food webs is essential for understanding ecological connectivity and thus determining the impact of management practices on biodiversity. We combined DNA sequencing, microarrays and stable isotope analyses to test whether this approach would allow us to resolve the carbon ...
Robbins Charles T - - 2010
Accurately predicting isotopic discrimination is central to estimating assimilated diets of wild animals when using stable isotopes. Current mixing models assume that the stable N isotope ratio (delta(15)N) discrimination (Delta(15)N) for each food in a mixed diet is constant and independent of other foods being consumed. Thus, the discrimination value ...
Olsen Ylva S - - 2010
Couplings between land use and marine food webs in tropical systems are poorly understood. We compared land-sea coupling in seven sites around Puerto Rico, differing in the degree of precipitation and urbanization, by measuring delta(13)C and delta(15)N in producers and consumers. delta(15)N values were influenced by human activity: the food ...
Pumera Martin - - 2009
The different approaches for constructing nanomaterial-based detectors for conventional CE and microchip electrophoresis are described in this review. They include three main types of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanorods in various designs. The fundamental reasons for the enhanced detection performance of nanomaterial-based detectors, such as higher sensitivity, improved ...
Smith Chris R - - 2009
Over the past 20 yr, the use of stable isotopes to infer feeding ecology and the examination of how energetic and elemental exchanges are affected by and affect life (ecological stoichiometry) have gained momentum. The ecological diversity of ants makes them interesting models to explore dietary ecology and their role ...
Wise Marshall - - 2009
Limiting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to low levels requires strategies to manage anthropogenic carbon emissions from terrestrial systems as well as fossil fuel and industrial sources. We explore the implications of fully integrating terrestrial systems and the energy system into a comprehensive mitigation regime that limits atmospheric CO2 concentrations. ...
Armbrust E Virginia - - 2009
Marine diatoms rose to prominence about 100 million years ago and today generate most of the organic matter that serves as food for life in the sea. They exist in a dilute world where compounds essential for growth are recycled and shared, and they greatly influence global climate, atmospheric carbon ...
Brito, Ernesto Fuentes
Stable isotope studies of food webs in floodplains, large rivers, mangroves, and seagrasses have shown that, although a large proportion of the biomass may come from higher plants, microalgae provide a disproportionate amount of carbon assimilated by metazoan consumers. Evidence is building that this may also be the case for ...
Dwyer Gary S - - 2009
Ostracode magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca)-based bottom-water temperatures were combined with benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes in order to quantify the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater, and estimate continental ice volume and sea-level variability during the Mid-Pliocene warm period, ca 3.3-3.0Ma. Results indicate that, following a low stand of approximately 65m below present at ...
Bakhurin, Konstantin
Stable Isotope Analysis (SIA) quantifies the proportion of 13C and 15N within an organism’s tissue and may be used in trophic and nutrient assimilation analysis (Hobson and Sealy 1991). Birds were mist-netted at the North Maple River MAPS site between July 17 and August 1, 2008. Birds were identified and ...
Le Huray Jonathan D - - 2009
Unlike traditional methods of examining past diet, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of bone collagen (delta13C, delta15N) can be used to examine diet at the level of the individual and make interpretations based on differences observed between individuals and groups. This method, which reflects the overall protein intake of ...
Silverman Jerald - - 2009
The value of a static mouse cage is partially determined by the cage's ability to dissipate carbon dioxide and ammonia. The authors compared the concentrations of ammonia and carbon dioxide produced by mice housed in two types of static isolator cages: a newly introduced disposable cage and a conventional reusable ...
Swinarski M - - 2009
Carbon source alternatives for denitrification belong to the highest research area priorities as they allow to optimize N removal within the existing capacities. In particular, some food industry effluents appear to be good candidates for such alternatives due to their high C/N ratios and high content of readily biodegradable organic ...
Manganelli Maura - - 2009
Carbon cycling in Southern Ocean is a major issue in climate change, hence the need to understand the role of biota in the regulation of carbon fixation and cycling. Southern Ocean is a heterogeneous system, characterized by a strong seasonality, due to long dark winter. Yet, currently little is known ...
Kloppmann W - - 2008
Artificial recharge (AR) is gaining importance as a management tool in water stressed regions. The need to prove recovery performance requires new monitoring tools for AR systems. A novel combination of environmental isotope tracers (B, Li, O, H stable isotopes) was tested for the monitoring of AR of tertiary treated, ...
Ballentine Chris J - - 2008
Study of commercially produced volcanic CO2 gas associated with the Colorado Plateau, USA, has revealed substantial new information about the noble gas isotopic composition and elemental abundance pattern of the mantle. Combined with published data from mid-ocean ridge basalts, it is now clear that the convecting mantle has a maximum ...
Carlson Richard W - - 2008
The detection of excess 142Nd caused by the decay of 103Ma half-life 146Sm in all terrestrial rocks compared with chondrites shows that the chondrite analogue compositional model cannot be strictly correct, at least for the accessible portion of the Earth. Both the continental crust (CC) and the mantle source of ...
Yin Siaw Hui - - 2009
Chemical etching, which is the most sensitive method to recover obliterated serial numbers on metal surfaces, has been practised quite successfully in forensic science laboratories all over the world. A large number of etchants suitable for particular metal surfaces based on empirical studies is available in the literature. This article ...
Houlbrèque Fanny - - 2009
The dual character of corals, that they are both auto- and heterotrophs, was recognized early in the twentieth Century. It is generally accepted that the symbiotic association between corals and their endosymbiotic algae (called zooxanthellae) is fundamental to the development of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical oceans because zooxanthellae transfer ...
Hongoh Yuichi - - 2008
Termites harbor diverse symbiotic gut microorganisms, the majority of which are as yet uncultivable and their interrelationships unclear. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the uncultured Bacteroidales endosymbiont of the cellulolytic protist Pseudotrichonympha grassii, which accounts for 70% of the bacterial cells in the gut of the termite ...
Jahren A Hope - - 2008
Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and ...
Galy Valier - - 2008
At geological time scales, the role of continental erosion in the organic carbon (OC) cycle is determined by the balance between recent OC burial and petrogenic OC oxidation. Evaluating its net effect on the concentration of carbon dioxide and dioxygen in the atmosphere requires the fate of petrogenic OC to ...
Shen Xiu-E - - 2009
The sorption kinetics and thermodynamics of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), m-nitrotoluene (mNT), p-nitrophenol (pNP), and nitrobenzene (NB) on as-grown and nitric acid-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated. The sorption kinetics was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model, while both Langmuir and Freundlich models described the sorption isotherms well and the ...
Hartenbach Akané E - - 2008
The 13C, 2H, and 15N fractionation associated with light-induced transformations of N-containing pesticides in surface waters was investigated using atrazine as a model compound. In laboratory model systems, bulk isotope enrichment factors epsilonC, epsilonH, and epsilonN were determined during the photooxidation of atrazine by excited triplet states of 4-carboxybenzophenone ((3)4-CBBP*), ...
Somner J E A - - 2008
A growing scientific consensus states that the global climate is changing and that human activity is responsible for these changes. It folLows that each of us has a responsibility to look at how our own lives impact on the environment. This study aimed to investigate water use during surgical scrubbing. ...
Sears Justine - - 2009
A growing number of studies suggest that an individual's physiology affects its carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures, obscuring a signal often assumed to be only a reflection of diet and foraging location. We examined effects of growth and moderate food restriction on red blood cell (RBC) and feather delta(15)N ...
Reise Katie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: High oxygen increases morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines in Neonatal Resuscitation Programme (NRP) state if self-inflating bags are used with an input FiO2 of 1.0 without an oxygen reservoir a delivered safe FiO2 of approximately 0.40 is achieved. This conflicts with manufacturer findings (Laerdal infant resuscitator (LIR)). We assessed ...
Chapelle Francis H - - 2009
The bioavailability of total organic carbon (TOC) was examined in ground water from two hydrologically distinct aquifers using biochemical indicators widely employed in chemical oceanography. Concentrations of total hydrolyzable neutral sugars (THNS), total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA), and carbon-normalized percentages of TOC present as THNS and THAA (referred to as ...
Zubkov Mikhail V - - 2008
Planktonic algae <5 m in size are major fixers of inorganic carbon in the ocean. They dominate phytoplankton biomass in post-bloom, stratified oceanic temperate waters. Traditionally, large and small algae are viewed as having a critical growth dependence on inorganic nutrients, which the latter can better acquire at lower ambient ...
Lehmann Johannes - - 2008
Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only by accelerated loss of humus but also by loss of charcoal. It is also unclear whether ...
Lesser Luis E - - 2008
The use of compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a diagnostic tool for MTBE biodegradation in aquifers was tested at the Port Hueneme, CA site. There, a 1500-m long dissolved MTBE plume and associated engineered aerobic flow-through biobarrier have been well-studied, leading to delineation of regions of known significant and limited ...
Daux Valérie - - 2008
The oxygen isotope composition of human phosphatic tissues (delta18OP) has great potential for reconstructing climate and population migration, but this technique has not been applied to early human evolution. To facilitate this application we analyzed delta18OP values of modern human teeth collected at 12 sites located at latitudes ranging from ...
Avalos Ramirez Antonio - - 2008
The kinetics of microbial growth and the biodegradation of methanol and toluene in (a) biofilters (BFs), and (b) biotrickling filters (BTFs), packed with inert materials, has been studied and analyzed. The specific growth rate, mu, for the treatment of methanol was 0.037h(-1) for a wide range of operating conditions. In ...
Thingstad T F - - 2008
Predicting the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle requires an understanding of the stoichiometric coupling between carbon and growth-limiting elements in biogeochemical processes. A recent addition to such knowledge is that the carbon/nitrogen ratio of inorganic consumption and release of dissolved organic matter may increase in a high-CO(2) world. ...
Kaufman Mette R - - 2008
Food web studies based on stable C and N isotope ratios usually assume isotopic equilibrium between a consumer and its diet. In the Arctic, strong seasonality in food availability often leads to diet switching, resulting in a consumer's isotopic composition to be in flux between different food sources. Experimental work ...
Johannessen S C - - 2008
Marginal seas provide a globally important interface between land and interior ocean where organic carbon is metabolized, buried or exported. The trophic status of these seas varies seasonally, depending on river flow, primary production, the proportion of dissolved to particulate organic carbon and other factors. In the Strait of Georgia, ...
Povinec P P - - 2008
Results of groundwater and seawater analyses for radioactive (3H, 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and stable (D and 18O) isotopes are presented together with in situ spatial mapping and time series 222Rn measurements in seawater, direct seepage measurements using manual and automated seepage meters, pore water investigations using different ...
McCue Marshall D - - 2008
Previous studies have attempted to correlate stable isotope signatures of tissues with the nutritional condition of birds, mammals, fishes, and invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between food limitation and the isotopic composition of reptiles. We examined the effects that starvation has on delta13C and delta15N signatures ...
Bergschneider Heather - - 2008
The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima in the Pacific Northwest may host a single type of algal symbiont or two different algal symbionts simultaneously: zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium muscatinei) and zoochlorellae (green algae; Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). A seasonal comparison of zooxanthellate and zoochlorellate anemones showed stable symbiont population densities in summer and winter, ...
Consonni Roberto - - 2008
The importance of geographical origin determination is an increasing and pressing requirement for all foods. Honey is one of the largest studied foods due to its nutritional and medicinal properties in a correct diet. In this paper, a total of 41 honey samples (polyfloral and acacia) from different countries have ...
Kote Naganagouda V - - 2009
The aim of this work was to establish optimal conditions for the maximum production of endo-beta-1,4 mannanases using cheaper sources. Eight thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from garden soil and compost samples collected in and around the Gulbarga University campus, India. Two strains were selected based on their ability to ...
Liu Jianjun - - 2009
Nitrogen-doped titania nanoparticles consisting of pure anatase, pure rutile and bicrystallites (anatase+rutile and anatase+brookite) have been prepared in TiCl(3)-HMT (hexamethylene tetramine)-alcohol solution under solvothermal process. The effect of the solvent type and amount of HMT as pH adjuster on the phase composition of titania and its visible photocatalytic activity for ...
Goffredi Shana K - - 2008
The Yeti crab, Kiwa hirsuta Macpherson et al., is the single known species in a recently discovered crab family Kiwaidae (Decapoda: Galatheoidea) from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Its chelipeds, walking legs and the ventral surface of its cephalothorax are covered with dense setae that, in turn, are covered with clusters of ...
Bretscher Andrew Jonathan AJ Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB20QH, United - - 2008
Homeostasis of internal carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) levels is fundamental to all animals. Here we examine the CO2 response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This species inhabits rotting material, which typically has a broad CO2 concentration range. We show that well fed C. elegans avoid CO2 levels above ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >