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Durkalski Valerie - - 2011
BACKGROUND: The literature on the design, conduct, and analysis of non-inferiority trials is continuously evolving. Several design issues continue to be researched including the choice of active control, choice of non-inferiority margin, and optimal analytic approaches. To date, there has been relatively little in the literature documenting actual experiences with ...
Judge Peter G - - 2011
Pictorial representations of three-dimensional objects are often used to investigate animal cognitive abilities; however, investigators rarely evaluate whether the animals conceptualize the two-dimensional image as the object it is intended to represent. We tested for picture recognition in lion-tailed macaques by presenting five monkeys with digitized images of familiar foods ...
Marsh Heidi L - - 2011
Recent empirical work has suggested that some species of non-human primates may be aware of their knowledge states. One finding to support this claim is that they seek information about the location of a hidden food item when they are unsure of its location, but not when they already know ...
Houston Alasdair I AI School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, - - 2011
Foraging theory has typically been concerned with the acquisition of a single resource even though organisms from mammals to protozoa are capable of balancing their requirements for multiple resources. Existing theory concerning multiple nutrients from multiple foods does not predict the sequence of food selection. We constructed an optimisation model ...
Karunamoorthi Kaliyaperumal - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the developing world are at risk of pesticide exposure, particularly in low-income countries with a sizable agricultural sector like Ethiopia. The present investigation provides baseline data to develop strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and the prevention of pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of a ...
Mueller Laurence D - - 2012
Recent studies with Drosophila have suggested that there is extensive genetic variability for phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level. If true, we expect that the outcome of evolution at very different food levels should yield genotypes whose adult size show different patterns of phenotypic plasticity. We have tested this prediction ...
Tombak Kaia J - - 2011
Food competition in group-living animals is commonly accepted as a critical determinant of foraging strategies and social organization. Here we examine food patch depletion behavior in a leaf-eating (folivorous) primate, the guereza (Colobus guereza). Snaith and Chapman (2005) studied the sympatric folivorous red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), which shares many food ...
- - 2011
Foodborne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from known pathogens. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2008, the most recent year for which data are ...
McDonald David - - 2011
Obesity is the most prevalent health condition affecting first world children in 2011. This article recounts a campaign that opposed the construction of a fast food outlet in close proximity to a large school complex. The epidemiologic evidence that there is a negative health impact on children that attend schools ...
Grutzmacher Stephanie - - 2011
To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Ninety-two low-income parent-child dyads recruited from fourth-grade nutrition education programs completing a baseline evaluation. Fruit and ...
Del Mar Bibiloni Maria - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess prevailing food patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents, and socio-economic and lifestyle determinants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out (2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean region. Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Anthropometric measurements and questions related to ...
Taylor Alex H - - 2012
Humans and chimpanzees both exhibit context-dependent tool use. That is, both species choose to use tools when food is within reach, but the context is potentially hazardous. Here, we show that New Caledonian crows used tools more frequently when food was positioned next to a novel model snake than when ...
Zhang Xiaoyong - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To simultaneously identify consumer segments based on individual-level consumption and community-level food retail environment data and to investigate whether the segments are associated with BMI and dietary knowledge in China. DESIGN: A multilevel latent class cluster model was applied to identify consumer segments based not only on their individual ...
Miller Carla K - - 2012
To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Women with children younger than 18 ...
Boehmer Jamie L - - 2011
The pursuit of biomarkers for use as clinical screening tools, measures for early detection, disease monitoring, and as a means for assessing therapeutic responses has steadily evolved in human and veterinary medicine over the past two decades. Concurrently, advances in mass spectrometry have markedly expanded proteomic capabilities for biomarker discovery. ...
Davis Caroline - - 2011
There is growing evidence of 'food addiction' (FA) in sugar- and fat-bingeing animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the legitimacy of this disorder in the human condition. It was also our intention to extend the validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) - the first tool ...
Kelly Bridget - - 2011
Reliable and valid measures of local food environments are needed to more fully understand the relationship between these environments and health and identify potential intervention points to improve access to, and the availability of, healthy foods. These measures also inform policy making, including the zoning of food outlets and food ...
Phalan Ben - - 2011
The question of how to meet rising food demand at the least cost to biodiversity requires the evaluation of two contrasting alternatives: land sharing, which integrates both objectives on the same land; and land sparing, in which high-yield farming is combined with protecting natural habitats from conversion to agriculture. To ...
Stenberg Mia - - 2011
The non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) found in food and human samples have a complex spectrum of adverse effects, but lack a detailed risk assessment. The toxicity profiles of 21 carefully selected PCBs (19 NDL-PCBs) were identified by in vitro screening in 17 different assays on specific endpoints related to neurotoxicity, endocrine ...
Pedersen Preben U - - 2011
Scand J Caring Sci; 2011; Implementing nutritional guidelines - the effect of systematic training for nurse nutrition practitioners Introduction:  Approximately 40% of patients admitted to hospitals are undernourished. Implementing nutritional guidelines might reduce the incidence of malnutrition, and it requires education and training for the hospital staff. Aim:  It was ...
Combris P - - 2011
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential contribution of improving the nutritional quality of processed foods on individuals' nutritional intake and food supply. This paper also discusses the means to encourage firms to implement these reformulations, particularly in public/private partnerships. STUDY DESIGN: The French Observatory of Food Quality was created by the ...
Pérez-Esteve Edgar - - 2011
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of current interest. The huge possibilities in most industries are making nanoscience grow at a rapid pace, but what is the real impact of nanotechnology in a traditional industry such as food? The study of patents published in the last 20 years provides the answer, ...
Peterman Jerusha Nelson - - 2011
Refugees in the United States have higher rates of some chronic diseases than US-born residents or other first-generation immigrants. This may be partially a result of dietary practices in the United States. There is limited information about which factors are related to dietary practices in refugee populations, particularly those who ...
Ujvari Beata - - 2011
Climate change modelers predict increasingly frequent "extreme events," so it is critical to quantify whether organismal responses (such as reproductive output) measured over the range of usual climatic conditions can predict responses under more extreme conditions. In a 20-year field study on water pythons (Liasis fuscus), we quantified the effects ...
Nguyen Thoa C - - 2011
Purpose: The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between chewing ability and dental functional status, perceived oral health-related quality of life, and a number of background variables in a Vietnamese population. Materials and Methods: The cluster stratified sample consisted of 2,805 dentate subjects aged ⋝ 20 years ...
Charlton Karen - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight current issues regarding the role of iodine fortification in correcting and preventing iodine deficiency. Universal salt iodization (USI) is recommended, wherein all salt is iodized; however, a more graduated approach may be warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: Iodine deficiency is widespread and has re-emerged in countries such ...
Doherty Sharon - - 2011
Universities represent an important setting for promoting health and well-being--and specifically for developing systems that support healthy and sustainable food procurement and provision. By drawing on the whole-system settings approach and working within the framework offered by Healthy Universities, higher education institutions are in a strong position to address the ...
Speers Sarah E - - 2011
The food industry disproportionately markets to young people through product placements. Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to these disguised persuasive attempts. Quantify incidence and youth exposure to food and beverage brand appearances within shows on prime-time TV. Data on the number of food, beverage, and restaurant brand appearances ...
Le Ngoc Huyen Tran - - 2011
Given the non competition of miscanthus with food and animal feed, this lignocellulosic species has attracted attention as a possible biofuel resource. However, sustainability of ethanol production from lignocelluloses biomass would imply reduction in the consumption of chemicals and/or energetic means, but also valorization of the lignocellulosic by-product remaining from ...
Rosenberg Irwin - - 2011
Food aid provided by the United States has saved the lives of the vulnerable for many years. Recognizing the need for a thorough review of product formulations and specifications, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) commissioned a 2-year assessment of quality issues relating to Title II food aid products. ...
Shim Jae Eun - - 2011
Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating ...
Souza Amanda de Moura Ade - - 2011
To evaluate markers of food intake of the telephone-based risk factor surveillance system for chronic diseases (VIGITEL) and the trend of these markers. A total of 135,249 subjects from 27 Brazilian cities interviewed in the 2007 - 2009 surveys were evaluated. Eating habits were evaluated based on the frequency of ...
Hosler Akiko S - - 2011
: Despite the increase in the volume and importance of food environment research, there is a general lack of reliable measurement tools. This study presents the development and reliability assessment of a tool for measuring consumer nutrition environment in urban food stores. : Cross-sectional design. : A racially diverse downtown ...
Mendes Larissa Loures - - 2011
To evaluate the validity and reproducibility markers of food and beverage intake obtained by means of a telephone-based surveillance system. Reproducibility was assessed by means of repeated interviews with a 7-15 day interval after the first interview of the system (n=258). Validity was analyzed based on three interviews corresponding to ...
Jilcott Stephanie B - - 2011
To examine associations between self-reported vehicular travel behaviors, perceived stress, food procurement practices, and body mass index among female Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. The authors used correlation and regression analyses to examine cross-sectional associations between travel time and distance, perceived stress, food procurement practices (grocery shopping frequency, fast-food ...
Gearhardt Ashley N - - 2011
Scientific interest in "food addiction" continues to grow due both to neurobiological and behavioral similarities between substance dependence and excessive food consumption. An important next step is to examine the addictive potential of highly processed foods. In this paper, we explore addiction-related changes in the modern food environment (e.g., increased ...
Keast Debra R - - 2011
Currently available whole-grain foods are not frequently consumed, and few children achieve the whole-grain intake recommendation. To investigate the influence on whole-grain consumption of substituting whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by children. Secondary cross-sectional analysis of publicly available food consumption data collected by the US Department of ...
Mikkelsen Bent Egberg - - 2011
The notion of foodscape is increasingly being used within health promotion, public health nutrition and food studies as a tool to describe our food environments and to assess the potential impact on food choice and food behaviour. This paper takes a closer look at the growing number of foodscape studies ...
Avena Nicole M - - 2011
The obesity epidemic has led to the postulation that highly palatable foods may be "addictive" for some individuals. This idea is supported by the fact that there are overlaps in brain circuitry that underlie addictive behavior as well as overeating. In this paper, we discuss the utility of the concept ...
Rasheed Sabrina - - 2011
Child undernutrition remains high in South Asian and sub-Saharan African countries. Rapid declines in nutritional status occur before the age of 2 years, particularly during the period of complementary feeding. Improving complementary feeding practices is a neglected area in nutrition programs. To understand community perspectives on complementary feeding practices in ...
Schlossman Nina - - 2011
Enacted in 1950, Public Law 480 (PL480) dramatically increased the volume of U.S.food aid and the scope of interventions it supports. Billions of dollars have been invested, both to enhance the diets of chronically undernourished people in development settings, and to support nutritional needs during conflicts and natural disasters. Review ...
Tebbs Robert S - - 2011
Increasingly, more food companies are relying on molecular methods, such as PCR, for pathogen detection due to their improved simplicity, sensitivity, and rapid time to results. This report describes the validation of a new Real-Time PCR method to detect Listeria monocytogenes in nine different food matrixes. The complete system consists ...
Poulsen Signe - - 2011
The aim of this article is to analyse the social shaping of worksite food interventions at two Danish worksites. The overall aims are to contribute first, to the theoretical frameworks for the planning and analysis of food and health interventions at worksites and second, to a foodscape approach to worksite ...
Dror Daphna K - - 2011
Milk and other animal-source foods are concentrated dietary sources of macro- and micronutrients. Despite a global increase in milk production and consumption over the past decades, milk and other animal-source foods are often lacking in the diets of children in developing countries. To evaluate the importance of milk and other ...
Fein Sara B - - 2011
Although survey results measuring the safety of consumers' food handling and risky food consumption practices have been published for over 20 years, evaluation of trends is impossible because the designs of published studies are not comparable. The Food Safety Surveys used comparable methods to interview U.S. adults by telephone in ...
Morgan Emily H - - 2011
Abstract Purpose . To examine food system experts' explanations for the consistently low level of fruit and vegetable consumption in Australia and what can be done to increase it. Design . A qualitative survey of food system experts. Setting . The survey was administered online to experts across Australia between ...
Paul Keriann H - - 2011
The role of context has not been elaborated with respect to current recommendations for complementary feeding interventions, apart from a gross distinction based on food security. Our objective was to compare two food-insecure settings in sub-Saharan Africa to determine how context (i.e., the set of local social, cultural, and physical ...
Darcey Valerie L - - 2011
Research shows that community socioeconomic status (SES) predicts, based on food service types available, whether a population has access to healthy food. It is not known, however, if a relationship exists between SES and risk for foodborne illness (FBI) at the community level. Geographic information systems (GIS) give researchers the ...
Rogers Beatrice - - 2011
Food aid provided by the United States has saved lives for almost two centuries. Delivering the right products is important, but of equal concern are the ways in which products are delivered and to whom. The study addresses how food products are currently used, whether interventions are appropriate to achieve ...
Webb Patrick - - 2011
As part of US Agency for International Development (USAID) efforts to improve the quality of food aid products and programs, a two year study was commissioned to produce recommendations on ways to improve the quality of food aid products, programming, and institutional processes. The review determined that while much valuable ...
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