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Sainmont Julie J Centre for Ocean Life and National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kavalergården 6, 2920 Charlottenlund, - - 2014
Abstract The allocation of resources between growth, storage, and reproduction is a key trade-off in the life-history strategies of organisms. A central dichotomy is between capital breeders and income breeders. Capital breeders build reserves that allow them to spawn at a later time independently of food availability, while income breeders ...
LeCraw Robin M RM Department of Zoology and Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada, - - 2014
The effects of habitat connectivity on food webs have been studied both empirically and theoretically, yet the question of whether empirical results support theoretical predictions for any food web metric other than species richness has received little attention. Our synthesis brings together theory and empirical evidence for how habitat connectivity ...
He Qinghua - - 2014
The loss of self-control or inability to resist tempting/rewarding foods, and the development of less healthful eating habits may be explained by three key neural systems: (1) a hyper-functioning striatum system driven by external rewarding cues; (2) a hypo-functioning decision-making and impulse control system; and (3) an altered insula system ...
McCabe Simon - - 2014
Objective: To use insights from an integration of the terror management health model and the prototype willingness model to inform and improve nutrition-related behavior using an ecologically valid outcome. Method: Prior to shopping, grocery shoppers were exposed to a reminder of mortality (or pain) and then visualized a healthy (vs. ...
Muthayya Sumithra S The Sax Institute, Ultimo, - - 2014
Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty ...
Patel Ashok R AR Vandemoortele Centre 'Lipid Science & Technology', Lab. of Food Tech. & Engg., Faculty of Bioscience Engg., Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Gent, Belgium. - - 2014
Oil structuring using food-approved polymers is an emerging strategy and holds significant promise in the area of food and nutrition. In the current study, edible oleogels (containing >97 wt% of sunflower oil) were prepared using a combination of water soluble food polymers (methylcellulose and xanthan gum) and further evaluated for ...
Onjong Hillary Adawo HA Dept. of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology, Univ. of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, - - 2014
Fish-processing plants still face food safety (FS) challenges worldwide despite the existence of several quality assurance standards and food safety management systems/s (FSMSs). This study assessed performance of FSMS in fish exporting sector considering pressure from the context in which they operate. A FSMS diagnostic tool with checklist was used ...
Holland Peter C PC Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA, - - 2014
Initially neutral conditioned stimuli paired with food often acquire motivating properties, including serving as secondary reinforcers, enhancing instrumental responding in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, and potentiating food consumption under conditions of food satiation. Interestingly, cues associated with the cancellation of food and food cues may also potentiate food consumption (e.g., Galarce ...
Lioutas E D ED Laboratory of Rural Marketing, Rural Policy and Cooperation, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, - - 2014
The influence of advertising on children's food preferences is well documented in the research literature. In this study we aim to examine the ways in which food advertising propels children's consumer behaviour and to investigate how food advertising affects the frequency of unhealthy food consumption. Data were drawn from a ...
Carroll Scott P SP Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Institute for Contemporary Evolution, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA. Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55108, USA. Centre for Human Evolution, Adaptation and Disease, Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, 619 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, 90095-1496, CA. Department of Evolution and Ecology and Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, CA 95616, USA. Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. SPCarroll@ucdavis.edu - - 2014
Two categories of evolutionary challenges result from escalating human impacts on the planet. The first arises from cancers, pathogens and pests that evolve too quickly, and the second from the inability of many valued species to adapt quickly enough. Applied evolutionary biology provides a suite of strategies to address these ...
Somerset Shawn S a School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University , Brisbane , Queensland , - - 2014
Flavonoids, a broad category of nonnutrient food components, are potential protective dietary factors in the etiology of some cancers. However, previous epidemiological studies showing associations between flavonoid intake and cancer risk have used unvalidated intake assessment methods. A 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) based on usual intake of a representative ...
Guo J J National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, - - 2014
The obesity epidemic is believed to be driven by a food environment that promotes consumption of inexpensive, convenient, high-calorie, palatable foods. Individual differences in obesity susceptibility or resistance to weight loss may arise because of alterations in the neurocircuitry supporting food reward and eating habits. In particular, dopamine signaling in ...
Patel Sumaiya S School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, - - 2014
Many studies have investigated individual nutrients or foods as risk factors for allergic disease, but few have studied dietary patterns. We aimed to use principal component analysis (PCA) to determine dietary patterns in school age children and examine associations between these dietary patterns and wheeze, asthma and sensitisation. Participants in ...
Ercan Aydan - - 2014
This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and ...
Barr Susan I SI Department of Food,Nutrition and Health, University of British Columbia,2205 East Mall,Vancouver,BC,CanadaV6T - - 2014
Although breakfast is associated with more favourable nutrient intake profiles in children, limited data exist on the impact of breakfast on nutrient adequacy and the potential risk of excessive intakes. Accordingly, we assessed differences in nutrient intake and adequacy among breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts with ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) and ...
Hernández-Urcera Jorge - - 2014
The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and ...
Hebebrand Johannes J Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Universitätsklinikum Essen (AöR), Wickenburgstr. 21, D-45147 Essen, - - 2014
"Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it ...
Hoeft Birgit B DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Kaiseraugst, - - 2014
Food safety is a primary concern for pregnant women and infants as the immune system is weakened during pregnancy and not developed enough in infants, which makes them especially vulnerable to suffering from the negative effects of nonquality food products. However, food contaminations not only affect an individual's health but ...
Kim Jessica Y JY Department of Cell and Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA - - 2014
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase libido and sexual behavior, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. One way AAS may enhance expression of sexual behavior is by increasing the willingness to work for sex. In the present study, sexually-experienced male rats received daily injections of testosterone at supraphysiologic doses (7.5mg/kg in ...
Singh Jitender J Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India; School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, - - 2014
Despite the declarations and collective measures taken to eradicate hunger at World Food Summits, food security remains one of the biggest issues that we are faced with. The current scenario could worsen due to the alarming increase in world population, further compounded by adverse climatic conditions, such as increase in ...
Rodriguez-Mateos Ana A Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology and Vascular Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Duessseldorf, 40225, Duesseldorf, - - 2014
There is substantial interest in the role of plant secondary metabolites as protective dietary agents. In particular, the involvement of flavonoids and related compounds has become a major topic in human nutrition research. Evidence from epidemiological and human intervention studies is emerging regarding the protective effects of various (poly)phenol-rich foods ...
Kuijer Roeline G RG a Department of Psychology , University of Canterbury , Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 , New - - 2014
Abstract The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt ...
Garland Alexis A Victoria University of Wellington, School of Psychology. Electronic address: - - 2014
This experiment aimed to investigate proto-arithmetic ability in a wild population of New Zealand robins. We investigated numerical competence from the context of computation: behavioural responses to arithmetic operations over small numbers of prey objects (mealworms). Robins' behavioural responses (such as search time) to the simple addition and subtraction problems ...
Agnew Wendy W Veterinary Specialist Services, Cnr Lexington and Logan Roads, Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia - - 2014
Inappetence is a commonly encountered problem in feline medicine. Primary goals in managing the inappetent or anorectic cat are to diagnose and treat the underlying disease and reinstate adequate nutrition. As cats are intolerant of prolonged periods of inadequate nutritional intake, especially given their propensity to develop hepatic lipidosis, their ...
Perrine Cria G CG Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Atlanta, Georgia; and - - 2014
Breastfeeding has been associated with early infant food preferences, but less is known about how breastfeeding is associated with later child diet. The objective of this study was to assess whether any and exclusive breastfeeding duration are associated with child diet at 6 years. We linked data from the Infant ...
Horak Katherine K U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA. - - 2014
The issue of food insecurity affects millions of people in the United States every year. Often these people rely on soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters for proper meals, and these organizations often depend on donations to meet needs. One of the most limited food resources is meat. To help ...
Lowe Cassandra J CJ From the School of Public Health and Health Systems (C.L., P.A.H.) and Department of Kinesiology (P.A.H., W.R.S.), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, - - 2014
Prior research has demonstrated that executive function (EF) strength is positively associated with dietary self-control. As such, the differential operation of the brain centers underlying EFs (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) may explain controlled aspects of dietary self-control. The present study was designed to examine the causal relationship between DLPFC ...
Lambertini Francesca F Barilla Food Research Labs, via Mantova 166, 43122, Parma, - - 2014
Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) can migrate from packaging into food from different sources such as polyurethanic adhesives used for the manufacture of multilayer films, which may contain residual aromatic isocyanates, or recycled paperboard, because of the presence of azo dyes in the printed paper massively used in the recycling process. ...
Kimani-Murage E W EW African Population and Health Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, P.O. Box 10787, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya, - - 2014
Food and nutrition security is critical for economic development due to the role of nutrition in healthy growth and human capital development. Slum residents, already grossly affected by chronic poverty, are highly vulnerable to different forms of shocks, including those arising from political instability. This study describes the food security ...
Wang Xiangyong X Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China; State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, - - 2014
Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in ...
Lotfizadeh Amin D AD Department of Psychology, Western Michigan - - 2014
Several studies using non-pharmacological discriminative stimuli have found that stimulus control, as evident in generalization gradients, changes when motivation for (i.e., deprivation of) the relevant reinforcer is altered. Drug-discrimination studies, however, have not consistently revealed such an effect. A procedural detail that may account for the lack of a reliable ...
Guan Lei L School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, - - 2014
Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The ...
Sampson Hugh A - - 2014
This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility ...
Colombo Valentina V CAPIM (Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management), Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Environmental stimuli can induce plastic changes in life history traits, and stimuli experienced by parents can be transmitted to the next generation ("transgenerational") through the inheritance of factors unrelated to changes in DNA sequences. Transgenerational effects are common in species living in habitats subjected to recurrent stressful events, such as ...
O'Sullivan T A TA School of Exercise and Health Science, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, - - 2014
Dairy intake is likely to influence dietary energy density (ED) and nutrient density (ND), which are factors representing aspects of dietary quality. Although evidence suggests dairy intake is unlikely to contribute to obesity, intake tends to decrease over adolescence, potentially as a result of concerns around weight gain. We examined ...
Yokum Sonja S Oregon Research Institute, 1776 Millrace Drive, Eugene Oregon, 97403, - - 2014
Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between ...
Khanh Van Tran T National Institute of Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, - - 2014
Fortified rice has the potential to improve the micronutrients status of vulnerable populations. However, fortified rice has to have acceptable organoleptic--the sensory properties of a particular food--qualities. Few data exist on the acceptability of fortified rice in Asia. To assess the acceptability of two types of fortified rice (cold and ...
Lasekan Ola O Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, - - 2014
Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has ...
Miao Yanfei Y School of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University , Nanjing , China - - 2014
Abstract The purpose of this work was to develop self-nanomulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) in sustained-release pellets of ziprasidone to enhance the oral bioavailability and overcome the food effect of ziprasidone. Preformulation studies including screening of excipients for solubility and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams suggested the suitability of Capmul MCM as ...
Tseng Marilyn M Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne Burwood Campus, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
An aggregate index is potentially useful to represent neighbourhood obesogenicity. We created a conceptually-based obesogenicity index and examined its association with body mass index (BMI) among 3786 women (age 18-45y) in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. The index included 3 items from each of 3 domains: food resources (supermarkets, ...
Bernal Jennifer J Department of Biologic and Biochemical Processes, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, - - 2014
Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study ...
Vartanian Lenny R LR School of Psychology, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is ...
Rodríguez-Lázaro David D InstitutoTecnológicoAgrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), Valladolid, Spain; Microbiology Section, Faculty of Sciences, University of Burgos, Burgos, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals has provoked a great concern in the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. In this study, we have assessed for the first time the presence of MRSA in food confiscated from non-EU flights. We performed a search for MRSA among ...
Widener Michael J MJ Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 210131, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0131, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The food desert concept is used as a means for defining regions as having inadequate spatial and socioeconomic access to vendors selling nutritious foods. This primarily aggregate-level and static method for understanding the food environment is commonly used by researchers and policy makers seeking to improve health outcomes of those ...
Lammi Carmen C Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, - - 2015
Since saving time and money are critical issues while developing innovative functional foods and nutraceutics, the use of specific and high-throughput assays for the fast screening of potentially bioactive ingredients is crucial. In this context, the aim of the present investigation was the development of an in-cell Western (ICW) assay, ...
Bae Wookeun - - 2014
Commercial activated carbon is a highly effective absorbent that can be used to remove micropollutants from water. As a result, the demand for activated carbon is increasing. In this study, we investigated the optimum manufacturing conditions for producing activated carbon from ligneous wastes generated from food processing. Jujube seeds and ...
Cladis Dennis P DP Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, Stone Hall, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2059, - - 2014
Seventy-seven finfish species (300 composites of three fish) were obtained from commercial vendors in six regions of the United States: Great Lakes, mid-Atlantic, New England, northwest, southeast, and southwest. Total mercury in fish muscle tissue ranged from 1 ppb (channel catfish) to 1,425 ppb (king mackerel). Of the top 10 ...
Jacquemin Justine J 1 Biodiversity Monitoring and Assessment, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, - - 2014
Abstract Ants of the genus Tatuidris Brown and Kempf (Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae) generally occur at low abundances in forests of Central and South America. Their morphological peculiarities, such as mandibular brushes, are presumably linked with specialized predatory habits. Our aims were to (1) assess the Tatuidris abundance in an evergreen premontane ...
Guerrero Natalie - - 2014
Food insecurity is a public health concern estimated to affect 18 million American households nationally, which can result in chronic nutritional deficiencies and other health risks. The relationships between food insecurity and specific demographic and geographic factors in Wisconsin are not well documented. The goals of this paper are to ...
Tolzman Casey - - 2014
The US Department of Agriculture has identified an area in La Crosse, Wisconsin as a food desert-a low-income area with a low level of access to a grocery store or healthy, affordable food outlet. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and potential predictors of severe food ...
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