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Matassa Catherine M CM Marine Science Center, Northeastern University, East Point, Nahant, MA 01908, USA - - 2014
The ecological impacts of predation risk are influenced by how prey allocate foraging effort across periods of safety and danger. Foraging decisions depend on current danger, but also on the larger temporal, spatial or energetic context in which prey manage their risks of predation and starvation. Using a rocky intertidal ...
Witczak Agata A a Department of Toxicology , West Pomeranian University of Technology , Szczecin , - - 2014
Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these ...
Lloyd-Williams Ffion - - 2014
Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord.We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. We created a public health ...
Bean Tom G TG Environment Department, University of York, York YO10 5DD, - - 2014
Many wildlife species forage on sewage-contaminated food, for example, at wastewater treatment plants and on fields fertilized with sewage sludge. The resultant exposure to human pharmaceuticals remains poorly studied for terrestrial species. On the basis of predicted exposure levels in the wild, we administered the common antidepressant fluoxetine (FLUOX) or ...
Munafo Jr John P JP Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, Plant Biology and Pathology, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. - - 2014
Covering: 1989 up to 2014Plants from the Lilium genus are a rich source of chemical diversity and have been the focus of natural products chemistry research for over twenty years. This manuscript provides a background on the chemistry and nomenclature of steroidal glycosides, as well as a chronological account of ...
Nadeau Luc L a Independent , Investigator , Longmont , Colorado , - - 2014
The use of insects as food for humans has the potential to substantially reduce undernutrition worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 805 million people are undernourished, with a total food energy deficit of 67.6 billion kcal/day (84 kcal/day/person). Calculations in this article suggest that ...
Ruczyński Ireneusz I Sensory Ecology Group, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Straße 11, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany Mammal Research Institute PAS, Waszkiewicza 1, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland - - 2014
Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and ...
Islam Md Saiful MS a Faculty and Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences , Yokohama National University , Yokohama , Kanagawa , - - 2014
The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk of arsenic and lead to adults and children via daily dietary intake of food composites in Bangladesh was estimated. The target hazard quotients (THQs), hazard index (HI) and target carcinogenic risk (TR) were calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risk from arsenic and ...
Brandon Esther F A EF a National Institute for Public Health and the Environment , Bilthoven , the - - 2014
Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor ...
Feda Denise M DM Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, - - 2014
Habituation is a decrease in responding to a repeated stimulus. Operant responding and salivation measure habituation in eating behaviour research. Stress may increase eating by acting as a distractor, yielding spontaneous recovery and prolonging responding for food. Our research tested differences in the ability of cognitive and interpersonal stressors to ...
Obregón Ana María - - 2014
Abstract The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased substantially in the recent decade as a result of the reduction in physical activity and the availability of high-fat and high-energy-density foods which the paediatric population faces daily. Although children are highly exposed to these foods, there is a wide variation in ...
Devlin Brooke L BL Department of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne VIC, - - 2014
Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition ...
Liu Zhao-Min ZM From the 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR; 2Division of Epidemiology, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR; and 3Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong - - 2014
Nutritional factors have been suggested to be associated with menopausal symptoms (MS). However, the role of overall diet in MS has seldom been examined in Asian populations. This study aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with MS in Chinese postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study of 726 ...
Lyons Damian M DM Fordham University, The Bronx, NY, USA, - - 2014
Contact switches and touch screens are the state of the art for recording pigeons' pecking behavior. Recording other behavior, however, requires a different sensor for each behavior, and some behaviors cannot easily be recorded. We present a flexible and inexpensive image-based approach to detecting and counting pigeon behaviors that is ...
Munger Ashley L AL Department of Family Science, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, 1142 School of Public Health Building, College Park, MD, 20742, - - 2014
Undocumented Latino immigrants often struggle to provide food for their families. In an attempt to inform efforts to create effective programs and policies promoting food security, this study explored the experience of food insecurity for low-income, undocumented Latino immigrants. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 undocumented Latino immigrants. Modified ...
Rodríguez-Martín Boris C BC Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Central University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas (UCLV), Carretera a Camajuaní Km 5½, 54830, Santa Clara, Cuba, - - 2014
The current study aimed to analyze individual differences on food cravings, intrusive-related thoughts and its suppression between normal weight and overweight/obese Cuban adults. Participants were 1,184 individuals from general population, aged between 18 and 64 years (M = 32.89; SD = 12.87), with 69.1 % females. All participants answered a set of questionnaires and provided demographic, ...
Corcoran Aaron J AJ Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, 030 Winston Hall, Winston Salem, NC 27106, USA. Department of Biology, University of Maryland, Biology-Psychology Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA. - - 2014
Communication signals are susceptible to interference ("jamming") from conspecifics and other sources. Many active sensing animals, including bats and electric fish, alter the frequency of their emissions to avoid inadvertent jamming from conspecifics. We demonstrated that echolocating bats adaptively jam conspecifics during competitions for food. Three-dimensional flight path reconstructions and ...
Gowland M H MH Allergy Action, St Albans, and Anaphylaxis Campaign, Farnborough, - - 2014
Food allergy has a forensic context. We describe 8 cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury, or criminal non-compliance with food law from mainly 'grey' literature sources. The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to ...
Pretorius Isak Stephanus IS Macquarie University, Chancellery, Building E11A, North Ryde, Sydney, New South Wales, NSW 2109, - - 2014
The pace of discovery is so rapid that the world as we understand it today is almost unrecognisable from that of the first visionaries who founded the Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS) 40 years ago. The celebration of the FEMS' 40(th) birthday calls for reflection upon the past. Throughout ...
Siracusa A A Formerly professor of Occupational Medicine, University of Perugia, - - 2014
Anaphylaxis is a systemic allergic reaction, potentially life-threatening that can be due to non-occupational or, less commonly, to occupational triggers. Occupational anaphylaxis could be defined as anaphylaxis arising out of triggers and conditions attributable to a particular work environment. Hymenoptera stings and natural rubber latex are the commonest triggers of ...
Pes G M GM Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, University of Sassari, Sassari, - - 2014
The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, ...
Anagnostou Katherine K Department of Paediatric Allergy, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, - - 2014
IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. ...
Blight Louise K LK Centre for Applied Conservation Research, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, V6T 1Z4, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Procellaria Research & Consulting, 944 Dunsmuir Road, V9A 5C3, Victoria, BC, - - 2014
The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialisation. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multi-decadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) analysis of feathers from ...
Bongers Peggy - - 2014
Objective: Overeating and obesity are associated with impulsivity. In studies among patients with a substance use disorder, impulsivity was found to be associated with substance-related attentional bias. This study examined whether obesity, impulsivity and food craving are associated with an attentional bias for high-calorie food. Methods: Obese (n = 185, ...
Tyagi Ashish A a Molecular Biology Unit, Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute , Karnal - 132001 , Haryana , - - 2014
Abstract Synthetic biology also termed as 'genomic alchemy' represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modelling, designing and fabricating ...
- - 2014
Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often ...
Thielecke Frank F *Cereal Partners Worldwide S.A. †Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd, Vers-chez-les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland ‡General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Golden Valley, MN §Kerry Ingredients & Flavours, Beloit, - - 2014
Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that higher whole grain intake is associated with improvements in body weight measures. Evidence from randomized controlled intervention studies is controversial. To assess the scientific evidence, using a descriptive systematic approach, related to the relationship/effects of whole grain on weight management. Medicine Medical Subject Headings ...
Chen Li L Minhang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 201101, - - 2014
This paper is to assess the current status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contamination in the environment in China and estimate the exposure to PBDEs in non-occupational populations. A total of 80 research papers published from January 2001 to October 2013 were selected. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in ...
Post Mark J MJ Department of Physiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the - - 2014
Alternative sources of animal proteins are needed that can be produced efficiently, thereby providing food security with diminished ecological burden. It is feasible to culture beef from bovine skeletal muscle stem cells, but the technology is still under development. The aim is to create a beef mimic with equivalent taste, ...
Ellwood Kathleen K College of Southern Maryland, La Plata, - - 2014
Bioactive food components have shown potential health benefits for more than a decade. Currently there are no recommended levels of intake [i.e., Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)] as there are for nutrients and fiber. DRIs for essential nutrients were based on requirements for each specific nutrient to maintain normal physiologic or ...
Finkelstein Eric A EA Duke University-National University of Singapore, Singapore; - - 2014
In response to rising rates of obesity in the United States due in part to excess food consumption, researchers and policy makers have argued that levying food taxes on obesity-promoting foods, perhaps combined with subsidies on healthier options, would be an effective tool to stem the obesity epidemic. The extent ...
Poelman Maartje P MP 1Department of Health Sciences,VU University Amsterdam and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research,De Boelelaan 1085,1081 HV Amsterdam,The - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home observations were determined. A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as ...
Brown Laura G LG 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, Georgia - - 2014
Abstract Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on ...
Biermaier Barbara B Chair of Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Science, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (LMU), Schoenleutnerstr. 8, D-85764, Oberschleissheim, Germany, - - 2014
Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and ...
Leman Ada A Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture, PO Box 20, 2265 ZG, Bleiswijk, The - - 2014
Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize ...
de Wit John B F JB The University of New South Wales, Australia; Utrecht University, The - - 2014
Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and ...
Kazemi M M a Department of Horticultural Science , College of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University , Tehran , - - 2014
The objectives of this study were to determine the antiaflatoxin B1 activity in vitro of the essential oil (EO) extracted from the seeds of Carum copticum and to evaluate its antifungal activity in vivo as a potential food preservative. The C. copticum EO exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium and ...
Johner S A SA Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study Centre Dortmund, Branch Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Bonn, - - 2014
A high dietary salt intake is a serious risk factor for the development of hypertension. Daily salt intake in most of the European countries substantially exceeds the current recommendations of salt intake. For Germany, so far, no valid biomarker-based data on current daily salt intake are available. Data basis for ...
Ryan Kelsey N KN From the Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (KNR, MIO, EDC, and MJM), and the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (KPA and - - 2014
Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed international and national crop and animal food databases was ...
Anderson G Harvey GH Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine,University of Toronto,150 College Street,Toronto,ON,CanadaM5S - - 2014
Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they ...
Duijns Sjoerd S Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790, AB Den Burg, Texel, The - - 2014
1.Mechanistic insights and predictive understanding of the spatial distributions of foragers are typically derived by fitting either field measurements on intake rates and food abundance, or observations from controlled experiments, to functional response models. It has remained unclear, however, whether and why one approach should be favoured above the other, ...
Zilberman David D Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, - - 2014
The role that agricultural biotechnology can play in the mitigation of climate change has been ignored in the new IPCC report (IPCC 2014). This is unfortunate in light of results seen in a growing body of literature, which show that genetic engineering (GE) has already contributed to the reduction of ...
Scazzina Francesca F Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food Science, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 95/A, 43124, Parma, PR, - - 2014
Gluten-free products present major challenges for the food industry in terms of organoleptic, technological and nutritional characteristics. The absence of gluten has been shown to affect starch digestibility, thus increasing the postprandial glycaemic response. However, in recent years, gluten-free technologies have been improved, thus possibly modifying this quality parameter. We ...
Smith Pete P Scottish Food Security Alliance-Crops & Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences,University of Aberdeen,23 St Machar Drive,Aberdeen AB24 - - 2014
In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over ...
Holmes Nathan M NM School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, - - 2014
Four experiments used rats to study appetitive-aversive transfer. Rats trained to eat a palatable food in a distinctive context and shocked in that context ate and did not freeze when tested 1 d later but froze and did not eat when tested 14 d later. These results were associatively mediated ...
Dekkers Arnold Lm AL National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands - - 2014
For the evaluation of both the adequacy of intakes and the risk of excessive intakes of micronutrients, all potential sources should be included. In addition to micronutrients naturally present in foods, micronutrients can also be derived from fortified foods and dietary supplements. In the estimation of the habitual intake, this ...
Sousa Sílvia G SG a QOPNA; Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago , 3810-193 Aveiro , - - 2014
Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health ...
Werthmann Jessica J Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience,Maastricht University,The - - 2014
Living in an 'obesogenic' environment poses a serious challenge for weight maintenance. However, many people are able to maintain a healthy weight indicating that not everybody is equally susceptible to the temptations of this food environment. The way in which someone perceives and reacts to food cues, that is, cognitive ...
Busse Peter P Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima, Perú - - 2014
While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and ...
Kemps Eva E a School of Psychology , Flinders University , Adelaide , - - 2014
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the existence of an approach bias for food cues in obese individuals. A community sample of fifty-six obese women and 56 normal weight controls completed an approach-avoidance variant of the implicit association task. The obese participants were faster to respond to trials that paired ...
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