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Results 351 - 400 of 1577
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Bryant Maria - - 2011
The availability of foods in the home is likely to be related to consumption. We know of no studies that have reported this association in African-American participants, and few studies have examined home food availability using objective methods. This study aimed to assess the association between objective measures of fruits ...
Lucan Sean C - - 2011
Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and ...
Singh Ranjay K - - 2011
This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, 'tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively ...
Block Jason P - - 2011
Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in ...
Dowler Elizabeth A - - 2011
Food poverty is an important contributing factor to health inequalities in industrialised countries; it refers to the inability to acquire or eat an adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (or the uncertainty of being able to do so). Synonymous with household food insecurity, the issue ...
Schickenberg B - - 2011
Background:  The present study aimed to assess whether taste information about unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products leads to more positive taste expectations and stimulates choice for these products. The impact of level of food neophobia on such effects was studied. Methods:  The present study had a two (taste ...
Meule Adrian - - 2011
Food cravings have been strongly associated with triggering food consumption. However, definitions and measurements of food cravings are heterogeneous. Therefore, Cepeda-Benito and colleagues (2000) have suggested the Food Cravings Questionnaires (FCQs) to measure food cravings as a multidimensional construct at trait- and state-level. In the current study, we validated a ...
Holsten Joanna E - - 2011
This qualitative descriptive study explored children's food choices in the home with particular attention to environmental influences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11- to 14-year-old children (n=47) from one middle school. A data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Children's food choices in the home emerged ...
Rangel Cristian - - 2011
The modern food system has radically modified the social-anthropological framework that informs food choices. To explore factors that influence food choices within this modified framework, eight focus groups consisting of women 15-45years old were conducted in Nova Scotia (Canada). Using a grounded theory approach, two main themes emerged centered around ...
Shill J - - 2011
Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory ...
Mesas A E - - 2011
The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the ...
Toyomasu Yoshitaka - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The radioscintigraphic technique has been accepted as the standard by which to measure gastric emptying but it is invasive and expensive. A 13C-acetate breath test was reported to be a noninvasive and reliable method. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a 13C-acetate breath test ...
Agakidis Charalampos - - 2011
Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing ...
Liang Sai - - 2011
Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: ...
Baldi Ileana - - 2011
Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Markers that can predict potential benefits or risks relating to certain health conditions are often the primary endpoints of such studies since a direct measurement of the effect of food on health and ...
Richardson David P - - 2012
In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on ...
Odadi Wilfred O - - 2011
Savannas worldwide are vital for both socioeconomic and biodiversity values. In these ecosystems, management decisions are based on the perception that wildlife and livestock compete for food, yet there are virtually no experimental data to support this assumption. We examined the effects of wild African ungulates on cattle performance, food ...
Diniz Lincoln O - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Esophageal food bolus impaction is an uncommon entity in the pediatric population that presents with the acute onset of dysphagia, pain, and vomiting. The causes of esophageal food bolus impaction are thought to be different in the pediatric population as compared to adults. AIM: The purpose of this study ...
Chu Yen Li - - 2012
To describe how school foodservice personnel use current labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and the influence on purchasing for school meals. Focus groups explored labeling methods to identify whole-grain products and barriers to incorporating whole-grain foods in school meals. Qualitative analysis procedures and the constant comparative method were used ...
Harrison Flo F School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7JT, UK. - - 2013
To examine the differences in dietary intakes of children consuming school meals and packed lunches, the contribution of lunchtime intake to overall dietary intake, and how lunchtime intake relates to current food-based recommendations for school meals. Cross-sectional analysis of overall intake of macronutrients and food choice from 4 d food ...
Neale Joanne - - 2011
Aim: To provide new insights into heroin users' eating patterns in order to inform nutritional interventions. Design: 77 audio-recorded in-depth interviews which elicited detailed data on eating patterns. Setting: Community and residential drug services, pharmacies and peer support groups in Southern England, UK. Participants: 40 current or ex-heroin users (21 ...
Cardi Valentina - - 2011
Objective: People with anorexia nervosa (AN) experience high levels of fear and anxiety related to eating. The aim of this case report was to describe the use of a virtual reality (VR) programme developed to facilitate exposure to food as a supplement to treatment for a person with AN. Method: ...
Williamson Gary - - 2011
We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is ...
Hirvonen Tero - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the purchase and use of fortified foods, and to explore and compare background characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intakes among users and non-users of voluntarily fortified foods in Finland. DESIGN: A study based on the National FINDIET Survey 2007 (48 h recall), which included also a barcode-based ...
Beckmann Joshua S JS University of Kentucky, Department of Psychology, 741 S. Limestone, 448C BBSRB, Lexington, KY 40536-0509, United States. - - 2012
Animals reared in an enriched environment are less vulnerable to abuse-like behavior and exhibit less persistent drug seeking, perhaps due to a decrease in the incentive value of stimuli associated with reward. The present study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) performance, a measure of ...
Reeves Sue - - 2011
To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Children's menus were assessed in 22 chain restaurants for ...
Durkalski Valerie - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The literature on the design, conduct, and analysis of non-inferiority trials is continuously evolving. Several design issues continue to be researched including the choice of active control, choice of non-inferiority margin, and optimal analytic approaches. To date, there has been relatively little in the literature documenting actual experiences with ...
Judge Peter G - - 2011
Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods ...
Marsh Heidi L - - 2011
Recent empirical work has suggested that some species of non-human primates may be aware of their knowledge states. One finding to support this claim is that they seek information about the location of a hidden food item when they are unsure of its location, but not when they already know ...
Houston Alasdair I AI School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, - - 2011
Foraging theory has typically been concerned with the acquisition of a single resource even though organisms from mammals to protozoa are capable of balancing their requirements for multiple resources. Existing theory concerning multiple nutrients from multiple foods does not predict the sequence of food selection. We constructed an optimisation model ...
Karunamoorthi Kaliyaperumal - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the developing world are at risk of pesticide exposure, particularly in low-income countries with a sizable agricultural sector like Ethiopia. The present investigation provides baseline data to develop strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and the prevention of pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of a ...
Mueller Laurence D - - 2012
Recent studies with Drosophila have suggested that there is extensive genetic variability for phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level. If true, we expect that the outcome of evolution at very different food levels should yield genotypes whose adult size show different patterns of phenotypic plasticity. We have tested this prediction ...
Tombak Kaia J - - 2011
Food competition in group-living animals is commonly accepted as a critical determinant of foraging strategies and social organization. Here we examine food patch depletion behavior in a leaf-eating (folivorous) primate, the guereza (Colobus guereza). Snaith and Chapman (2005) studied the sympatric folivorous red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), which shares many food ...
- - 2011
Foodborne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from known pathogens. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2008, the most recent year for which data are ...
McDonald David - - 2011
Obesity is the most prevalent health condition affecting first world children in 2011. This article recounts a campaign that opposed the construction of a fast food outlet in close proximity to a large school complex. The epidemiologic evidence that there is a negative health impact on children that attend schools ...
Grutzmacher Stephanie - - 2011
To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Ninety-two low-income parent-child dyads recruited from fourth-grade nutrition education programs completing a baseline evaluation. Fruit and ...
Del Mar Bibiloni Maria - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess prevailing food patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents, and socio-economic and lifestyle determinants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out (2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Anthropometric measurements and questions related to ...
Taylor Alex H - - 2012
Humans and chimpanzees both exhibit context-dependent tool use. That is, both species choose to use tools when food is within reach, but the context is potentially hazardous. Here, we show that New Caledonian crows used tools more frequently when food was positioned next to a novel model snake than when ...
Zhang Xiaoyong - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. DESIGN: A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual ...
Miller Carla K - - 2012
To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Women with children younger than 18 ...
Boehmer Jamie L - - 2011
The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. ...
Davis Caroline - - 2011
There is growing evidence of 'food addiction' (FA) in sugar- and fat-bingeing animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the legitimacy of this disorder in the human condition. It was also our intention to extend the validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) - the first tool ...
Kelly Bridget - - 2011
Reliable and valid measures of local food environments are needed to more fully understand the relationship between these environments and health and identify potential intervention points to improve access to, and the availability of, healthy foods. These measures also inform policy making, including the zoning of food outlets and food ...
Phalan Ben - - 2011
The question of how to meet rising food demand at the least cost to biodiversity requires the evaluation of two contrasting alternatives: land sharing, which integrates both objectives on the same land; and land sparing, in which high-yield farming is combined with protecting natural habitats from conversion to agriculture. To ...
Stenberg Mia - - 2011
The non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) found in food and human samples have a complex spectrum of adverse effects, but lack a detailed risk assessment. The toxicity profiles of 21 carefully selected PCBs (19 NDL-PCBs) were identified by in vitro screening in 17 different assays on specific endpoints related to neurotoxicity, endocrine ...
Pedersen Preben U - - 2011
Scand J Caring Sci; 2011; Implementing nutritional guidelines - the effect of systematic training for nurse nutrition practitioners Introduction:  Approximately 40% of patients admitted to hospitals are undernourished. Implementing nutritional guidelines might reduce the incidence of malnutrition, and it requires education and training for the hospital staff. Aim:  It was ...
Combris P - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential contribution of improving the nutritional quality of processed foods on individuals' nutritional intake and food supply. This paper also discusses the means to encourage firms to implement these reformulations, particularly in public/private partnerships. STUDY DESIGN: The French Observatory of Food Quality was created by the ...
Pérez-Esteve Edgar - - 2011
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of current interest. The huge possibilities in most industries are making nanoscience grow at a rapid pace, but what is the real impact of nanotechnology in a traditional industry such as food? The study of patents published in the last 20 years provides the answer, ...
Peterman Jerusha Nelson - - 2011
Refugees in the United States have higher rates of some chronic diseases than US-born residents or other first-generation immigrants. This may be partially a result of dietary practices in the United States. There is limited information about which factors are related to dietary practices in refugee populations, particularly those who ...
Ujvari Beata - - 2011
Climate change modelers predict increasingly frequent "extreme events," so it is critical to quantify whether organismal responses (such as reproductive output) measured over the range of usual climatic conditions can predict responses under more extreme conditions. In a 20-year field study on water pythons (Liasis fuscus), we quantified the effects ...
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