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Results 401 - 450 of 1551
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Nützenadel Walter - - 2011
Failure to thrive impairs children's weight gain and growth, their defenses against infection, and their psychomotor and intellectual development. This paper is a review of pertinent articles that were published from 1995 to October 2010 and contained the terms "failure to thrive", "underweight", "malnutrition", "malabsorption", "maldigestion" and "refeeding syndrome". The ...
Gearhardt Ashley N - - 2011
Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and "food addiction" may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food ...
Savoca Margaret R - - 2011
Although young African-American men are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, participation in competitive athletics, and employment influence the ...
O'Connell Meghan - - 2011
Limited access to foods that make up a nutritious diet at minimal cost may influence eating behaviors and, ultimately, obesity. This study examined the number and type of food stores (convenience, grocery, supermarket) on federal reservations in Washington State, and the availability and cost of foods in the US Department ...
Katase Mitsuru - - 2011
Aim:  The automated TEMPO system (bioMerieux) is based on the most probable number (MPN) method for enumeration of microorganisms in foods. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the TEMPO system as a diagnostic tool in comparison to the standard method in processed soy products. Methods and results:  A ...
Prescott Mark J - - 2011
In this short communication, we respond to Westlund's critique of the NC3Rs Working Group report on refinement of the use of food and fluid control as motivational tools for macaques used in behavioural neuroscience research. The suggestions Westlund makes - in particular, the use of conditioned reinforcers and variable ratio ...
Martin Debbie H - - 2011
Culture, history and social circumstances shape how people understand their relationships to food, what foods are eaten, when, how much and how often. This ultimately shapes overall health. This study aims to connect research about food, culture and health by positioning south-eastern Labrador Inuit understandings of food at the forefront ...
Castle L - - 2011
The zone of inhibition method to test the release of biocides from paper and board food contact materials was evaluated. The method tests the paper by placing a small specimen directly onto culture plates of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger. The principle is that any extractable biocide will diffuse from ...
Powell Faye C - - 2011
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of maternal feeding practices in predicting parental reports of food avoidance eating behaviours in young children, after controlling for child temperament, and maternal dietary restraint which have previously been associated with feeding problems. One hundred and ...
Vargas-Murga Liliana - - 2011
The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The ...
Di Castelnuovo Augusto - - 2012
Daily intake of an anti-thrombotic diet may offer a suitable and effective way of coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention. A diet rich in fruit, vegetables, complex carbohydrates, monounsaturated fat and fish, moderate alcohol consumption but poor in salt, saturated fat and simple sugars, plays an important role in protect against ...
Romieu Isabelle - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and self-perceived body shape silhouette and BMI in a sample of Mexican women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of dietary habits from baseline data of a large cohort study (EsMaestra) conducted in 2006-2008. SETTING: The state of Veracruz, Mexico. SUBJECTS: Mexican teachers (n ...
Bouchet Hélène - - 2011
Acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness of vocal signals are expected to vary with both their communicative function and the need for individual recognition during social interactions. So far, few attempts have been made to comparatively study these features across the different call types within a species' vocal repertoire. We collected ...
Meier Brian P - - 2011
It is striking that prosocial people are considered "sweet" (e.g., "she's a sweetie") because they are unlikely to differentially taste this way. These metaphors aid communication, but theories of conceptual metaphor and embodiment led us to hypothesize that they can be used to derive novel insights about personality processes. Five ...
Fahey Michael T MT Biostatistics Unit, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
Finite mixture models posit the existence of a latent categorical variable and can be used for probabilistic classification. The authors illustrate the use of mixture models for dietary pattern analysis. An advantage of this approach is taking classification uncertainty into account. Participants were a random sample of women from the ...
Finlayson Graham - - 2011
The present study used a measure of trait binge eating (Binge Eating Scale; BES) to examine its association with behavioural markers of appetite and food reward. Non-obese female participants consumed a preload before freely selecting and consuming from a test meal. Subjective hunger and hedonic measures of explicit liking and ...
Hu Gang - - 2011
Previous studies of Trachypithecus species indicated that they were selective feeders that concentrated on relatively few food species/items. From January to December 2005, I quantified potential food availability and the food species/items eaten by five groups of François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in the Mayanghe Nature Reserve (MNR), People's Republic of ...
Azadbakht Leila - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the relation of major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian school-age children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 375 school-age children in Tehran, Iran. We assessed usual dietary intakes by a semiquantitative food-frequency ...
Lloyd Amanda J AJ Institute of Biological Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United - - 2011
The lack of robust biological markers of dietary exposure hinders the quantitative understanding of causal relations between diet and health. We aimed to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in urine that may have future potential as biomarkers of acute exposure to foods of high public health importance. Twenty-four ...
Briggs Laura - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To use an innovative mixed-method approach to analyse and describe 8-10-year-olds' home and school food environments. DESIGN: A mixed-method approach to collect qualitative and quantitative data was used, in which pupils took photographs over four days to record their food intake and food environment. The photographs were discussed in ...
Masi Shelly - - 2011
Certain toxic plants are beneficial for health if small amounts are ingested infrequently and in a specific context of illness. Among our closest living relatives, chimpanzees are found to consume with pharmacological properties. Providing insight on the origins of human self-medication, this study investigates the role social systems and physiology ...
Caselli Christini Barbosa - - 2011
Most aspects of the ecology and behavior of Callicebus nigrifrons are still unknown. The information available about this species is mainly based on a few studies that also focused on other Callicebus. We examined the feeding behavior and activity pattern of a free-ranging pair of C. nigrifrons between March and ...
Puiggròs Francesc - - 2011
Traditional dietary assessment methods, such as 24-h recalls, weighted food diaries and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are highly subjective and impair the assessment of successfully accomplished dietary interventions. Foodomic technologies offer promising methodologies for gathering scientific evidence from clinical trials with sensitive methods (e.g., GC-MS, LC-MS, CE, NMR) to detect ...
Hölzl Michaela - - 2011
Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, ...
Takaizumi Kanae - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether awareness of the Japanese Food Guide (JFG) can promote changes in eating behaviour. DESIGN: A longitudinal study was conducted in 2007 and 2009 by means of an Internet-based survey. Awareness status of the JFG and a sixteen-item scale for calculating eating behaviour scores were obtained. SETTING: ...
Neal David T - - 2011
To identify the factors that disrupt and maintain habit performance, two field experiments tested the conditions under which people eat out of habit, leading them to resist motivational influences. Habitual popcorn eaters at a cinema were minimally influenced by their hunger or how much they liked the food, and they ...
Zarn Jürg A - - 2011
The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic ...
Brashares Justin S - - 2011
The harvest of wildlife for human consumption is valued at several billion dollars annually and provides an essential source of meat for hundreds of millions of rural people living in poverty. This harvest is also considered among the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Economic development ...
Organ Chris - - 2011
Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. ...
Lewis Dale - - 2011
In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has ...
Nasser Roseann - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to determine consumers' perceptions of industrially produced trans fats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Regina at 3 different grocery store chains located in 3 different regions. A 21-item survey was administered in English by 3 research assistants at the grocery stores over a ...
Agarwal Ekta - - 2011
BACKGROUND & AIMS: One aim of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey was to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of acute care hospital patients. METHODS: Dietitians from 56 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand completed a 24-h survey of nutritional status and dietary intake of adult hospitalised patients. ...
Parr Catherine L - - 2011
1. Interspecific trade-offs are thought to facilitate coexistence between species at small spatial scales. The discovery-dominance trade-off, analogous to a competition-colonisation trade-off, is considered an important structuring mechanism in ant ecology. A trade-off between species' ability to discover food resources and to dominate them may explain how so many species apparently ...
Kagkli Dafni-Maria - - 2011
European Commission regulation 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria for food requires that Escherichia coli is monitored as an indicator of hygienic conditions. Since verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) strains often cause food-borne infections by the consumption of raw food, the Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) ...
Baker Joseph M - - 2011
Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large ...
Rühl Ilka - - 2011
This study investigates whether eating behavior in women with diagnosed bulimia nervosa is influenced by prior exposure to images of ideally thin models. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 30 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related and neutral TV commercials; then food that typically triggers binge eating ...
Kalogeras N - - 2011
All market participants (e.g., investors, producers, consumers) accept a certain level of risk as necessary to achieve certain benefits. There are many types of risk including price, production, financial, institutional, and individual human risks. All these risks should be effectively managed in order to derive the utmost of benefits and ...
Lynch Meghan - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. METHODS: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized ...
Schmidt Judith J Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle, Fischerau 11, 4645 Gruenau im Almtal, Austria. - - 2011
Other individual's head- and eye-directions can be used as social cues indicating the presence of important events. Among birds, ravens and rooks have been shown to co-orient with conspecifics and with humans by following their gaze direction into distant space and behind visual screens. Both species use screens to cache ...
Kim Ki-Hyun - - 2011
Pollutant emission from domestic and commercial cooking activities is a previously neglected area of concern with respect to human health worldwide. Its health effects are relevant to people across the globe, not only those using low quality food materials in lesser-developed countries but also to more affluent people enjoying higher ...
Shimizu Mitsuru - - 2011
While watching 30-min television (TV) programs that contained either food-related content or non-food-related content, participants were asked to eat two types of candy by explicitly being told that we were interested in how the TV program influenced their taste and therefore they needed to consume some of those candies. The ...
Lanfer A - - 2011
Background:Increased preference for fat and sugar may have a role in overweight and obesity development. However, this effect is likely to vary across different food cultures. To date, few studies on this topic have been conducted in children and none have employed an international, multi-centre design.Objective:To document taste preferences for ...
Ba┼čkale Hatice - - 2011
Purpose.  To develop nutrition education for preschool children based on Piaget's theory and to examine the effects of this education on children's nutritional knowledge, nutritional behaviors, and anthropometric measurements. Design and Methods.  Pre- and postexperimental design. In experimental schools nutrition education was given. Children's nutritional knowledge, food consumption frequencies, and ...
Lloyd Simon J - - 2011
Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a ...
Golley Rebecca K - - 2011
Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of a parent-led, family-focused child weight management program on the food intake and activity patterns of pre-pubertal children. Methods: An assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial involving 111 (64% female) overweight, pre-pubertal children 6-9 years of age randomly assigned to parenting-skills training plus intensive diet and ...
Williams Lauren K - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined whether objective measures of the food environment are associated with perceptions of the food environment and whether this relationship varies by socio-economic disadvantage. DESIGN: The study is a cross-sectional analysis of self-report surveys and objective environment data. Women reported their perceptions on the nutrition environment. ...
Boyle Christina N - - 2012
The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal ...
Maddah F - - 2011
Over the last 15years, an expanding number of databases with information on noxious effects of substances on mammalian organisms and the environment have been made available on the Internet. This set of databases is a key source of information for risk assessment within several areas of toxicology. Here we present ...
Bashaw Meredith J - - 2011
Socioecological models suggest competition for food, foraging efficiency, predation, infanticide risk, and the costs of dispersal regulate primate social structure and organization. Wild populations of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) appear to conform to the predictions of the predation/competition socioecological model (Sterck et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:291-309, 1997) and ...
Dodd Hayley - - 2011
Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI ...
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